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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">The Holocaust</h1>			<div id="bodyContent" class="mw-body-content">
				<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>				<div id="contentSub"><span class="mw-redirectedfrom">&#160;&#160;(Redirected from <a href="/w/index.php?title=The_holocaust&amp;redirect=no" class="mw-redirect" title="The holocaust">The holocaust</a>)</span></div>
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<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">20th-century genocide of Jews by Nazi Germany</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Holocaust" and "Shoah" redirect here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Holocaust (disambiguation)">Holocaust (disambiguation)</a> and <a href="/wiki/Shoah_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Shoah (disambiguation)">Shoah (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<table class="infobox vevent" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" class="summary" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;font-size:130%;">The Holocaust</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center">Part of <a href="/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/File:Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Selection Birkenau ramp.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg/300px-Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="214" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg/450px-Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg/600px-Selection_Birkenau_ramp.jpg 2x" data-file-width="897" data-file-height="639" /></a><div><a href="/wiki/Hungarian_Jews" class="mw-redirect" title="Hungarian Jews">Hungarian</a> <a href="/wiki/Jews" title="Jews">Jews</a> arriving at <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp#Birkenau" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz II-Birkenau</a> in <a href="/wiki/General_Government" title="General Government">German-occupied Poland</a>, May 1944. Most were "selected" to go straight to the <a href="/wiki/Nazi_gas_chambers" class="mw-redirect" title="Nazi gas chambers">gas chambers</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup><br /><span style="font-size:85%;">(from the <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_Album" title="Auschwitz Album">Auschwitz Album</a>)</span></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Location</th><td class="location"><a href="/wiki/Nazi_Germany" title="Nazi Germany">Nazi Germany</a> and <a href="/wiki/German-occupied_Europe" title="German-occupied Europe">German-occupied Europe</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Date</th><td>1941–1945<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELandau20163_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandau20163-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Attack type</div></th><td><a href="/wiki/Genocide" title="Genocide">Genocide</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ethnic_cleansing" title="Ethnic cleansing">ethnic cleansing</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Deaths</th><td>Around 6 million <a href="/wiki/European_Jews" class="mw-redirect" title="European Jews">European Jews</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-definition_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-definition-3">&#91;a&#93;</a></sup><br /> using broadest definition, 17&#160;million victims<sup id="cite_ref-Columbianumbers_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Columbianumbers-4">&#91;b&#93;</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Perpetrators</th><td>Nazi Germany and its <a href="/wiki/Axis_powers" title="Axis powers">allies</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Motive</th><td><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism" title="Antisemitism">Antisemitism</a></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p><b>The Holocaust</b>, also known as <b>the Shoah</b>,<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">&#91;c&#93;</a></sup> was a <a href="/wiki/Genocide" title="Genocide">genocide</a> in which <a href="/wiki/Nazi_Germany" title="Nazi Germany">Nazi Germany</a>, aided by <a href="/wiki/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers" title="Collaboration with the Axis Powers">its collaborators</a>, systematically murdered some six million <a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Europe" title="History of the Jews in Europe">European Jews</a>—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945, during <a href="/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-definition_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-definition-3">&#91;a&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">&#91;d&#93;</a></sup> Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including <a href="/wiki/Slavs" title="Slavs">Slavs</a> (chiefly <a href="/wiki/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation" title="Nazi crimes against the Polish nation">ethnic Poles</a>, <a href="/wiki/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war" title="German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war">Soviet prisoners of war</a>, and Soviet citizens); the <a href="/wiki/Porajmos" class="mw-redirect" title="Porajmos">Roma</a>; the <a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">"incurably sick"</a>; <a href="/wiki/German_resistance_to_Nazism" title="German resistance to Nazism">political</a> and <a href="/wiki/Religion_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Religion in Nazi Germany">religious dissenters</a> such as <a href="/wiki/Communism" title="Communism">communists</a> and <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of Jehovah&#39;s Witnesses in Nazi Germany">Jehovah's Witnesses</a>; and <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany">gay men</a>, resulting in up to 17 million deaths overall.<sup id="cite_ref-Columbianumbers_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Columbianumbers-4">&#91;b&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following <a href="/wiki/Adolf_Hitler" title="Adolf Hitler">Adolf Hitler</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Adolf_Hitler%27s_rise_to_power" title="Adolf Hitler&#39;s rise to power">rise to power</a> in 1933, the government took steps to exclude Jews from civil society, which included organizing a <a href="/wiki/Nazi_boycott_of_Jewish_businesses" title="Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses">boycott of Jewish businesses</a> and passing the <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_Laws" title="Nuremberg Laws">Nuremberg Laws</a> in 1935. Starting in 1933, the Nazis built a network of <a href="/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camps" title="Nazi concentration camps">concentration camps</a> in Germany for political opponents and people deemed "undesirable". After the <a href="/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland" title="Invasion of Poland">invasion of Poland</a> in 1939, the regime set up <a href="/wiki/Nazi_ghettos" title="Nazi ghettos">ghettos</a> to segregate Jews. Over 42,000 camps, ghettos, and other detention sites were established across <a href="/wiki/Occupied_Europe" class="mw-redirect" title="Occupied Europe">occupied Europe</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-42000facilities_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42000facilities-10">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "<a href="/wiki/Final_Solution" title="Final Solution">Final Solution to the Jewish Question</a>", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the <a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee Conference</a> in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces <a href="/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa" title="Operation Barbarossa">captured territories in the East</a>, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the <a href="/wiki/Schutzstaffel" title="Schutzstaffel">SS</a>, with directions from the highest leadership of the <a href="/wiki/Nazi_Party" title="Nazi Party">Nazi Party</a>, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and across all territories controlled by the <a href="/wiki/Axis_powers" title="Axis powers">Axis powers</a>. Paramilitary <a href="/wiki/Death_squads" class="mw-redirect" title="Death squads">death squads</a> called <i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i>, in cooperation with <a href="/wiki/Security_Division_(Wehrmacht)" title="Security Division (Wehrmacht)">Wehrmacht police battalions</a> and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945. By mid-1942, victims were being <a href="/wiki/Operation_Reinhard" title="Operation Reinhard">deported from the ghettos</a> in sealed <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_trains" title="Holocaust trains">freight trains</a> to <a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">extermination camps</a> where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in <a href="/wiki/Nazi_gas_chambers" class="mw-redirect" title="Nazi gas chambers">gas chambers</a>. The killing continued until the <a href="/wiki/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe" title="End of World War II in Europe">end of World War II in Europe</a> in May 1945.
</p>
<table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks nowraplinks hlist" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%"><tbody><tr><td style="padding-top:0.4em;line-height:1.2em">Part of <a href="/wiki/Category:The_Holocaust" title="Category:The Holocaust">a series</a> on</td></tr><tr><th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;padding-top:0;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em;background-color:#C3D6EF;;font-size:160%;; padding:0.25em;"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">The Holocaust</a></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0.2em 0 0.4em"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Bundesarchiv Bild 183-N0827-318, KZ Auschwitz, Ankunft ungarischer Juden.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg/180px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg" decoding="async" width="180" height="136" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg/270px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg/360px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2253" data-file-height="1707" /></a><div style="padding-top:0.2em;line-height:1.2em"><span style="font-size:90%;">Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944</span></div></td></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust" title="Responsibility for the Holocaust">Responsibility</a></div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"><table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none"><tbody><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<span style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/wiki/Nazi_Germany" title="Nazi Germany">Nazi Germany</a></span></th></tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i>People</i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/List_of_major_perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust" title="List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust">Major perpetrators</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Adolf_Hitler" title="Adolf Hitler">Adolf Hitler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heinrich_Himmler" title="Heinrich Himmler">Heinrich Himmler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reinhard_Heydrich" title="Reinhard Heydrich">Reinhard Heydrich</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann" title="Adolf Eichmann">Adolf Eichmann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Odilo_Globocnik" class="mw-redirect" title="Odilo Globocnik">Odilo Globocnik</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Theodor_Eicke" title="Theodor Eicke">Theodor Eicke</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Richard_Gl%C3%BCcks" title="Richard Glücks">Richard Glücks</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner" title="Ernst Kaltenbrunner">Ernst Kaltenbrunner</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rudolf_H%C3%B6ss" title="Rudolf Höss">Rudolf Höss</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Christian_Wirth" title="Christian Wirth">Christian Wirth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Joseph_Goebbels" title="Joseph Goebbels">Joseph Goebbels</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i>Organizations</i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_Party" title="Nazi Party">Nazi Party</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gestapo" title="Gestapo">Gestapo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Schutzstaffel" title="Schutzstaffel"><i>Schutzstaffel</i> (SS)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SS-Totenkopfverb%C3%A4nde" title="SS-Totenkopfverbände"><i>Totenkopfverbände</i> (SS-TV)</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sturmabteilung" title="Sturmabteilung"><i>Sturmabteilung</i> (SA)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SS-Verf%C3%BCgungstruppe" title="SS-Verfügungstruppe"><i>Verfügungstruppe</i> (SS-VT)</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht" title="War crimes of the Wehrmacht">Wehrmacht</a></i></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div style="padding:0.4em 0;">
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers" title="Collaboration with the Axis Powers">Collaborators during World War II</a></dt></dl>
</div>
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_ideologues" title="List of Nazi ideologues">Nazi ideologues</a></dt></dl></td>
</tr></tbody></table></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;">Early policies</div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany" title="Racial policy of Nazi Germany">Racial policy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_eugenics" title="Nazi eugenics">Nazi eugenics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_Laws" title="Nuremberg Laws">Nuremberg Laws</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Haavara_Agreement" title="Haavara Agreement">Haavara Agreement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Madagascar_Plan" title="Madagascar Plan">Madagascar Plan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Forced euthanasia</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_victims" title="Holocaust victims">Victims</a></div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_during_World_War_II" title="History of the Jews during World War II">Jews during World War II</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Europe" title="History of the Jews in Europe">Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Germany" title="History of the Jews in Germany">Germany</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Porajmos" class="mw-redirect" title="Porajmos">Romani people (Gypsies)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation" title="Nazi crimes against the Polish nation">Poles</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war" title="German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war">Soviet POWs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Generalplan_Ost" title="Generalplan Ost">Slavs in Eastern Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust" class="mw-redirect" title="Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust">Homosexuals</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">People with disabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Suppression_of_Freemasonry#Nazi_Germany_and_occupied_Europe" title="Suppression of Freemasonry">Freemasons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of Jehovah&#39;s Witnesses in Nazi Germany">Jehovah's Witnesses</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Nazi_ghettos" title="Nazi ghettos">Ghettos</a></div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto" title="Białystok Ghetto">Białystok</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Budapest_Ghetto" title="Budapest Ghetto">Budapest</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kovno_Ghetto" title="Kovno Ghetto">Kaunas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto" title="Kraków Ghetto">Kraków</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto" title="Łódź Ghetto">Łódź</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lublin_Ghetto" title="Lublin Ghetto">Lublin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto" title="Lwów Ghetto">Lwów</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minsk_Ghetto" title="Minsk Ghetto">Minsk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Riga_Ghetto" title="Riga Ghetto">Riga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto" title="Warsaw Ghetto">Warsaw</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vilna_Ghetto" title="Vilna Ghetto">Vilnius</a></li></ul>
<hr />
<div style="padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland" title="Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland">Jewish ghettos in<br />German-occupied Poland</a></div>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi-era_ghettos" class="mw-redirect" title="List of Nazi-era ghettos">List of selected ghettos</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;">Atrocities</div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"><table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none"><tbody><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i><a href="/wiki/Pogrom#Nazi-occupied_Europe" title="Pogrom">Pogroms</a></i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Kristallnacht" title="Kristallnacht">Kristallnacht</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Legionnaires%27_rebellion_and_Bucharest_pogrom" title="Legionnaires&#39; rebellion and Bucharest pogrom">Bucharest</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dorohoi_pogrom" title="Dorohoi pogrom">Dorohoi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ia%C8%99i_pogrom" title="Iași pogrom">Iaşi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Izieu" title="Izieu">Izieu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Szczuczyn_pogrom" title="Szczuczyn pogrom">Szczuczyn</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom" title="Jedwabne pogrom">Jedwabne</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kaunas_pogrom" title="Kaunas pogrom">Kaunas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lviv_pogroms" class="mw-redirect" title="Lviv pogroms">Lviv (Lvov)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Round_up_of_Marseille" title="Round up of Marseille">Marseille</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tykocin_pogrom" class="mw-redirect" title="Tykocin pogrom">Tykocin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vel%27_d%27Hiv_Roundup" title="Vel&#39; d&#39;Hiv Roundup">Vel' d'Hiv</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/W%C4%85sosz_pogrom" title="Wąsosz pogrom">Wąsosz</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Babi_Yar" title="Babi Yar">Babi Yar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Valley_of_Death_(Bydgoszcz)" title="Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz)">Bydgoszcz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa_massacre" title="Częstochowa massacre">Częstochowa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre" title="Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre">Kamianets-Podilskyi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ninth_Fort" title="Ninth Fort">Ninth Fort</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/1941_Odessa_massacre" title="1941 Odessa massacre">Odessa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Massacres_in_Pia%C5%9Bnica" title="Massacres in Piaśnica">Piaśnica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ponary_massacre" title="Ponary massacre">Ponary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rumbula_massacre" title="Rumbula massacre">Rumbula</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aktion_Erntefest" title="Aktion Erntefest">Erntefest</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i>"<a href="/wiki/Final_Solution" title="Final Solution">Final Solution</a>"</i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee Conference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Operation_Reinhard" title="Operation Reinhard">Operation "Reinhard"</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_train" class="mw-redirect" title="Holocaust train">Holocaust trains</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">Extermination camps</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i><a href="/wiki/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe" title="End of World War II in Europe">End of World War II</a></i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wola_massacre" title="Wola massacre">Wola massacre</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Death_marches_(Holocaust)" title="Death marches (Holocaust)">Death marches</a></li></ul></td>
</tr></tbody></table></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;">Camps</div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"><table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none"><tbody><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i><a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">Nazi extermination camps</a></i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz-Birkenau</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp" title="Bełżec extermination camp">Bełżec</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jasenovac_concentration_camp" title="Jasenovac concentration camp">Jasenovac</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Maly Trostenets extermination camp">Maly Trostenets</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sajmi%C5%A1te_concentration_camp" title="Sajmište concentration camp">Sajmište</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp" title="Sobibór extermination camp">Sobibór</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i><a href="/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camps" title="Nazi concentration camps">Nazi concentration camps</a></i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp" title="Bergen-Belsen concentration camp">Bergen-Belsen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bogdanovka" title="Bogdanovka">Bogdanovka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buchenwald_concentration_camp" title="Buchenwald concentration camp">Buchenwald</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp" title="Dachau concentration camp">Dachau</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mittelbau-Dora" class="mw-redirect" title="Mittelbau-Dora">Dora</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gonars_concentration_camp" title="Gonars concentration camp">Gonars (Italy)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gross-Rosen_concentration_camp" title="Gross-Rosen concentration camp">Gross-Rosen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Herzogenbusch_concentration_camp" title="Herzogenbusch concentration camp">Herzogenbusch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Janowska_concentration_camp" title="Janowska concentration camp">Janowska</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kaiserwald_concentration_camp" title="Kaiserwald concentration camp">Kaiserwald</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mauthausen-Gusen_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp">Mauthausen-Gusen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Neuengamme_concentration_camp" title="Neuengamme concentration camp">Neuengamme</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rab_concentration_camp" title="Rab concentration camp">Rab</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp" title="Ravensbrück concentration camp">Ravensbrück</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp" title="Sachsenhausen concentration camp">Sachsenhausen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salaspils_concentration_camp" title="Salaspils concentration camp">Salaspils</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stutthof_concentration_camp" title="Stutthof concentration camp">Stutthof</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Theresienstadt concentration camp">Theresienstadt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uckermark_concentration_camp" title="Uckermark concentration camp">Uckermark</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Warsaw_concentration_camp" title="Warsaw concentration camp">Warsaw</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i>Transit and collection camps</i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<dl><dt>Belgium</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Fort_Breendonk" title="Fort Breendonk">Breendonk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mechelen_transit_camp" title="Mechelen transit camp">Mechelen</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/Internment_camps_in_France#World_War_II_camps" title="Internment camps in France">France</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Gurs_internment_camp" title="Gurs internment camp">Gurs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Drancy_internment_camp" title="Drancy internment camp">Drancy</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Italy</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bolzano_Transit_Camp" title="Bolzano Transit Camp">Bolzano</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Netherlands</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Amersfoort_concentration_camp" title="Amersfoort concentration camp">Amersfoort</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Westerbork_transit_camp" title="Westerbork transit camp">Westerbork</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i>Divisions</i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/SS-Totenkopfverb%C3%A4nde" title="SS-Totenkopfverbände">SS-Totenkopfverbände</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concentration_Camps_Inspectorate" title="Concentration Camps Inspectorate">Concentration Camps Inspectorate</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Politische_Abteilung" title="Politische Abteilung">Politische Abteilung</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Sanit%C3%A4tswesen" title="Sanitätswesen">Sanitätswesen</a></i></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i>Extermination methods</i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Gas_van" title="Gas van">Gas van</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gas_chamber#Nazi_Germany" title="Gas chamber">Gas chamber</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Extermination_through_labour" title="Extermination through labour">Extermination through labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_human_experimentation" title="Nazi human experimentation">Human medical experimentation</a></li></ul></td>
</tr></tbody></table></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe" title="Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe">Resistance</a></div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"><table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks" style="float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse; border-spacing:0px; border:none; width:100%; margin:0px; font-size:100%; clear:none; float:none"><tbody><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Jewish_partisans" title="Jewish partisans">Jewish partisans</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bricha" title="Bricha">Bricha</a></li></ul></td>
</tr><tr><th style="padding:0.1em">
<i><a href="/wiki/Ghetto_uprising" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghetto uprising">Ghetto uprisings</a></i></th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising" title="Warsaw Ghetto Uprising">Warsaw</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_uprising" title="Białystok Ghetto uprising">Białystok</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%81achwa_Ghetto" title="Łachwa Ghetto">Łachwa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa_Ghetto_uprising" title="Częstochowa Ghetto uprising">Częstochowa</a></li></ul></td>
</tr></tbody></table></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II" title="Allies of World War II">Allied</a> response</div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;"><div style="padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Joint_Declaration_by_Members_of_the_United_Nations" title="Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations">Joint Declaration by Members of<br />the United Nations</a></div>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_bombing_debate" title="Auschwitz bombing debate">Auschwitz bombing debate</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_trials" title="Nuremberg trials">Nuremberg trials</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Denazification" title="Denazification">Denazification</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
<div class="NavFrame collapsed" style="border:none;padding:0"><div class="NavHead" style="font-size:105%;background:transparent;text-align:left;background:transparent;font-size:110%;text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust" title="Aftermath of the Holocaust">Aftermath</a></div><div class="NavContent" style="font-size:105%;padding:0.2em 0 0.4em;text-align:center;border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bricha" title="Bricha">Bricha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sh%27erit_ha-Pletah" title="Sh&#39;erit ha-Pletah">Displaced persons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Central_Committee_of_the_Liberated_Jews" title="Central Committee of the Liberated Jews">Central Committee of the Liberated Jews</a></li></ul>
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<div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Terminology_and_scope"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Terminology and scope</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Terminology"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Terminology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Definition"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Definition</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Distinctive_features"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Distinctive features</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Genocidal_state"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Genocidal state</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Medical_experiments"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Medical experiments</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#Origins"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Origins</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Antisemitism_and_the_völkisch_movement"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Antisemitism and the völkisch movement</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Germany_after_World_War_I,_Hitler&#39;s_world_view"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Germany after World War I, Hitler's world view</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#Rise_of_Nazi_Germany"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Rise of Nazi Germany</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Dictatorship_and_repression_(1933–1939)"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Dictatorship and repression (1933–1939)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Sterilization_Law,_Aktion_T4"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Sterilization Law, <i>Aktion T4</i></span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Nuremberg_Laws,_Jewish_emigration"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Nuremberg Laws, Jewish emigration</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Kristallnacht"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext"><i>Kristallnacht</i></span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Territorial_solution_and_resettlement"><span class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Territorial solution and resettlement</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#World_War_II"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">World War II</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#German-occupied_Poland"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">German-occupied Poland</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Other_occupied_countries"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">Other occupied countries</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Germany&#39;s_allies"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">Germany's allies</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Concentration_and_labor_camps"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">Concentration and labor camps</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Ghettos"><span class="tocnumber">5.5</span> <span class="toctext">Ghettos</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Pogroms"><span class="tocnumber">5.6</span> <span class="toctext">Pogroms</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#Death_squads"><span class="tocnumber">5.7</span> <span class="toctext">Death squads</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Gas_vans"><span class="tocnumber">5.8</span> <span class="toctext">Gas vans</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#Final_Solution"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Final Solution</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Wannsee_Conference"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Wannsee Conference</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Extermination_camps,_gas_chambers"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Extermination camps, gas chambers</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Jewish_resistance"><span class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">Jewish resistance</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a href="#Flow_of_information_about_the_mass_murder"><span class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">Flow of information about the mass murder</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a href="#Climax,_Holocaust_in_Hungary"><span class="tocnumber">6.5</span> <span class="toctext">Climax, Holocaust in Hungary</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-31"><a href="#Death_marches"><span class="tocnumber">6.6</span> <span class="toctext">Death marches</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-32"><a href="#Liberation"><span class="tocnumber">6.7</span> <span class="toctext">Liberation</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a href="#Victims_and_death_toll"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Victims and death toll</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-34"><a href="#Overview"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Overview</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-35"><a href="#Jews"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Jews</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-36"><a href="#Roma"><span class="tocnumber">7.3</span> <span class="toctext">Roma</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-37"><a href="#Slavs"><span class="tocnumber">7.4</span> <span class="toctext">Slavs</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-38"><a href="#Ethnic_Poles"><span class="tocnumber">7.4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Ethnic Poles</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-39"><a href="#Soviet_citizens_and_POWs"><span class="tocnumber">7.4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Soviet citizens and POWs</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-40"><a href="#Political_opponents"><span class="tocnumber">7.5</span> <span class="toctext">Political opponents</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-41"><a href="#Gay_men"><span class="tocnumber">7.6</span> <span class="toctext">Gay men</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-42"><a href="#Jehovah&#39;s_Witnesses"><span class="tocnumber">7.7</span> <span class="toctext">Jehovah's Witnesses</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-43"><a href="#Persons_of_color"><span class="tocnumber">7.8</span> <span class="toctext">Persons of color</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-44"><a href="#Motivation"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Motivation</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-45"><a href="#Motivation_of_perpetrators"><span class="tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">Motivation of perpetrators</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-46"><a href="#German_public"><span class="tocnumber">8.2</span> <span class="toctext">German public</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-47"><a href="#Aftermath"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Aftermath</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-48"><a href="#Trials"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Trials</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-49"><a href="#Reparations"><span class="tocnumber">9.2</span> <span class="toctext">Reparations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-50"><a href="#Uniqueness_question"><span class="tocnumber">9.3</span> <span class="toctext">Uniqueness question</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-51"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-52"><a href="#Sources"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Sources</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-53"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">11.1</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-54"><a href="#Citations"><span class="tocnumber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Citations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-55"><a href="#Works_cited"><span class="tocnumber">11.3</span> <span class="toctext">Works cited</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-56"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Terminology_and_scope">Terminology and scope</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Terminology">Terminology</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Names_of_the_Holocaust" title="Names of the Holocaust">Names of the Holocaust</a></div>
<p>The term <i>holocaust</i>, first used in 1895 to describe the <a href="/wiki/Hamidian_massacres" title="Hamidian massacres">massacre of Armenians</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe20081_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe20081-11">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> comes from the <a href="/wiki/Greek_language" title="Greek language">Greek</a>: <span lang="el">ὁλόκαυστος</span>, <small><a href="/wiki/Romanization_of_Greek" title="Romanization of Greek">translit.</a>&#160;</small><i lang="el-Latn" title="Greek-language transliteration">holókaustos</i>; <span lang="el" title="Greek language text">ὅλος</span> <i>hólos</i>, "whole" + <span lang="el" title="Greek language text">καυστός</span> <i>kaustós</i>, "burnt offering".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii-12">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">&#91;e&#93;</a></sup> The <i><a href="/wiki/Century_Dictionary" title="Century Dictionary">Century Dictionary</a></i> defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering entirely consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations".<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;f&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The biblical term <i><a href="/wiki/Names_of_the_Holocaust#Shoah" title="Names of the Holocaust">shoah</a></i> (<a href="/wiki/Hebrew_language" title="Hebrew language">Hebrew</a>: <style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r867359662">.mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-size:1.15em;font-family:"Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Frank Ruehl CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli","SBL BibLit","SBL Hebrew",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}</style><span class="script-hebrew" style="font-size: 115%;" dir="rtl">שׁוֹאָה</span>&#x202c;), meaning "destruction", became the standard <a href="/wiki/Hebrew_language" title="Hebrew language">Hebrew</a> term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, <i>Sho'at Yehudei Polin</i> ("Sho'ah of Polish Jews"), published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews  in Poland.<sup id="cite_ref-HolocaustYadVashem_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HolocaustYadVashem-17">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-YVDefinition_18-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-YVDefinition-18">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe20081_11-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe20081-11">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> In October 1941 the magazine <i><a href="/wiki/The_American_Hebrew" title="The American Hebrew">The American Hebrew</a></i> used the phrase "before the Holocaust", apparently to refer to the situation in Europe,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115-19">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> and in May 1943 <i>The New York Times</i>, discussing the <a href="/wiki/Bermuda_Conference" title="Bermuda Conference">Bermuda Conference</a>, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> In 1968 the <a href="/wiki/Library_of_Congress" title="Library of Congress">Library of Congress</a> created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish (1939–1945)";<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELustigmanLustigman1994111_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELustigmanLustigman1994111-21">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> the term was popularized in the United States by the <a href="/wiki/NBC" title="NBC">NBC</a> mini-series <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_(TV_miniseries)" class="mw-redirect" title="Holocaust (TV miniseries)"><i>Holocaust</i></a> (1978), about a fictional family of <a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Germany" title="History of the Jews in Germany">German Jews</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201-22">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup> As non-Jewish groups began to count themselves as victims of the Holocaust too, many Jews chose to use the terms <i>Shoah</i> or <i><a href="/wiki/Churban_Europa" class="mw-redirect" title="Churban Europa">Churban</a></i> instead.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_19-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115-19">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">&#91;g&#93;</a></sup> The Nazis used the phrase "<a href="/wiki/Final_Solution_to_the_Jewish_Question" class="mw-redirect" title="Final Solution to the Jewish Question">Final Solution to the Jewish Question</a>" (<a href="/wiki/German_language" title="German language">German</a>: <i lang="de">die Endlösung der Judenfrage</i>).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix-25">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Definition">Definition</span></h3>
<p>Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-definition_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-definition-3">&#91;a&#93;</a></sup> In <i>Teaching the Holocaust</i> (2015), Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education in high schools, offers three definitions: (a) "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of <i><a href="/wiki/Kristallnacht" title="Kristallnacht">Kristallnacht</a></i> in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; (b) "the systematic mass murder of the Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945", which acknowledges the shift in German policy in 1941 toward the extermination of the Jewish people in Europe; and (c) "the persecution and murder of various groups by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which includes all the Nazis' victims. The third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to <a href="/wiki/Peter_Hayes_(historian)" title="Peter Hayes (historian)">Peter Hayes</a>, "and therefore uniquely destined to disappear completely from the Reich and all territories subordinate to it". The persecution and murder of other groups was much less consistent. For example, he writes, the Nazis regarded the Slavs as "sub-human", but their treatment consisted of "enslavement and gradual attrition", while "some Slavs—Slovaks, Croats, Bulgarians, some Ukrainians—[were] allotted a favored place in Hitler's New Order".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv_27-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv-27">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Dan_Stone_(historian)" title="Dan Stone (historian)">Dan Stone</a>, a specialist in the <a href="/wiki/Historiography" title="Historiography">historiography</a> of the Holocaust, lists ethnic Poles, Ukrainians, Soviet prisoners of war, Jehovah's Witnesses, black Germans, and homosexuals as among the groups persecuted by the Nazis; he writes that the occupation of eastern Europe can also be viewed as genocidal.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">&#91;h&#93;</a></sup> But the German attitude toward the Jews was different in kind, he argues. The Nazis regarded the Jews not as racially inferior, deviant, or enemy nationals, as they did other groups,<sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">&#91;i&#93;</a></sup> but as a <i>Gegenrasse</i>: "a 'counter-race', that is to say, not really human at all". The Holocaust, for Stone, is therefore defined as the genocide of the Jews, although he argues that it cannot be "properly historically situated without understanding the 'Nazi empire' with its grandiose demographic plans".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3_31-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3-31">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup> Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, in <i>The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust</i> (2000), favour a definition that focuses on the Jews, <a href="/wiki/Romani_genocide" title="Romani genocide">Roma</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Aktion T4</a> victims: "The Holocaust—that is, Nazi genocide—was the systematic, state-sponsored murder of entire groups determined by heredity. This applied to Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052_9-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052-9">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a> defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators",<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup> distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". The latter include those persecuted because they were viewed as inferior, including for reasons of race or ethnicity (such as the Roma, ethnic Poles, Russians, and the disabled); and those targeted because of their beliefs or behavior (such as Jehovah's Witnesses, communists, and homosexuals).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGray20154_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGray20154-38">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup> In the UK, the <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_Memorial_Day_(UK)" title="Holocaust Memorial Day (UK)">Holocaust Memorial Day Trust</a>, a British government charity, similarly defines the Holocaust as the systematic attempt, between 1941 and 1945, to annihilate the European Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Yad_Vashem" title="Yad Vashem">Yad Vashem</a>, Israel's Holocaust memorial, defines it as "the murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators" between the <a href="/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa" title="Operation Barbarossa">German invasion of the Soviet Union</a> in 1941 and the <a href="/wiki/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe" title="End of World War II in Europe">end of the war in Europe</a> in May 1945.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGray20154–5_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGray20154–5-40">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup> According to Yad Vashem, most historians regard January 1933, when Hitler was named chancellor of Germany, as the start of the "Holocaust era".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGray20155_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGray20155-41">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Distinctive_features">Distinctive features</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Genocidal_state">Genocidal state</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps" title="List of Nazi concentration camps">List of Nazi concentration camps</a></div>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r856303569">@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti>.thumbinner{width:100%!important;max-width:none!important}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:none!important;width:100%!important;text-align:center}}</style><div class="thumb tmulti tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:204px;max-width:204px"><div class="tsingle" style="margin:1px;width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage"><a href="/wiki/File:World_War_II_in_Europe,_1942.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/World_War_II_in_Europe%2C_1942.svg/200px-World_War_II_in_Europe%2C_1942.svg.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="188" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/World_War_II_in_Europe%2C_1942.svg/300px-World_War_II_in_Europe%2C_1942.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/World_War_II_in_Europe%2C_1942.svg/400px-World_War_II_in_Europe%2C_1942.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="519" data-file-height="488" /></a></div><div class="thumbcaption" style="clear:left"><a href="/wiki/German-occupied_Europe" title="German-occupied Europe">German-occupied Europe</a>, 1942</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="margin:1px;width:202px;max-width:202px"><div class="thumbimage"><a href="/wiki/File:WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png/200px-WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="166" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png/300px-WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png/400px-WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png 2x" data-file-width="1310" data-file-height="1090" /></a></div><div class="thumbcaption" style="clear:left">Concentration and extermination camps, and <a href="/wiki/Ghettos_in_German-occupied_Europe_(1939%E2%80%931944)" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghettos in German-occupied Europe (1939–1944)">ghettos</a>. Territories of the <a href="/wiki/Axis_Powers" class="mw-redirect" title="Axis Powers">Axis Powers</a> are in olive green.</div></div></div></div>
<p>The logistics of the mass murder turned the country into what <a href="/wiki/Michael_Berenbaum" title="Michael Berenbaum">Michael Berenbaum</a> called a "genocidal state". Bureaucrats identified who was a Jew, confiscated property, and scheduled trains to deport them. Companies fired Jews and later used them as slave labor. Universities dismissed Jewish faculty and students. German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the <a href="/wiki/Crematoria" class="mw-redirect" title="Crematoria">crematoria</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103-42">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup> As prisoners entered the death camps, they were ordered to surrender all personal property, which was catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany for reuse or recycling.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987154–159_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987154–159-43">&#91;34&#93;</a></sup> Through a <a href="/wiki/Max_Heiliger" title="Max Heiliger">concealed account</a>, the German National Bank helped <a href="/wiki/Money_laundering" title="Money laundering">launder valuables</a> stolen from the victims.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel1998167_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel1998167-44">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The industrialization and scale of the murder was unprecedented. The killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of <a href="/wiki/Occupied_Europe" class="mw-redirect" title="Occupied Europe">occupied Europe</a>—more than 20 occupied countries.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum19967_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum19967-45">&#91;36&#93;</a></sup> Close to three million Jews in <a href="/wiki/German-occupied_Poland" title="German-occupied Poland">occupied Poland</a> and between 700,000 and 2.5 million Jews in the <a href="/wiki/Soviet_Union" title="Soviet Union">Soviet Union</a> were killed. Hundreds of thousands more died in the rest of Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447-46">&#91;37&#93;</a></sup> Victims were transported in sealed <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_train" class="mw-redirect" title="Holocaust train">freight trains</a> from all over Europe to <a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">extermination camps</a> equipped with <a href="/wiki/Gas_chamber" title="Gas chamber">gas chambers</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385_47-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385-47">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup> The stationary facilities grew out of Nazi experiments with poison gas during the <a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Aktion T4</a> mass murder ("euthanasia") programme against the disabled and mentally ill, which began in 1939.<sup id="cite_ref-Gassing_48-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gassing-48">&#91;39&#93;</a></sup> The Germans set up six extermination camps in Poland: <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_II-Birkenau" class="mw-redirect" title="Auschwitz II-Birkenau">Auschwitz II-Birkenau</a> (established October 1941); <a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a> (October 1941); <a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno</a> (December 1941); and in 1942 the three <a href="/wiki/Operation_Reinhard" title="Operation Reinhard">Operation Reinhard</a> camps at <a href="/wiki/Belzec_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Belzec extermination camp">Belzec</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sobibor_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Sobibor extermination camp">Sobibor</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-deathcamps_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-deathcamps-49">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellatelyStoltzfus2001216_50-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellatelyStoltzfus2001216-50">&#91;41&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Eberhard_J%C3%A4ckel" title="Eberhard Jäckel">Eberhard Jäckel</a> writes that it was the first time a state had thrown its power behind the idea that an entire people should be wiped out.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">&#91;j&#93;</a></sup> Anyone with three or four Jewish grandparents was to be exterminated,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer200249_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer200249-53">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup> and complex rules were devised to deal with <i>Mischlinge</i> (half and quarter Jews, or "mixed breeds").<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer200751–52_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer200751–52-54">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup> Without the help of local collaborators, the Germans would not have been able to extend the Holocaust across most of Europe;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009130_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009130-55">&#91;45&#93;</a></sup> over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">&#91;46&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Saul_Friedl%C3%A4nder" title="Saul Friedländer">Saul Friedländer</a> writes: "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews." Some Christian churches declared, according to Friedländer, "that converted Jews should be regarded as part of the flock, but even then only up to a point".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007xxi_57-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007xxi-57">&#91;47&#93;</a></sup> Discussions at the <a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee Conference</a> in January 1942 make it clear that the German "final solution of the Jewish question" was intended eventually to include Britain and all the neutral states in Europe, including Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001289_58-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001289-58">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Medical_experiments">Medical experiments</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Nazi_human_experimentation" title="Nazi human experimentation">Nazi human experimentation</a> and <a href="/wiki/Doctors%27_trial" title="Doctors&#39; trial">Doctors' trial</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Doctors%27_trial,_Nuremberg,_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/Doctors%27_trial%2C_Nuremberg%2C_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg/220px-Doctors%27_trial%2C_Nuremberg%2C_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/Doctors%27_trial%2C_Nuremberg%2C_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg/330px-Doctors%27_trial%2C_Nuremberg%2C_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/Doctors%27_trial%2C_Nuremberg%2C_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg/440px-Doctors%27_trial%2C_Nuremberg%2C_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="768" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Doctors%27_trial,_Nuremberg,_1946%E2%80%931947.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The 23 defendants during the <a href="/wiki/Doctors%27_trial" title="Doctors&#39; trial">Doctors' trial</a>, Nuremberg, 9 December 1946&#160;– 20 August 1947</div></div></div>
<p>Medical experiments conducted on camp inmates by the SS were another distinctive feature.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000229–230_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000229–230-59">&#91;49&#93;</a></sup> At least 7,000 prisoners were subjected to experiments; most died as a result, during the experiments or later.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410–414_60-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410–414-60">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup> Twenty-three senior physicians and other medical personnel were charged at <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_trials" title="Nuremberg trials">Nuremberg</a>, after the war, with crimes against humanity. They included the head of the German Red Cross, tenured professors, clinic directors, and biomedical researchers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961453_61-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961453-61">&#91;51&#93;</a></sup> Experiments took place at <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz</a>, <a href="/wiki/Buchenwald_concentration_camp" title="Buchenwald concentration camp">Buchenwald</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp" title="Dachau concentration camp">Dachau</a>, <a href="/wiki/Natzweiler-Struthof" title="Natzweiler-Struthof">Natzweiler-Struthof</a>, <a href="/wiki/Neuengamme_concentration_camp" title="Neuengamme concentration camp">Neuengamme</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp" title="Ravensbrück concentration camp">Ravensbrück</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp" title="Sachsenhausen concentration camp">Sachsenhausen</a>, and elsewhere. Some dealt with sterilization of men and women, the treatment of war wounds, ways to counteract chemical weapons, research into new vaccines and drugs, and the survival of harsh conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410–414_60-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFisher2001410–414-60">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The most notorious physician was <a href="/wiki/Josef_Mengele" title="Josef Mengele">Josef Mengele</a>, an SS officer who became the Auschwitz camp doctor on 30 May 1943.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999338_62-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999338-62">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup> Interested in genetics<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999338_62-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999338-62">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup> and keen to experiment on twins, he would pick out subjects from the new arrivals during "selection" on the ramp, shouting "<i>Zwillinge heraus!</i>" (twins step forward!).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007505_63-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007505-63">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup> They would be measured, killed, and dissected. One of Mengele's assistants said in 1946 that he was told to send organs of interest to the directors of the "Anthropological Institute in Berlin-Dahlem". This is thought to refer to Mengele's academic supervisor, <a href="/wiki/Otmar_Freiherr_von_Verschuer" title="Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer">Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer </a>, director from October 1942 of the <a href="/wiki/Kaiser_Wilhelm_Institute_of_Anthropology,_Human_Heredity,_and_Eugenics" title="Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics">Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics</a> in <a href="/wiki/Dahlem_(Berlin)" title="Dahlem (Berlin)">Berlin-Dahlem</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999340–342_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999340–342-64">&#91;54&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007505_63-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007505-63">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">&#91;k&#93;</a></sup> Mengele's experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change their eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, and amputations and other surgeries.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000384_68-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000384-68">&#91;57&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Origins">Origins</span></h2>
<h3><span id="Antisemitism_and_the_v.C3.B6lkisch_movement"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Antisemitism_and_the_völkisch_movement">Antisemitism and the völkisch movement</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Germany" title="History of the Jews in Germany">History of the Jews in Germany</a>, <a href="/wiki/Christianity_and_antisemitism" class="mw-redirect" title="Christianity and antisemitism">Christianity and antisemitism</a>, <a href="/wiki/Martin_Luther_and_antisemitism" title="Martin Luther and antisemitism">Martin Luther and antisemitism</a>, <a href="/wiki/Religious_antisemitism" title="Religious antisemitism">Religious antisemitism</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Racial_antisemitism" title="Racial antisemitism">Racial antisemitism</a></div>
<p>Throughout the <a href="/wiki/Middle_Ages" title="Middle Ages">Middle Ages</a> in Europe, Jews were subjected to <a href="/wiki/Antisemitism" title="Antisemitism">antisemitism</a> based on Christian theology, which blamed them for killing Jesus. Even after the <a href="/wiki/Reformation" title="Reformation">Reformation</a>, <a href="/wiki/Catholicism" class="mw-redirect" title="Catholicism">Catholicism</a> and <a href="/wiki/Lutheranism" title="Lutheranism">Lutheranism</a> continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of <a href="/wiki/Blood_libel" title="Blood libel">blood libels</a> and subjecting them to <a href="/wiki/Pogrom" title="Pogrom">pogroms</a> and expulsions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006148_69-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006148-69">&#91;58&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen201614–17_70-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen201614–17-70">&#91;59&#93;</a></sup> The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in the <a href="/wiki/German_empire" class="mw-redirect" title="German empire">German empire</a> and <a href="/wiki/Austria-Hungary" title="Austria-Hungary">Austria-Hungary</a> of the <a href="/wiki/V%C3%B6lkisch_movement" title="Völkisch movement"><i>völkisch</i> movement</a>, which was developed by such thinkers as <a href="/wiki/Houston_Stewart_Chamberlain" title="Houston Stewart Chamberlain">Houston Stewart Chamberlain</a> and <a href="/wiki/Paul_de_Lagarde" title="Paul de Lagarde">Paul de Lagarde</a>. The movement embraced a <a href="/wiki/Scientific_racism" title="Scientific racism">pseudo-scientific racism</a> that viewed Jews as a <a href="/wiki/Race_(human_categorization)" title="Race (human categorization)">race</a> whose members were locked in mortal combat with the <a href="/wiki/Aryan_race" title="Aryan race">Aryan race</a> for world domination.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer200247–49_71-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer200247–49-71">&#91;60&#93;</a></sup> These ideas became commonplace throughout Germany,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198969–70_72-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198969–70-72">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup> with the professional classes adopting an ideology that did not see humans as racial equals with equal hereditary value.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedlander1994495–496_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedlander1994495–496-73">&#91;62&#93;</a></sup> Although the <i>völkisch</i> parties had support in elections at first, by 1914 they were no longer influential. This did not mean that antisemitism had disappeared; instead it was incorporated into the platforms of several mainstream political parties.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198969–70_72-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198969–70-72">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Germany_after_World_War_I.2C_Hitler.27s_world_view"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Germany_after_World_War_I,_Hitler's_world_view">Germany after World War I, Hitler's world view</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles" title="Treaty of Versailles">Treaty of Versailles</a> and <a href="/wiki/Political_views_of_Adolf_Hitler#Anti-Semitism_and_the_Holocaust" title="Political views of Adolf Hitler">Political views of Adolf Hitler §&#160;Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust</a></div>
<p>The political situation in Germany and elsewhere in Europe after <a href="/wiki/World_War_I" title="World War I">World War I</a> (1914–1918) contributed to the rise of virulent antisemitism. Many Germans did not accept that their country had been defeated, which gave birth to the <a href="/wiki/Stab-in-the-back_myth" title="Stab-in-the-back myth">stab-in-the-back myth</a>. This insinuated that it was disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and communists, who had orchestrated Germany's surrender. Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment was the apparent over-representation of Jews in the leadership of communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as <a href="/wiki/Ernst_Toller" title="Ernst Toller">Ernst Toller</a>, head of a short-lived revolutionary government in Bavaria. This perception contributed to the canard of <a href="/wiki/Jewish_Bolshevism" title="Jewish Bolshevism">Jewish Bolshevism</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The economic strains of the <a href="/wiki/Great_Depression" title="Great Depression">Great Depression</a> led some in the German medical establishment to advocate murder (euphemistically called "euthanasia") of the "incurable" mentally and physically disabled as a cost-saving measure to free up funds for the curable.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2004377–378_75-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2004377–378-75">&#91;64&#93;</a></sup> By the time the <a href="/wiki/National_Socialist_German_Workers%27_Party" class="mw-redirect" title="National Socialist German Workers&#39; Party">National Socialist German Workers' Party</a>, or Nazi Party,<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">&#91;l&#93;</a></sup> came to power in 1933, there was already a tendency to seek to save the racially "valuable", while ridding society of the racially "undesirable".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPeukert1994289_78-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPeukert1994289-78">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup> The party had originated in 1920<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder197663_76-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder197663-76">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup> as an offshoot of the <i>völkisch</i> movement, and it adopted that movement's antisemitism.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer200247_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer200247-79">&#91;67&#93;</a></sup> Early antisemites in the party included <a href="/wiki/Dietrich_Eckart" title="Dietrich Eckart">Dietrich Eckart</a>, publisher of the <i><a href="/wiki/V%C3%B6lkischer_Beobachter" title="Völkischer Beobachter">Völkischer Beobachter</a></i>, the party's newspaper, and <a href="/wiki/Alfred_Rosenberg" title="Alfred Rosenberg">Alfred Rosenberg</a>, who wrote antisemitic articles for it in the 1920s. Rosenberg's vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler's views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil199041–43_80-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil199041–43-80">&#91;68&#93;</a></sup> The origin and first expression of Hitler's antisemitism remain a matter of debate.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKershaw199860_81-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKershaw199860-81">&#91;69&#93;</a></sup> Central to his world view was the idea of expansion and <i><a href="/wiki/Lebensraum" title="Lebensraum">lebensraum</a></i> (living space) for Germany. Open about his hatred of Jews, he subscribed to the common antisemitic stereotypes.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen201652–54_82-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen201652–54-82">&#91;70&#93;</a></sup> From the early 1920s onwards, he compared the Jews to germs and said they should be dealt with in the same way. He viewed <a href="/wiki/Marxism" title="Marxism">Marxism</a> as a Jewish doctrine, said he was fighting against "<a href="/wiki/Jewish_Bolshevism" title="Jewish Bolshevism">Jewish Marxism</a>", and believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen201656_83-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen201656-83">&#91;71&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Rise_of_Nazi_Germany">Rise of Nazi Germany</span></h2>
<h3><span id="Dictatorship_and_repression_.281933.E2.80.931939.29"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Dictatorship_and_repression_(1933–1939)">Dictatorship and repression (1933–1939)</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Anti-Jewish_legislation_in_prewar_Nazi_Germany" title="Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany">Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany</a>, <a href="/wiki/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany" title="Racial policy of Nazi Germany">Racial policy of Nazi Germany</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Haavara_Agreement" title="Haavara Agreement">Haavara Agreement</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:262px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469,_Berlin,_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg/260px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg" decoding="async" width="260" height="169" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg/390px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg/520px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469%2C_Berlin%2C_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg 2x" data-file-width="800" data-file-height="520" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14469,_Berlin,_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Nazi_boycott_of_Jewish_businesses" title="Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses">Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses</a>: <a href="/wiki/Sturmabteilung" title="Sturmabteilung">SA</a> troopers urge a boycott outside the <a href="/wiki/Nathan_Israel_Department_Store" title="Nathan Israel Department Store">Nathan Israel Department Store</a>, Berlin, 1 April 1933. All signs read: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews."<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">&#91;72&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>With the establishment of the Third Reich in 1933, German leaders proclaimed the rebirth of the <i><a href="/wiki/Volksgemeinschaft" title="Volksgemeinschaft">Volksgemeinschaft</a></i> ("people's community").<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritzsche200938–39_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritzsche200938–39-85">&#91;73&#93;</a></sup> Nazi policies divided the population into two groups: the <i>Volksgenossen</i> ("national comrades") who belonged to the <i>Volksgemeinschaft</i>, and the <i>Gemeinschaftsfremde</i> ("community aliens") who did not. Enemies were divided into three groups: the "racial" or "blood" enemies, such as the Jews and Roma; political opponents of Nazism, such as Marxists, liberals, Christians, and the "reactionaries" viewed as wayward "national comrades"; and moral opponents, such as gay men, the "work-shy", and habitual criminals. The latter two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for "re-education", with the aim of eventual absorption into the <i>Volksgemeinschaft</i>. "Racial" enemies could never belong to the <i>Volksgemeinschaft</i>; they were to be removed from society.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499_86-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENoakesPridham1983499-86">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Before and after the <a href="/wiki/German_federal_election,_March_1933" class="mw-redirect" title="German federal election, March 1933">March 1933 <i>Reichstag</i> elections</a>, the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against opponents.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201528–30_87-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201528–30-87">&#91;75&#93;</a></sup> They set up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201532–38_88-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201532–38-88">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup> One of the first, at <a href="/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp" title="Dachau concentration camp">Dachau</a>, opened on 9 March 1933.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198532_89-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198532-89">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup> Initially the camp contained mostly Communists and Social Democrats.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012155_90-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012155-90">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup> Other early prisons were consolidated by mid-1934 into purpose-built camps outside the cities, run exclusively by the SS.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201584–86_91-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann201584–86-91">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup> The initial purpose of the camps was to serve as a deterrent by terrorizing Germans who did not conform.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPeukert1987214_92-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPeukert1987214-92">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199733_93-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199733-93">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup> On 1 April 1933, there was a <a href="/wiki/Nazi_boycott_of_Jewish_businesses" title="Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses">boycott of Jewish businesses</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2004434–435_94-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2004434–435-94">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup> On 7 April 1933, the <a href="/wiki/Law_for_the_Restoration_of_the_Professional_Civil_Service" title="Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service">Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service</a> was passed, which excluded Jews and other "non-Aryans" from the civil service.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178_95-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178-95">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup> Jews were <a href="/wiki/Disbarment" title="Disbarment">disbarred</a> from practising law, being editors or proprietors of newspapers, or joining the Journalists' Association. Jews were not allowed to own farms.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199732–33_96-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199732–33-96">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup> In <a href="/wiki/Silesia" title="Silesia">Silesia</a>, in March 1933, a group of men entered the courthouse and beat up Jewish lawyers; Friedländer writes that, in Dresden, Jewish lawyers and judges were dragged out of courtrooms during trials.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199729_97-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199729-97">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup> Jewish students were restricted by quotas from attending schools and universities.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178_95-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann199178-95">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup> Jewish businesses were targeted for closure or "Aryanization", the forcible sale to Germans; of the approximately 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses in Germany in 1933, about 7,000 were still Jewish-owned in April 1939. Works by Jewish composers,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer1997134_98-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer1997134-98">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup> authors, and artists were excluded from publications, performances, and exhibitions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005158–159,_169_99-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005158–159,_169-99">&#91;87&#93;</a></sup> Jewish doctors were dismissed or urged to resign. The <i><a href="/wiki/Deutsches_%C3%84rzteblatt" title="Deutsches Ärzteblatt">Deutsches Ärzteblatt</a></i> (a medical journal) reported on 6 April 1933: "Germans are to be treated by Germans only."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961459_100-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961459-100">&#91;88&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Sterilization_Law.2C_Aktion_T4"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Sterilization_Law,_Aktion_T4">Sterilization Law, <i>Aktion T4</i></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Aktion T4</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Nazi_eugenics" title="Nazi eugenics">Nazi eugenics</a>, <a href="/wiki/Erbkrank" title="Erbkrank">Erbkrank</a>, <a href="/wiki/Life_unworthy_of_life" title="Life unworthy of life">Life unworthy of life</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim" title="Schloss Hartheim">Schloss Hartheim</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster,_c._1937_(brightened).jpeg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster%2C_c._1937_%28brightened%29.jpeg/200px-Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster%2C_c._1937_%28brightened%29.jpeg" decoding="async" width="200" height="269" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster%2C_c._1937_%28brightened%29.jpeg/300px-Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster%2C_c._1937_%28brightened%29.jpeg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster%2C_c._1937_%28brightened%29.jpeg/400px-Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster%2C_c._1937_%28brightened%29.jpeg 2x" data-file-width="1180" data-file-height="1588" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Neues_Volk_eugenics_poster,_c._1937_(brightened).jpeg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The poster reads: "60,000 <a href="/wiki/Reichsmark" title="Reichsmark">RM</a> is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read <i><a href="/wiki/Neues_Volk" title="Neues Volk">Neues Volk</a></i>, the monthly magazine of the <a href="/wiki/Office_of_Racial_Policy" class="mw-redirect" title="Office of Racial Policy">Office of Racial Policy</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Nazi_Party" title="Nazi Party">NSDAP</a>."<sup id="cite_ref-101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-101">&#91;89&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>The Nazis used the phrase <i>Lebensunwertes Leben</i> (<a href="/wiki/Life_unworthy_of_life" title="Life unworthy of life">life unworthy of life</a>) in reference to the disabled and mentally ill.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton200021_102-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton200021-102">&#91;90&#93;</a></sup> On 14 July 1933, the <a href="/wiki/Law_for_the_Prevention_of_Hereditarily_Diseased_Offspring" title="Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring">Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring</a> (<i>Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses</i>), the Sterilization Law, was passed, allowing for compulsory sterilization.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961457_103-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961457-103">&#91;91&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEProctor1988101–103_104-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEProctor1988101–103-104">&#91;92&#93;</a></sup> The <i>New York Times</i> reported on 21 December that year: "400,000 Germans to be sterilized".<sup id="cite_ref-105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105">&#91;93&#93;</a></sup> There were 84,525 applications from doctors in the first year. The courts reached a decision in 64,499 of those cases; 56,244 were in favor of sterilization.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961458_106-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961458-106">&#91;94&#93;</a></sup> Estimates for the number of involuntary sterilizations during the whole of the Third Reich range from 300,000 to 400,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEProctor1988106–108_107-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEProctor1988106–108-107">&#91;95&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In October 1939 Hitler signed a "euthanasia decree" backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized <i><a href="/wiki/Reichsleiter" title="Reichsleiter">Reichsleiter</a></i> <a href="/wiki/Philipp_Bouhler" title="Philipp Bouhler">Philipp Bouhler</a>, the chief of <a href="/wiki/Hitler%27s_Chancellery" title="Hitler&#39;s Chancellery">Hitler's Chancellery</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Karl_Brandt" title="Karl Brandt">Karl Brandt</a>, Hitler's personal physician, to carry out a program of involuntary "euthanasia"; after the war this program was named <i>Aktion T4</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann1991142–149_108-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleighWippermann1991142–149-108">&#91;96&#93;</a></sup> It was named after <a href="/wiki/Tiergartenstra%C3%9Fe" title="Tiergartenstraße">Tiergartenstraße</a>&#160;4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of <a href="/wiki/Tiergarten,_Berlin" title="Tiergarten, Berlin">Tiergarten</a>, where the various organizations involved were headquartered.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKershaw2000252–261_109-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKershaw2000252–261-109">&#91;97&#93;</a></sup> T4 was mainly directed at adults, but the "euthanasia" of children was also carried out.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009171_110-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009171-110">&#91;98&#93;</a></sup> Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally ill adults in institutions were killed, as were 5,000 children and 1,000 Jews, also in institutions. In addition there were specialized killing centres, where the deaths were estimated at 20,000, according to Georg Renno, the deputy director of <a href="/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim" title="Schloss Hartheim">Schloss Hartheim</a>, one of the "euthanasia" centers, or 400,000, according to Frank Zeireis, the commandant of the Mauthausen concentration camp.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton2000142_111-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton2000142-111">&#91;99&#93;</a></sup> Overall, the number of mentally and physically handicapped murdered was about 150,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_112-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-112">&#91;100&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Although not ordered to take part, psychiatrists and many psychiatric institutions were involved in the planning and carrying out of <i>Aktion T4</i> at every stage.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStrous2007_113-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStrous2007-113">&#91;101&#93;</a></sup> After protests from the German Catholic and Protestant churches, Hitler ordered the cancellation of the T4 program in August 1941,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton200090–95_114-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton200090–95-114">&#91;102&#93;</a></sup> although the disabled and mentally ill continued to be killed until the end of the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048_112-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200048-112">&#91;100&#93;</a></sup> The medical community regularly received bodies and body parts for research. <a href="/wiki/Eberhard_Karl_University" class="mw-redirect" title="Eberhard Karl University">Eberhard Karl University</a> received 1,077 bodies from executions between 1933 and 1945. The neuroscientist <a href="/wiki/Julius_Hallervorden" title="Julius Hallervorden">Julius Hallervorden</a> received 697 brains from one hospital between 1940 and 1944: "I accepted these brains of course. Where they came from and how they came to me was really none of my business."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961458–1459_115-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHanauske-Abel19961458–1459-115">&#91;103&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Nuremberg_Laws.2C_Jewish_emigration"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Nuremberg_Laws,_Jewish_emigration">Nuremberg Laws, Jewish emigration</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_Laws" title="Nuremberg Laws">Nuremberg Laws</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jews_escaping_from_German-occupied_Europe_to_the_United_Kingdom" title="Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom">Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg/220px-Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="174" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg/330px-Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg/440px-Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1306" data-file-height="1031" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Jewish_refugees_at_Croydon_airport_1939.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Jewish_refugees" class="mw-redirect" title="Jewish refugees">Jewish refugees</a> being marched away by British police at <a href="/wiki/Croydon_airport" class="mw-redirect" title="Croydon airport">Croydon airport</a> in March 1939. They were put on a flight to Warsaw.</div></div></div>
<p>On 15 September 1935, the Reichstag passed the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, known as the <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_Laws" title="Nuremberg Laws">Nuremberg Laws</a>. The former said that only those of "German or kindred blood" could be citizens. Anyone with three or more Jewish grandparents was classified as a Jew.<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMNuremberg_116-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMNuremberg-116">&#91;104&#93;</a></sup> The second law said: "Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden." Sexual relationships between them were also criminalized; Jews were not allowed to employ German women under the age of 45 in their homes.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAradGutmanMargaliot201478_117-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAradGutmanMargaliot201478-117">&#91;105&#93;</a></sup> The laws referred to Jews but applied equally to the Roma and black Germans.<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMNuremberg_116-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMNuremberg-116">&#91;104&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Nazi racial policy aimed at forcing Jews to emigrate.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_118-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285-118">&#91;106&#93;</a></sup> Fifty thousand German Jews had left Germany by the end of 1934,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199820_119-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199820-119">&#91;107&#93;</a></sup> and by the end of 1938, approximately half the German Jewish population had left the country.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285_118-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001285-118">&#91;106&#93;</a></sup> Among the prominent Jews who left was the conductor <a href="/wiki/Bruno_Walter" title="Bruno Walter">Bruno Walter</a>, who fled after being told that the hall of the <a href="/wiki/Berlin_Philharmonic" title="Berlin Philharmonic">Berlin Philharmonic</a> would be burned down if he conducted a concert there.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer19971_120-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer19971-120">&#91;108&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Albert_Einstein" title="Albert Einstein">Albert Einstein</a>, who was abroad when Hitler came to power, never returned to Germany. He was expelled from the <a href="/wiki/Kaiser_Wilhelm_Society" title="Kaiser Wilhelm Society">Kaiser Wilhelm Society</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Prussian_Academy_of_Sciences" title="Prussian Academy of Sciences">Prussian Academy of Sciences</a>, and his citizenship was revoked.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199712_121-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199712-121">&#91;109&#93;</a></sup> Other Jewish scientists, including <a href="/wiki/Gustav_Hertz" class="mw-redirect" title="Gustav Hertz">Gustav Hertz</a>, lost their teaching positions and left the country.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200516_122-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200516-122">&#91;110&#93;</a></sup> In March 1938 <a href="/wiki/Anschluss" title="Anschluss">Germany annexed Austria</a>. Austrian Nazis broke into Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016147–150_123-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016147–150-123">&#91;111&#93;</a></sup> Jewish businesses were "Aryanized", and all the legal restrictions on Jews in Germany were imposed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016153–155_124-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016153–155-124">&#91;112&#93;</a></sup> In August, <a href="/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann" title="Adolf Eichmann">Adolf Eichmann</a> was put in charge of the <a href="/wiki/Central_Agency_for_Jewish_Emigration_in_Vienna" title="Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna">Central Agency for Jewish Emigration</a>. About 100,000 Austrian Jews had left the country by May 1939, including <a href="/wiki/Sigmund_Freud" title="Sigmund Freud">Sigmund Freud</a> and his family.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005659–661_125-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005659–661-125">&#91;113&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/%C3%89vian_Conference" title="Évian Conference">Évian Conference</a> was held in July 1938 by 32 countries as an attempt to help the increased refugees from Germany, but aside from establishing the largely ineffectual <a href="/w/index.php?title=Intergovernmental_Committee_on_Refugees&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (page does not exist)">Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees</a>, little was accomplished and most countries participating did not increase the number of refugees they would accept.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000200_126-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000200-126">&#91;114&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Kristallnacht"><i>Kristallnacht</i></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Kristallnacht" title="Kristallnacht">Kristallnacht</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:242px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg/240px-Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg" decoding="async" width="240" height="164" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg/360px-Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg/480px-Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg 2x" data-file-width="507" data-file-height="347" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Burning_Synagoge_Kristallnacht_1938.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The synagogue in <a href="/wiki/Siegen" title="Siegen">Siegen</a> burning, 10 November 1938.</div></div></div>
<p>On 7 November 1938, <a href="/wiki/Herschel_Grynszpan" title="Herschel Grynszpan">Herschel Grynszpan</a>, a Polish Jew, shot the German diplomat <a href="/wiki/Ernst_vom_Rath" title="Ernst vom Rath">Ernst vom Rath</a> in the German Embassy in Paris, in retaliation for the expulsion of his parents and siblings from Germany.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016181_127-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016181-127">&#91;115&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129">&#91;m&#93;</a></sup> When vom Rath died on 9 November, the government used his death as a pretext to instigate a <a href="/wiki/Pogrom" title="Pogrom">pogrom</a> against the Jews throughout the Third Reich. The government claimed it was spontaneous, but in fact it had been ordered and planned by Hitler and <a href="/wiki/Joseph_Goebbels" title="Joseph Goebbels">Goebbels</a>, although with no clear goals, according to <a href="/wiki/David_Cesarani" title="David Cesarani">David Cesarani</a>; the result, he writes, was "murder, rape, looting, destruction of property, and terror on an unprecedented scale".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016183_130-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016183-130">&#91;117&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005581–582_131-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005581–582-131">&#91;118&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Known as <i><a href="/wiki/Kristallnacht" title="Kristallnacht">Kristallnacht</a></i> (or "Night of Broken Glass"), the attacks were partly carried out by the <a href="/wiki/Schutzstaffel" title="Schutzstaffel">SS</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sturmabteilung" title="Sturmabteilung">SA</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005583–584_132-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005583–584-132">&#91;119&#93;</a></sup> but ordinary Germans joined in; in some areas, the violence began before the SS or SA arrived.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009168_133-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009168-133">&#91;120&#93;</a></sup> Over 7,500 Jewish shops (out of 9,000) were looted and attacked, and over 1,000 <a href="/wiki/Synagogue" title="Synagogue">synagogues</a> damaged or destroyed. Groups of Jews were forced by the crowd to watch their synagogues burn; in <a href="/wiki/Bensheim" title="Bensheim">Bensheim</a> they were forced to dance around it, and in <a href="/wiki/Laupheim" title="Laupheim">Laupheim</a> to kneel before it.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184–185_134-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184–185-134">&#91;121&#93;</a></sup> At least 90 Jews died. The damage was estimated at 39 million <a href="/wiki/Reichmark" class="mw-redirect" title="Reichmark">Reichmarks</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184,_187_135-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016184,_187-135">&#91;122&#93;</a></sup> Cesarani writes that "[t]he extent of the desolation stunned the population and rocked the regime."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016183_130-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016183-130">&#91;117&#93;</a></sup> Thirty-thousand Jews were sent to the <a href="/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp" title="Dachau concentration camp">Dachau</a>, <a href="/wiki/Buchenwald_concentration_camp" title="Buchenwald concentration camp">Buchenwald</a> and <a href="/wiki/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp" title="Sachsenhausen concentration camp">Sachsenhausen</a> concentration camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005591_136-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005591-136">&#91;123&#93;</a></sup> Many were released within weeks; by early 1939, 2,000 remained in the camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016200_137-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016200-137">&#91;124&#93;</a></sup> German Jewry was held collectively responsible for restitution of the damage; they also had to pay an "atonement tax" of over a billion Reichmarks. Insurance payments for damage to their property were confiscated by the government. A decree on 12 November 1938 barred Jews from most of the remaining occupations they had been allowed to hold.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2005595–596_138-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2005595–596-138">&#91;125&#93;</a></sup> <i>Kristallnacht</i> marked the end of any sort of public Jewish activity and culture, and Jews stepped up their efforts to leave the country.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBen-RafaelGlöcknerSternberg201125–26_139-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBen-RafaelGlöcknerSternberg201125–26-139">&#91;126&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Territorial_solution_and_resettlement">Territorial solution and resettlement</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Madagascar_Plan" title="Madagascar Plan">Madagascar Plan</a></div>
<p>Before <a href="/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a>, Germany considered mass deportation from Europe of German, and later European, Jewry.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer1997224–225_140-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer1997224–225-140">&#91;127&#93;</a></sup> Among the areas considered for possible resettlement were <a href="/wiki/Mandatory_Palestine" title="Mandatory Palestine">British Palestine</a><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199762–63_141-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer199762–63-141">&#91;128&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/French_Madagascar" title="French Madagascar">French Madagascar</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001_142-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001-142">&#91;129&#93;</a></sup> After the war began, German leaders considered deporting Europe's Jews to <a href="/wiki/Siberia" title="Siberia">Siberia</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016382_143-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016382-143">&#91;130&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-144" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-144">&#91;131&#93;</a></sup> Palestine was the only location to which any German relocation plan produced results, via the <a href="/wiki/Haavara_Agreement" title="Haavara Agreement">Haavara Agreement</a> between the <a href="/wiki/Zionist_Federation_of_Germany" title="Zionist Federation of Germany">Zionist Federation of Germany</a> and the German government.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010264_145-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010264-145">&#91;132&#93;</a></sup> This resulted in the transfer of about 60,000 German Jews and $100<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>million from Germany to Palestine, but it ended with the outbreak of World War&#160;II.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEChase1999xiii_146-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEChase1999xiii-146">&#91;133&#93;</a></sup> In May 1940 <a href="/wiki/Madagascar" title="Madagascar">Madagascar</a> became the focus of new deportation efforts<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001_142-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2001-142">&#91;129&#93;</a></sup> because it had unfavorable living conditions that would hasten deaths.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENaimark200173_147-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENaimark200173-147">&#91;134&#93;</a></sup> Several German leaders had discussed the idea in 1938, and <a href="/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann" title="Adolf Eichmann">Adolf Eichmann</a>'s office was ordered to carry out resettlement planning, but no evidence of planning exists until after the <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_France" title="Battle of France">fall of France</a> in June 1940.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning200481–85_148-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning200481–85-148">&#91;135&#93;</a></sup> But the inability to defeat Britain prevented the movement of Jews across the seas,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning200488_149-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning200488-149">&#91;136&#93;</a></sup> and the end of the Madagascar Plan was announced on 10 February 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHildebrand198470_150-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHildebrand198470-150">&#91;137&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="World_War_II">World War II</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="German-occupied_Poland">German-occupied Poland</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Poland" title="The Holocaust in Poland">The Holocaust in Poland</a>, <a href="/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland" title="Invasion of Poland">Invasion of Poland</a>, <a href="/wiki/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%931945)" title="Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)">Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)</a>, <a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Poland" title="History of the Jews in Poland">History of the Jews in Poland</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland" title="Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland">Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland</a>, and <a href="/wiki/General_Government" title="General Government">General Government</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:242px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Germany1941.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Germany1941.png/240px-Germany1941.png" decoding="async" width="240" height="206" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Germany1941.png/360px-Germany1941.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/05/Germany1941.png/480px-Germany1941.png 2x" data-file-width="698" data-file-height="600" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Germany1941.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Nazi Germany before <a href="/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa" title="Operation Barbarossa">Operation Barbarossa</a> of 1941, including <a href="/wiki/Polish_areas_annexed_by_Nazi_Germany" title="Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany">occupied Poland</a> and the <a href="/wiki/General_Government" title="General Government">General Government</a> territory</div></div></div>
<p>When Germany <a href="/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland" title="Invasion of Poland">invaded Poland</a> in September 1939, it gained control of about 2 million Jews in the occupied territory. The rest of Poland was <a href="/wiki/Territories_of_Poland_annexed_by_the_Soviet_Union#Soviet_occupation_of_Poland,_1939–1941" title="Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union">occupied by the Soviet Union</a>, which had control of the rest of Poland's pre-war population of 3.3–3.5 million Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008158–159_151-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008158–159-151">&#91;138&#93;</a></sup> German plans for Poland included expelling gentile Poles from large areas, confining Jews, and settling Germans on the emptied lands. To help the process along, <a href="/wiki/Reinhard_Heydrich" title="Reinhard Heydrich">Reinhard Heydrich</a>, head of the <a href="/wiki/Reich_Security_Main_Office" class="mw-redirect" title="Reich Security Main Office">Reich Security Main Office</a>, ordered that the "leadership class" in Poland be killed and the Jews expelled from the <a href="/wiki/Polish_areas_annexed_by_Nazi_Germany" title="Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany">Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016136–137_152-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016136–137-152">&#91;139&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The Germans initiated a policy of sending Jews from all territories they had recently annexed (Austria, Czechoslovakia, and western Poland) to the central section of Poland, which they called the <a href="/wiki/General_Government" title="General Government">General Government</a>. There, the Jews were concentrated in <a href="/wiki/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe">ghettos</a> in major cities,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_153-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-153">&#91;140&#93;</a></sup> chosen for their railway lines to facilitate later deportation.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004111–113_154-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004111–113-154">&#91;141&#93;</a></sup> Food supplies were restricted, public hygiene was difficult, and the inhabitants were often subjected to <a href="/wiki/Unfree_labour" title="Unfree labour">forced labor</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629–30_155-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629–30-155">&#91;142&#93;</a></sup> In the work camps and ghettos, at least half a million Jews died of starvation, disease, and poor living conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016146_156-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016146-156">&#91;143&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Jeremy_Black_(historian)" title="Jeremy Black (historian)">Jeremy Black</a> writes that the ghettos were not intended, in 1939, as a step towards the extermination of the Jews. Instead, they were viewed as part of a policy of creating a territorial reservation to contain them.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201631_157-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201631-157">&#91;144&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-167" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-167">&#91;n&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_occupied_countries">Other occupied countries</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Rescue_of_the_Danish_Jews" title="Rescue of the Danish Jews">Rescue of the Danish Jews</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Norway" title="The Holocaust in Norway">Holocaust in Norway</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Belgium" title="The Holocaust in Belgium">in Belgium</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Luxembourg" title="The Holocaust in Luxembourg">in Luxembourg</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_France" title="The Holocaust in France">in France</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Serbia" title="The Holocaust in Serbia">in Serbia</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia" title="The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia">in Croatia</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Italian_Libya" class="mw-redirect" title="The Holocaust in Italian Libya">in Italian Libya</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Serbs_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia" title="Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia">Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg/170px-German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="255" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg/255px-German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg/340px-German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1287" data-file-height="1928" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:German_J_stamped_passport_used_to_escape_Europe_in_1940.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>German passport stamped with a "J"; this passport was used to escape Europe in 1940</div></div></div>
<p>Germany <a href="/wiki/Norwegian_Campaign" title="Norwegian Campaign">invaded Norway</a> in April 1940. The country was completely occupied by June.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016169_168-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016169-168">&#91;154&#93;</a></sup> There were about 1,800 Jews in Norway, persecuted by the Norwegian Nazis. In late 1940, the Jews were banned from some occupations, and in 1941, all Jews had to register their property with the government.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162_169-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162-169">&#91;155&#93;</a></sup> Also in 1940, <a href="/wiki/German_invasion_of_Denmark_(1940)" title="German invasion of Denmark (1940)">Germany invaded Denmark</a>, <sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016169_168-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016169-168">&#91;154&#93;</a></sup> overrunning the country so quickly that there was no chance of organizing resistance. Consequently, the Danish government stayed in power and the Germans found it easier to work through it. Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002161_170-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002161-170">&#91;156&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The Germans <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_the_Netherlands" title="Battle of the Netherlands">invaded the Netherlands</a>, Luxembourg, Belgium, and <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_France" title="Battle of France">France</a> in May 1940. In the Netherlands, the Germans installed <a href="/wiki/Arthur_Seyss-Inquart" title="Arthur Seyss-Inquart">Arthur Seyss-Inquart</a> as <i><a href="/wiki/Reichskommissar" title="Reichskommissar">Reichskommissar</a></i>, who quickly began to persecute the approximately 140,000 Dutch Jews. Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. Non-Jewish Dutch citizens protested these measures and in February 1941, staged a strike that was quickly crushed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162–163_171-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002162–163-171">&#91;157&#93;</a></sup> After Belgium's surrender at the end of May 1940, it was ruled by a German military governor, <a href="/wiki/Alexander_von_Falkenhausen" title="Alexander von Falkenhausen">Alexander von Falkenhausen</a>, who enacted anti-Jewish measures against the country's approximately 90,000 Jews, many of whom were refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002164_172-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002164-172">&#91;158&#93;</a></sup> France had approximately 300,000 Jews, divided between the German-occupied northern part of France, and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas under the <a href="/wiki/Vichy_regime" class="mw-redirect" title="Vichy regime">Vichy regime</a>. The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, and there, anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002165–166_173-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002165–166-173">&#91;159&#93;</a></sup> In July 1940, the Jews in the parts of <a href="/wiki/Alsace-Lorraine" title="Alsace-Lorraine">Alsace-Lorraine</a> that had been annexed to Germany were expelled into Vichy France.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti199352_174-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti199352-174">&#91;160&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg/300px-Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="157" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg/450px-Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg/600px-Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2045" data-file-height="1073" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Usta%C5%A1e_militia_execute_prisoners_near_the_Jasenovac_concentration_camp.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Usta%C5%A1e" class="mw-redirect" title="Ustaše">Ustaše</a> executing people over a mass grave in the vicinity of the <a href="/wiki/Jasenovac_concentration_camp" title="Jasenovac concentration camp">Jasenovac concentration camp</a></div></div></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Invasion_of_Yugoslavia" title="Invasion of Yugoslavia">Yugoslavia</a> and <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_Greece" title="Battle of Greece">Greece</a> were invaded in April 1941, and both countries surrendered before the end of the month. Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones but did not eliminate it as a country. Yugoslavia was dismembered, with regions in the north being annexed by Germany, and regions along the coast made part of Italy. The rest of the country was divided into a <a href="/wiki/Independent_State_of_Croatia" title="Independent State of Croatia">puppet state of Croatia</a>, which was nominally an ally of Germany, and <a href="/wiki/Serbia" title="Serbia">Serbia</a>, which was governed by a combination of military and police administrators. There were approximately 80,000 Jews in Yugoslavia when it was invaded. The ruling party in Croatia, the <a href="/wiki/Ustashe" title="Ustashe">Ustashe</a>, not only killed Jews but murdered and expelled Orthodox Christian Serbs and Muslims.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002192–193_175-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002192–193-175">&#91;161&#93;</a></sup>. By 1945, between 300,000 to 500,000 Serbs were killed at the hands of the <a href="/wiki/Ustashe" title="Ustashe">Ustashe</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaker201518_176-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBaker201518-176">&#91;162&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Yeomans2013_177-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Yeomans2013-177">&#91;163&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Anti-Serb_sentiment" class="mw-redirect" title="Anti-Serb sentiment">Anti-Serb sentiment</a> and <a href="/wiki/Catholic_clergy_involvement_with_the_Usta%C5%A1e" title="Catholic clergy involvement with the Ustaše">Catholic fanaticism</a> motivated the murder and expulsion of the Serbs from the <a href="/wiki/Independent_State_of_Croatia" title="Independent State of Croatia">puppet state of Croatia</a> and in many cases, Serbs were killed after refusing to convert to <a href="/wiki/Catholicism" class="mw-redirect" title="Catholicism">Catholicism</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-178" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-178">&#91;164&#93;</a></sup>  Serbia was declared free of Jews in August 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134_179-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134-179">&#91;165&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Germany.27s_allies"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Germany's_allies">Germany's allies</span></h3>
<p>Italy introduced some antisemitic measures, but there was less antisemitism there than in Germany, and Italian-occupied countries were generally safer for Jews than German-occupied territories. In some areas, the Italian authorities even tried to protect Jews, such as in the Croatian areas of the Balkans. But while Italian forces in Russia were not as vicious towards Jews as the Germans, they did not try to stop German atrocities either. There were no deportations of Italian Jews to Germany while Italy remained an ally.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016137–139_180-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016137–139-180">&#91;166&#93;</a></sup> Several forced labor camps for Jews were established in <a href="/wiki/Italian_Libya" title="Italian Libya">Italian-controlled Libya</a>. Almost 2,600 <a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Libya" title="History of the Jews in Libya">Libyan Jews</a> were sent to camps, where 562 died.<sup id="cite_ref-181" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-181">&#91;167&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Vichy France's government implemented anti-Jewish measures in <a href="/wiki/French_Algeria" title="French Algeria">French Algeria</a> and the two French Protectorates of <a href="/wiki/French_Protectorate_of_Tunisia" class="mw-redirect" title="French Protectorate of Tunisia">Tunisia</a> and <a href="/wiki/French_protectorate_in_Morocco" class="mw-redirect" title="French protectorate in Morocco">Morocco</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer2001256–257_182-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer2001256–257-182">&#91;168&#93;</a></sup> Tunisia had 85,000 Jews when the Germans and Italians arrived in November 1942. An estimated 5,000 Jews were subjected to forced labor.<sup id="cite_ref-183" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-183">&#91;169&#93;</a></sup> Finland was pressured in 1942 to hand over its 150–200 non-Finnish Jews to Germany. After opposition from the government and public, eight non-Finnish Jews were deported in late 1942; only one survived the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140_184-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016140-184">&#91;170&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Empire_of_Japan" title="Empire of Japan">Japan</a> had little antisemitism in its society and did not persecute Jews in most of the territories it controlled. Jews in <a href="/wiki/Shanghai" title="Shanghai">Shanghai</a> were confined, but despite German pressure they were not killed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016141_185-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016141-185">&#91;171&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg/220px-%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="158" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg/330px-%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg/440px-%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg 2x" data-file-width="939" data-file-height="675" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:%D7%A4%D7%95%D7%92%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%99%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99_5.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Bodies being pulled out of a death train carrying Romanian Jews from the <a href="/wiki/Ia%C8%99i_pogrom" title="Iași pogrom">Iași pogrom</a></div></div></div>
<p>Romania implemented anti-Jewish measures in May and June 1940 as part of its efforts towards an alliance with Germany. Jews were forced from government service, pogroms were carried out, and by March 1941 all Jews had lost their jobs and had their property confiscated.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131–133_186-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131–133-186">&#91;172&#93;</a></sup> After Romania joined the <a href="/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa" title="Operation Barbarossa">invasion of the Soviet Union</a> in June 1941, at least 13,266 Jews were killed in the <a href="/wiki/Ia%C8%99i_pogrom" title="Iași pogrom">Iași pogrom</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFrilingIoanidIonesc2004125–126_187-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFrilingIoanidIonesc2004125–126-187">&#91;173&#93;</a></sup> and Romanian troops carried out massacres in Romanian-controlled territory, including the <a href="/wiki/1941_Odessa_massacre" title="1941 Odessa massacre">Odessa massacre</a> of 20,000 Jews in <a href="/wiki/Odessa" title="Odessa">Odessa</a> in late 1941. Romania also set up concentration camps under its control in <a href="/wiki/Transnistria" title="Transnistria">Transnistria</a>, where 154,000–170,000 Jews were deported from 1941 to 1943.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131–133_186-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016131–133-186">&#91;172&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Anti-Jewish measures were introduced in Slovakia, which would later deport its Jews to German concentration and extermination camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134–135_188-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134–135-188">&#91;174&#93;</a></sup> Bulgaria introduced anti-Jewish measures in 1940 and 1941, including the requirement to wear a yellow star, the banning of mixed marriages, and the loss of property. Bulgaria annexed Thrace and Macedonia, and in February 1943 agreed to deport 20,000 Jews to <a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a>. All 11,000 Jews from the annexed territories were sent to their deaths, and plans were made to deport an additional 6,000–8,000 Bulgarian Jews from Sofia to meet the quota.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERozettSpector2013161_189-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERozettSpector2013161-189">&#91;175&#93;</a></sup> When the plans became public, the <a href="/wiki/Bulgarian_Orthodox_Church" title="Bulgarian Orthodox Church">Orthodox Church</a> and many Bulgarians protested, and King <a href="/wiki/Boris_III_of_Bulgaria" title="Boris III of Bulgaria">Boris III</a> canceled the deportation of Jews native to Bulgaria.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016136–137_190-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016136–137-190">&#91;176&#93;</a></sup> Instead, they were expelled to the interior, pending further decision.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERozettSpector2013161_189-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERozettSpector2013161-189">&#91;175&#93;</a></sup> Although Hungary expelled Jews who were not citizens from its newly annexed lands in 1941, it did not deport most of its Jews<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016135_191-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016135-191">&#91;177&#93;</a></sup> until the German invasion of Hungary in March 1944. Between 15 May and 9 July 1944, 440,000 Hungarian Jews were deported to Auschwitz.<sup id="cite_ref-192" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-192">&#91;178&#93;</a></sup> In Budapest, nearly 80,000 Jews were killed by the Hungarian <a href="/wiki/Arrow_Cross_Party" title="Arrow Cross Party">Arrow Cross battalions</a> in late 1944.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERozettSpector2013274_193-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERozettSpector2013274-193">&#91;179&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Concentration_and_labor_camps">Concentration and labor camps</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camps" title="Nazi concentration camps">Nazi concentration camps</a>, <a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps" title="List of Nazi concentration camps">List of Nazi concentration camps</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Extermination_through_labor" class="mw-redirect" title="Extermination through labor">Extermination through labor</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269,_KZ_Mauthausen,_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="306" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg 2x" data-file-width="707" data-file-height="984" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-269,_KZ_Mauthausen,_H%C3%A4ftlinge_im_Steinbruch.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <i>Todesstiege</i> ("stairs of death") at the granite quarry in <a href="/wiki/Mauthausen-Gusen_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp">Mauthausen concentration camp</a> in Austria (opened 1938); inmates were forced to carry heavy rocks up the stairs.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERees2005_194-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERees2005-194">&#91;180&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>The Third Reich first used concentration camps as places of unlawful incarceration of political opponents and other "enemies of the state". Large numbers of Jews were not sent there until after <i><a href="/wiki/Kristallnacht" title="Kristallnacht">Kristallnacht</a></i> in November 1938.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135_195-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135-195">&#91;181&#93;</a></sup> Although death rates were high, the camps were not designed as killing centers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201050–52_196-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201050–52-196">&#91;182&#93;</a></sup> After war broke out in 1939, new camps were established, some outside Germany in occupied Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-197" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-197">&#91;183&#93;</a></sup> In January 1945, the SS reports had over 700,000 prisoners in their control, of which close to half had died by the end of May 1945 according to most historians.<sup id="cite_ref-198" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-198">&#91;184&#93;</a></sup> Most wartime prisoners of the camps were not Germans but belonged to countries under German occupation.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287–288_199-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287–288-199">&#91;185&#93;</a></sup> It is estimated that the Germans established over 42,000 detention sites throughout Europe, including ghettos, concentration camps, prisoner-of-war camps, work camps, and extermination camps.<sup id="cite_ref-200" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-200">&#91;186&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>After 1942, the economic functions of the camps, previously secondary to their penal and terror functions, came to the fore. Forced labor of camp prisoners became commonplace.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135_195-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBaumel2001135-195">&#91;181&#93;</a></sup> The guards became much more brutal, and the death rate increased as the guards not only beat and starved prisoners, but killed them more frequently.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287–288_199-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015287–288-199">&#91;185&#93;</a></sup> <i><a href="/wiki/Extermination_through_labour" title="Extermination through labour">Vernichtung durch Arbeit</a></i> ("extermination through labor") was a policy—camp inmates would literally be worked to death, or to physical exhaustion, at which point they would be gassed or shot.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010314–320_201-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010314–320-201">&#91;187&#93;</a></sup> The Germans estimated the average prisoner's lifespan in a concentration camp at three months, due to lack of food and clothing, constant epidemics, and frequent punishments for the most minor transgressions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201676_202-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201676-202">&#91;188&#93;</a></sup> The shifts were long and often involved exposure to dangerous materials.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016104_203-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016104-203">&#91;189&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Transportation between camps was often carried out in freight cars with prisoners packed tightly. Long delays would take place; prisoners might be confined in the cars on sidings for days.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERozett19901222_204-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERozett19901222-204">&#91;190&#93;</a></sup> In mid-1942 work camps began requiring newly arrived prisoners to be placed in quarantine for four weeks.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015347_205-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015347-205">&#91;191&#93;</a></sup> Prisoners wore <a href="/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camp_badge" title="Nazi concentration camp badge">colored triangles</a> on their uniforms, the color of the triangle denoting the reason for their incarceration. Red signified a political prisoner, <a href="/wiki/Jehovah%27s_Witnesses" title="Jehovah&#39;s Witnesses">Jehovah's Witnesses</a> had purple triangles, "asocials" and criminals wore black and green. Badges were pink for gay men and yellow for Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125–127,_623_206-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125–127,_623-206">&#91;192&#93;</a></sup> Jews had a second yellow triangle worn with their original triangle, the two forming a six-pointed star.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990134_207-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990134-207">&#91;193&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015119_208-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015119-208">&#91;194&#93;</a></sup> In Auschwitz, prisoners were <a href="/wiki/Identification_in_Nazi_camps" class="mw-redirect" title="Identification in Nazi camps">tattooed</a> with an identification number on arrival.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000461_209-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000461-209">&#91;195&#93;</a></sup> 
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ghettos">Ghettos</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe">Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland" title="Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland">Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland</a>, and <a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi-era_ghettos" class="mw-redirect" title="List of Nazi-era ghettos">List of Nazi-era ghettos</a></div>
<dl><dd><i>Main ghettos: <a href="/wiki/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto" title="Białystok Ghetto">Białystok</a>, <a href="/wiki/Budapest_Ghetto" title="Budapest Ghetto">Budapest</a>, <a href="/wiki/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto" title="Kraków Ghetto">Kraków</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kovno_Ghetto" title="Kovno Ghetto">Kovno</a>, <a href="/wiki/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto" title="Łódź Ghetto">Łódź</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto" title="Lwów Ghetto">Lvov</a>, <a href="/wiki/Riga_Ghetto" title="Riga Ghetto">Riga</a>, <a href="/wiki/Vilna_Ghetto" title="Vilna Ghetto">Vilna</a>, <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto" title="Warsaw Ghetto">Warsaw</a>.</i></dd></dl>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg/220px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="156" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg/330px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg/440px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2766" data-file-height="1964" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_06b.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Polish_Jews" class="mw-redirect" title="Polish Jews">Polish Jews</a> captured by Germans during the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising" title="Warsaw Ghetto Uprising">Warsaw Ghetto Uprising</a>, May 1943</div></div></div>
<p>After invading Poland, the Germans established ghettos in the incorporated territories and General Government to confine Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_153-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-153">&#91;140&#93;</a></sup> The ghettos were formed and closed off from the outside world at different times and for different reasons.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning1986345–348_210-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning1986345–348-210">&#91;196&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003216–7_211-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003216–7-211">&#91;197&#93;</a></sup> For example, the Łódź ghetto was closed in April 1940,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_153-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-153">&#91;140&#93;</a></sup> to force the Jews inside to give up money and valuables;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990166_212-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990166-212">&#91;198&#93;</a></sup> the Warsaw ghetto was closed for health considerations (for the people outside, not inside, the ghetto),<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990169_213-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990169-213">&#91;199&#93;</a></sup> but this did not happen until November 1940;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_153-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-153">&#91;140&#93;</a></sup> and the Kraków ghetto was not established until March 1941.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010161_214-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010161-214">&#91;200&#93;</a></sup> The Warsaw Ghetto contained 380,000 people<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629_153-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629-153">&#91;140&#93;</a></sup> and was the largest ghetto in Poland; the Łódź Ghetto was the second largest,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010167_215-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010167-215">&#91;201&#93;</a></sup> holding between 160,000<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990165_216-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990165-216">&#91;202&#93;</a></sup> to 223,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016148_217-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016148-217">&#91;203&#93;</a></sup> Because of the long drawn-out process of establishing ghettos, it is unlikely that they were originally considered part of a systematic attempt to eliminate Jews completely.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010166_218-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010166-218">&#91;204&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The Germans required each ghetto to be run by a <i><a href="/wiki/Judenrat" title="Judenrat">Judenrat</a></i>, or Jewish council.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETrunk19961–6_219-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETrunk19961–6-219">&#91;205&#93;</a></sup> Councils were responsible for a ghetto's day-to-day operations, including distributing food, water, heat, medical care, and shelter. The Germans also required councils to confiscate property, organize forced labor, and, finally, facilitate deportations to extermination camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1993106_220-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1993106-220">&#91;206&#93;</a></sup> The councils' basic strategy was one of trying to minimize losses, by cooperating with German authorities, bribing officials, and petitioning for better conditions or clemency.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1993170_221-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1993170-221">&#91;207&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg/220px-Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="154" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg/330px-Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg/440px-Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2160" data-file-height="1514" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Zw%C5%82oki_dzieci_getto_warszawskie_05.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Bodies of children in the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto" title="Warsaw Ghetto">Warsaw Ghetto</a></div></div></div>
<p>Eventually, the Germans ordered the councils to compile lists of names of deportees to be sent for "resettlement".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016150–152_222-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016150–152-222">&#91;208&#93;</a></sup> Although most ghetto councils complied with these orders,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1980104_223-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1980104-223">&#91;209&#93;</a></sup> many councils tried to send the least useful workers or those unable to work.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016150–151_224-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016150–151-224">&#91;210&#93;</a></sup> Leaders who refused these orders were shot. Some individuals or even complete councils committed suicide rather than cooperate with the deportations.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200681–83_225-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200681–83-225">&#91;211&#93;</a></sup> Others, like <a href="/wiki/Chaim_Rumkowski" title="Chaim Rumkowski">Chaim Rumkowski</a>, who became the "dedicated autocrat" of Łódź,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1993109_226-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1993109-226">&#91;212&#93;</a></sup> argued that their responsibility was to save the Jews who could be saved and that therefore others had to be sacrificed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200679–81_227-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum200679–81-227">&#91;213&#93;</a></sup> The councils' actions in facilitating Germany's persecution and murder of ghetto inhabitants was important to the Germans.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031111_228-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031111-228">&#91;214&#93;</a></sup> When cooperation crumbled, as happened in the Warsaw ghetto after the Jewish Combat Organisation displaced the council's authority, the Germans lost control.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010285_229-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010285-229">&#91;215&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Ghettos were intended to be temporary until the Jews were deported to other locations, which never happened. Instead, the inhabitants were sent to extermination camps. The ghettos were, in effect, immensely crowded prisons serving as instruments of "slow, passive murder."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114_230-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114-230">&#91;216&#93;</a></sup> Though the Warsaw Ghetto contained 30% of Warsaw's population, it occupied only 2.5% of the city's area, averaging over 9 people per room.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003239_231-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003239-231">&#91;217&#93;</a></sup> Between 1940 and 1942, starvation and disease, especially <a href="/wiki/Typhoid_fever" title="Typhoid fever">typhoid</a>, killed many in the ghettos.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003242–243_232-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003242–243-232">&#91;218&#93;</a></sup> Over 43,000 Warsaw ghetto residents, or one in ten of the total population, died in 1941;<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMDepoWar_233-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMDepoWar-233">&#91;219&#93;</a></sup> in <a href="/wiki/Theresienstadt" class="mw-redirect" title="Theresienstadt">Theresienstadt</a>, more than half the residents died in 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114_230-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006114-230">&#91;216&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Himmler ordered the closing of ghettos in Poland in mid-July 1942, with most inhabitants going to extermination camps. Those Jews needed for war production would be confined at concentration camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378_234-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378-234">&#91;220&#93;</a></sup> The deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto began on 22 July; over the almost two months of the <i>Aktion</i>, until 12 September, the Warsaw ghetto went from approximately 350,000 inhabitants to about 65,000. Those deported were <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_trains" title="Holocaust trains">transported in freight trains</a> to the <a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka extermination camp</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378–380_235-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990378–380-235">&#91;221&#93;</a></sup> Similar deportations happened in other ghettos, with many ghettos totally emptied.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990382–385_236-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990382–385-236">&#91;222&#93;</a></sup>
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<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Lviv_pogrom_(June_-_July_1941).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg/170px-Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="233" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg/255px-Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg/340px-Lviv_pogrom_%28June_-_July_1941%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="438" data-file-height="600" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Lviv_pogrom_(June_-_July_1941).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Jewish woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during the <a href="/wiki/Lviv_pogroms" class="mw-redirect" title="Lviv pogroms">Lviv pogroms</a>, July 1941, then <a href="/wiki/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%931945)" title="Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)">occupied Poland</a>, now Ukraine</div></div></div>
<p>The first <a href="/wiki/Ghetto_uprising" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghetto uprising">ghetto uprisings</a> occurred in mid-1942 in small community ghettos.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990474–478_237-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990474–478-237">&#91;223&#93;</a></sup> Although there were armed resistance attempts in both the larger and smaller ghettos in 1943, in every case they failed against the overwhelming German military force, and the remaining Jews were either killed or deported to the death camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006175–177_238-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006175–177-238">&#91;224&#93;</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Pogroms">Pogroms</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Pogrom" title="Pogrom">Pogrom</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dorohoi_Pogrom" class="mw-redirect" title="Dorohoi Pogrom">Dorohoi Pogrom</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ia%C5%9Fi_pogrom" class="mw-redirect" title="Iaşi pogrom">Iaşi pogrom</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jedwabne_Massacre" class="mw-redirect" title="Jedwabne Massacre">Jedwabne Massacre</a>, <a href="/wiki/Legionnaires%27_Rebellion_and_Bucharest_Pogrom" class="mw-redirect" title="Legionnaires&#39; Rebellion and Bucharest Pogrom">Legionnaires' Rebellion and Bucharest Pogrom</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lviv_pogroms" class="mw-redirect" title="Lviv pogroms">Lviv pogroms</a>, and <a href="/wiki/1941_Odessa_massacre" title="1941 Odessa massacre">1941 Odessa massacre</a></div>
<p>A number of deadly pogroms occurred during the Holocaust.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990163,_258_239-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990163,_258-239">&#91;225&#93;</a></sup> The Germans encouraged some, and others were spontaneous.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016195_240-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016195-240">&#91;226&#93;</a></sup> Some, such as the <a href="/wiki/Ia%C5%9Fi_pogrom" class="mw-redirect" title="Iaşi pogrom">Iaşi pogrom</a>, were in lands controlled by Germany's allies.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003267–269_241-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003267–269-241">&#91;227&#93;</a></sup> In the series of <a href="/wiki/Lviv_pogroms" class="mw-redirect" title="Lviv pogroms">Lviv pogroms</a> committed in <a href="/wiki/Occupied_Poland" class="mw-redirect" title="Occupied Poland">occupied Poland</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-244" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-244">&#91;o&#93;</a></sup> some 6,000 <a href="/wiki/Polish_Jews" class="mw-redirect" title="Polish Jews">Polish Jews</a> were murdered in the streets in July 1941, on top of 3,000 arrests and mass shootings by <i>Einsatzgruppe C</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194_243-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194-243">&#91;229&#93;</a></sup> During the <a href="/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom" title="Jedwabne pogrom">Jedwabne pogrom</a> of July 1941, in the presence of the German officers, several hundred Jews were murdered by some local Poles, with some being burned alive in a barn.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196_245-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196-245">&#91;230&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-246" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-246">&#91;p&#93;</a></sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Death_squads">Death squads</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine" title="The Holocaust in Ukraine">Holocaust in Ukraine</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania" title="The Holocaust in Lithuania">in Lithuania</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia" title="The Holocaust in Latvia">in Latvia</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia" title="The Holocaust in Estonia">in Estonia</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus" title="The Holocaust in Belarus">in Belarus</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Russia" title="The Holocaust in Russia">in Russia</a>, <a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a>, <a href="/wiki/Babi_Yar" title="Babi Yar">Babi Yar</a>, <a href="/wiki/Rumbula_massacre" title="Rumbula massacre">Rumbula massacre</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre" title="Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre">Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Ponary_massacre" title="Ponary massacre">Ponary massacre</a></div>
<p>Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198959_247-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198959-247">&#91;231&#93;</a></sup> German propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish, Romani and Slavic <i><a href="/wiki/Untermenschen" class="mw-redirect" title="Untermenschen">Untermenschen</a></i> ("sub-humans").<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBurleigh2001512,_526–527_248-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBurleigh2001512,_526–527-248">&#91;232&#93;</a></sup>
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<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg/220px-Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="140" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg/330px-Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg/440px-Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1800" data-file-height="1145" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Einsatzgruppe_shooting.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>German police shooting women and children from the <a href="/wiki/Mizocz_Ghetto" title="Mizocz Ghetto">Mizocz Ghetto</a>, 14 October 1942</div></div></div>
<p>Local populations in some occupied Soviet territories actively participated in the killings of Jews and others. Besides participating in killings and pogroms, they helped identify Jews for persecution and rounded up Jews for German actions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004268_249-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004268-249">&#91;233&#93;</a></sup> German involvement ranged from active instigation and involvement to more generalized guidance.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004275_250-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004275-250">&#91;234&#93;</a></sup> In Lithuania, Latvia, and western Ukraine locals were deeply involved in the murder of Jews from the beginning of the German occupation. Some of these Latvian and Lithuanian units also participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus. In the south, Ukrainians killed about 24,000 Jews and some went to Poland to serve as concentration and death-camp guards.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004268_249-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004268-249">&#91;233&#93;</a></sup> Military units from some countries allied to Germany also killed Jews. Romanian units were given orders to exterminate and wipe out Jews in areas they controlled.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004275–276_251-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004275–276-251">&#91;235&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Usta%C5%A1e_militia" class="mw-redirect" title="Ustaše militia">Ustaše militia</a> in <a href="/wiki/Independent_State_of_Croatia" title="Independent State of Croatia">Croatia</a> persecuted and murdered Jews, among others.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134_179-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016134-179">&#91;165&#93;</a></sup> Many of the killings were carried out in public, a change from previous practice.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004270–271_252-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMatthäus2004270–271-252">&#91;236&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The mass killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories were assigned to four SS formations called <i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i> ("task groups"), which were under Heydrich's overall command. Similar formations had been used to a limited extent in Poland in 1939, but the ones operating in the Soviet territories were much larger.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004224–225_253-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning2004224–225-253">&#91;237&#93;</a></sup> The <i>Einsatzgruppen</i><span class="nowrap" style="padding-left:0.1em;">&#39;s</span> commanders were ordinary citizens: the great majority were professionals and most were intellectuals.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003291_254-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg2003291-254">&#91;238&#93;</a></sup> By the winter of 1941–1942, the four <i>Einsatzgruppen</i> and their helpers had killed almost 500,000 people.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201067_255-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201067-255">&#91;239&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg/220px-Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg" decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg/330px-Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg/440px-Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg 2x" data-file-width="480" data-file-height="319" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Liepaja_December_1941_massacres_01.jpeg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Liep%C4%81ja_massacres" title="Liepāja massacres">mass murder of 2,749 Jews</a> on the beach near Liepāja, <a href="/wiki/Latvia" title="Latvia">Latvia</a>, 15–17 December 1941</div></div></div>
<p>The largest massacre of Jews by the mobile killing squads in the Soviet Union was at a ravine called <a href="/wiki/Babi_Yar" title="Babi Yar">Babi Yar</a> outside <a href="/wiki/Kiev" title="Kiev">Kiev</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016199–200_256-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016199–200-256">&#91;240&#93;</a></sup> where 33,771 Jews were killed in a single operation on 29–30 September 1941.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008226–227_257-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008226–227-257">&#91;241&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-259" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-259">&#91;q&#93;</a></sup> A mixture of SS and Security Police, assisted by Ukrainian police, carried out the killings.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002203_260-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMcKale2002203-260">&#91;243&#93;</a></sup> Although they did not actively participate in the killings, men of the German <a href="/wiki/6th_Army_(Wehrmacht)" title="6th Army (Wehrmacht)">6th Army</a> helped round up the Jews of Kiev and transport them to be shot.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011102–104_261-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011102–104-261">&#91;244&#93;</a></sup> By the end of the war, around two million are thought to have been victims of the <i>Einsatzgruppen</i> and their helpers in the local population and the German Army. Of those, about 1.3 million were Jews and up to a quarter of a million Roma.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016200_262-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016200-262">&#91;245&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Gas_vans">Gas vans</span></h3>
<p>As the mass shootings continued in Russia, the Germans began to search for new methods of mass murder. This was driven by a need to have a more efficient method than simply shooting millions of victims. Himmler also feared that the mass shootings were causing psychological problems in the SS. His concerns were shared by his subordinates in the field.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199842–43_263-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199842–43-263">&#91;246&#93;</a></sup> In December 1939 and January 1940, another method besides shooting was tried. Experimental <a href="/wiki/Gas_van" title="Gas van">gas vans</a> equipped with gas cylinders and a sealed compartment were used to kill the disabled and mentally-ill in <a href="/wiki/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%931945)" title="Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)">occupied Poland</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016160_264-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016160-264">&#91;247&#93;</a></sup> Similar vans, but using the exhaust fumes rather than bottled gas, were introduced to the <a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno extermination camp</a> in December 1941,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201674_265-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201674-265">&#91;248&#93;</a></sup> and some were used in the <a href="/wiki/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)" title="Eastern Front (World War II)">occupied Soviet Union</a>, for example in smaller clearing actions in the <a href="/wiki/Minsk_ghetto" class="mw-redirect" title="Minsk ghetto">Minsk ghetto</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016513_266-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016513-266">&#91;249&#93;</a></sup> They also were used for murder in Yugoslavia.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad2009138_267-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad2009138-267">&#91;250&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Final_Solution">Final Solution</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Wannsee_Conference">Wannsee Conference</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee Conference</a> and <a href="/wiki/Final_solution" class="mw-redirect" title="Final solution">Final solution</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG/220px-Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG/330px-Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG/440px-Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1200" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Wannsee_Conference_-_List_of_Jews_in_European_countries.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Copy of the <a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee Conference</a> minutes; this page lists the number of Jews in every European country.</div></div></div>
<p>SS-<i><a href="/wiki/Obergruppenf%C3%BChrer" title="Obergruppenführer">Obergruppenführer</a></i> <a href="/wiki/Reinhard_Heydrich" title="Reinhard Heydrich">Reinhard Heydrich</a>, head of the <a href="/wiki/Reich_Main_Security_Office" title="Reich Main Security Office">Reich Main Security Office</a> (<i>Reichssicherheitshauptamt</i> or RSHA), convened what became known as the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942 at a villa, am Grossen Wannsee No. 56/58, in Berlin's <a href="/wiki/Wannsee" title="Wannsee">Wannsee</a> suburb.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach1998759_268-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach1998759-268">&#91;251&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-protocol_269-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-protocol-269">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-USHMMWannsee_270-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMWannsee-270">&#91;253&#93;</a></sup> The meeting had been scheduled for 9 December 1941, and invitations had been sent on 29 November, but it had been postponed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach1998764_271-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach1998764-271">&#91;254&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Christian_Gerlach" title="Christian Gerlach">Christian Gerlach</a> argues that Hitler announced his decision to annihilate the Jews on or around 12 December 1941, probably on 12 December during a speech to Nazi Party leaders. This was one day after he <a href="/wiki/German_declaration_of_war_against_the_United_States_(1941)" class="mw-redirect" title="German declaration of war against the United States (1941)">declared war on the United States</a> and five days after the <a href="/wiki/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbour" class="mw-redirect" title="Attack on Pearl Harbour">attack on Pearl Harbour</a> by Japan. <a href="/wiki/Joseph_Goebbels" title="Joseph Goebbels">Joseph Goebbels</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Reich_Ministry_of_Public_Enlightenment_and_Propaganda" title="Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda">Reich Minister of Propaganda</a>, noted of Hitler's speech: "He warned the Jews that if they were to cause another world war, it would lead to their destruction.&#160;... Now the world war has come. The destruction of the Jews must be its necessary consequence."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201680_272-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201680-272">&#91;255&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-274" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-274">&#91;r&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The 15 men present at Wannsee included <a href="/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann" title="Adolf Eichmann">Adolf Eichmann</a> (head of Jewish affairs for the RSHA and the man who organized the deportation of Jews), <a href="/wiki/Heinrich_M%C3%BCller_(Gestapo)" title="Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)">Heinrich Müller</a> (head of the Gestapo), and other party leaders and department heads.<sup id="cite_ref-protocol_269-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-protocol-269">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup> Thirty copies of the minutes were made. Copy no.&#160;16 was found by American prosecutors in March 1947 in a German Foreign Office folder.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERoseman2003_275-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERoseman2003-275">&#91;257&#93;</a></sup> Written by Eichmann and stamped "Top Secret", the minutes were written in "euphemistic language" on Heydrich's instructions, according to Eichmann's later testimony.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010306_276-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010306-276">&#91;258&#93;</a></sup> The conference had several purposes. Discussing plans for a "<a href="/wiki/Final_solution" class="mw-redirect" title="Final solution">final solution to the Jewish question</a>" ("<i>Endlösung der Judenfrage</i>"), and a "final solution to the Jewish question in Europe" ("<i>Endlösung der europäischen Judenfrage</i>"),<sup id="cite_ref-protocol_269-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-protocol-269">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup> it was intended to share information and responsibility, coordinate efforts and policies ("<i>Parallelisierung der Linienführung</i>"), and ensure that authority rested with Heydrich. There was also discussion about whether to include the German <i>Mischlinge</i> (half-Jews).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201684–85_277-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201684–85-277">&#91;259&#93;</a></sup> Heydrich told the meeting: "Another possible solution of the problem has now taken the place of emigration, i.e. the evacuation of the Jews to the East, provided that the Fuehrer gives the appropriate approval in advance."<sup id="cite_ref-protocol_269-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-protocol-269">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup> He continued:
</p>
<blockquote><p>Under proper guidance, in the course of the final solution the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East. Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes.</p><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div><p> The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as the seed of a new Jewish revival (see the experience of history.) In the course of the practical execution of the final solution, Europe will be combed through from west to east. Germany proper, including the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, will have to be handled first due to the housing problem and additional social and political necessities. The evacuated Jews will first be sent, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, from which they will be transported to the East.<sup id="cite_ref-protocol_269-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-protocol-269">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<p>These evacuations were regarded as provisional or "temporary solutions" ("<i>Ausweichmöglichkeiten</i>").<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307_278-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307-278">&#91;260&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-280" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-280">&#91;s&#93;</a></sup> The final solution would encompass the 11<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>million Jews living not only in territories controlled by Germany, but elsewhere in Europe and adjacent territories, such as Britain, Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Hungary, "dependent on military developments".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307_278-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010307-278">&#91;260&#93;</a></sup> There was little doubt what the final solution was, writes <a href="/wiki/Peter_Longerich" title="Peter Longerich">Peter Longerich</a>: "the Jews were to be annihilated by a combination of forced labour and mass murder".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010308_281-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010308-281">&#91;262&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Extermination_camps.2C_gas_chambers"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Extermination_camps,_gas_chambers">Extermination camps, gas chambers</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:242px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg/240px-Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg" decoding="async" width="240" height="180" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg/360px-Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg/480px-Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="450" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Auschwitz-birkenau-main_track.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Entrance to Auschwitz II-Birkenau, an extermination camp</div></div></div>
<p>Killing on a mass scale using gas chambers or gas vans was the main difference between the <a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">extermination</a> and <a href="/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camps" title="Nazi concentration camps">concentration camps</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEJones2006153_282-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEJones2006153-282">&#91;263&#93;</a></sup> From the end of 1941, the Germans built six extermination camps in occupied Poland: <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz II-Birkenau</a>, <a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a>, <a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno</a>, and the three <a href="/wiki/Operation_Reinhard" title="Operation Reinhard">Operation Reinhard</a> camps at <a href="/wiki/Belzec_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Belzec extermination camp">Belzec</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sobibor_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Sobibor extermination camp">Sobibor</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka II</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-deathcamps_49-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-deathcamps-49">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-USHMMTreblinka_283-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMTreblinka-283">&#91;264&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-aktr_284-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-aktr-284">&#91;265&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Maly Trostenets extermination camp">Maly Trostenets</a>, a concentration camp in the <a href="/wiki/Reichskommissariat_Ostland" title="Reichskommissariat Ostland">Reichskommissariat Ostland</a>, became a killing centre in 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-deathcamps_49-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-deathcamps-49">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup> Gerlach writes that over three million Jews were murdered in 1942, the year that "marked the peak" of the mass murder of Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699_285-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699-285">&#91;266&#93;</a></sup> At least 1.4 million of these were in the General Government area of Poland.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699,_note_165_286-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699,_note_165-286">&#91;267&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Using gas vans, Chełmno had its roots in the <a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Aktion T4</a> euthanasia program.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201214–16,_64–65_287-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201214–16,_64–65-287">&#91;268&#93;</a></sup> Majdanek began as a POW camp, but in August 1942 it had gas chambers installed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201670–71_288-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201670–71-288">&#91;269&#93;</a></sup> A few other camps are occasionally named as extermination camps, but there is no scholarly agreement on the additional camps; commonly mentioned are <a href="/wiki/Mauthausen-Gusen_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp">Mauthausen</a> in Austria<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201057–58_289-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201057–58-289">&#91;270&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Stutthof" class="mw-redirect" title="Stutthof">Stutthof</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881_290-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881-290">&#91;271&#93;</a></sup> There may also have been plans for camps at Mogilev and Lvov.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282_291-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282-291">&#91;272&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG/220px-Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG" decoding="async" width="220" height="142" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG/330px-Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG/440px-Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG 2x" data-file-width="1257" data-file-height="814" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Auschwitz_Resistance_282_cropped.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>One of the <a href="/wiki/Sonderkommando_photographs" title="Sonderkommando photographs">Sonderkommando photographs</a> shows women being sent to the gas chamber, Auschwitz-Birkenau, August 1944.</div></div></div>
<p>Victims usually arrived at the camps by train.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–85_292-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–85-292">&#91;273&#93;</a></sup> Almost all arrivals at the Operation Reinhard camps of Treblinka, Sobibór, and Bełżec were sent directly to the gas chambers,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70_293-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70-293">&#91;274&#93;</a></sup> with individuals occasionally selected to replace dead workers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008243_294-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008243-294">&#91;275&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad198798_295-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad198798-295">&#91;276&#93;</a></sup> At Auschwitz, camp officials usually subjected individuals to selections;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–82_296-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–82-296">&#91;277&#93;</a></sup> about 25%<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1994156_297-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1994156-297">&#91;278&#93;</a></sup> of the new arrivals were selected to work.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–82_296-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–82-296">&#91;277&#93;</a></sup> Those selected for death at all camps were told to undress and hand their valuables to camp workers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003287–288_298-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003287–288-298">&#91;279&#93;</a></sup> They were then herded naked into the gas chambers. To prevent panic, they were told the gas chambers were showers or delousing chambers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b173_299-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b173-299">&#91;280&#93;</a></sup> The procedure at Chełmno was slightly different. Victims there were placed in a mobile gas van and asphyxiated, while being driven to prepared burial pits in the nearby forests. There the corpses were unloaded and buried.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201276–85_300-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201276–85-300">&#91;281&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<table class="wikitable" style="float:right; clear:right; text-align:right; margin-left:1.5em; font-size:90%">
<caption>Death figures in extermination camps
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th>Camp name</th>
<th>Killed</th>
<th>Ref
</th></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz II</a>
</th>
<td align="right">1,100,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvAuschwitz_301-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvAuschwitz-301">&#91;282&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp" title="Bełżec extermination camp">Bełżec</a>
</th>
<td align="right">600,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvBelzec_302-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvBelzec-302">&#91;283&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno</a>
</th>
<td align="right">320,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvChelmno_303-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvChelmno-303">&#91;284&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a>
</th>
<td align="right">78,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvMaj_304-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvMaj-304">&#91;285&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Maly Trostenets extermination camp">Maly Trostinets</a>
</th>
<td align="right">65,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvMaly_305-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvMaly-305">&#91;286&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp" title="Sobibór extermination camp">Sobibór</a>
</th>
<td align="right">250,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvSob_306-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvSob-306">&#91;287&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th align="left"><a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a>
</th>
<td align="right">870,000
</td>
<td style="text-align:center;"><sup id="cite_ref-yvTreb_307-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvTreb-307">&#91;288&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of <a href="/wiki/Zyklon-B" class="mw-redirect" title="Zyklon-B">Zyklon-B</a> were dropped into the chambers through vents,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162_308-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162-308">&#91;289&#93;</a></sup> releasing toxic prussic acid, or <a href="/wiki/Hydrogen_cyanide" title="Hydrogen cyanide">hydrogen cyanide</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157_309-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157-309">&#91;290&#93;</a></sup> Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to the commandant <a href="/wiki/Rudolf_H%C3%B6ss" title="Rudolf Höss">Rudolf Höss</a>, who estimated that about one-third of the victims died immediately.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170_310-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170-310">&#91;291&#93;</a></sup> Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: "Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163_311-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163-311">&#91;292&#93;</a></sup> The gas was then pumped out, the bodies were removed, gold fillings in their teeth were extracted, and women's hair was cut.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170–171_312-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b170–171-312">&#91;293&#93;</a></sup> The work was done by the <i><a href="/wiki/Sonderkommando" title="Sonderkommando">Sonderkommando</a>,</i> work groups of mostly Jewish prisoners.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b172_313-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b172-313">&#91;294&#93;</a></sup> At Auschwitz, the bodies were at first buried in deep pits and covered with lime, but between September and November 1942, on the orders of Himmler, they were dug up and burned. In early 1943, new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163–164_314-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b163–164-314">&#91;295&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>At the three Reinhard camps the victims were killed by the exhaust fumes of stationary diesel engines.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70_293-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70-293">&#91;274&#93;</a></sup> Gold fillings were pulled from the corpses before burial, but the women's hair was cut before death. At Treblinka, to calm the victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199883–84_315-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199883–84-315">&#91;296&#93;</a></sup> Majdanek used Zyklon-B gas in its gas chambers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199884–85_316-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199884–85-316">&#91;297&#93;</a></sup> In contrast to Auschwitz, the three Reinhard camps were quite small.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330_317-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330-317">&#91;298&#93;</a></sup> Most of the victims at these camps were buried in pits at first. Sobibór and Bełżec began exhuming and burning bodies in late 1942, to hide the evidence, as did Treblinka in March 1943. The bodies were burned in open fireplaces and the remaining bones crushed into powder.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987170–171_318-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987170–171-318">&#91;299&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Jewish_resistance">Jewish resistance</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe" title="Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe">Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Peter_Longerich" title="Peter Longerich">Peter Longerich</a> observes that in ghettos in Poland by the end of 1942, "there was practically no resistance".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010340–341_319-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010340–341-319">&#91;300&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Raul_Hilberg" title="Raul Hilberg">Raul Hilberg</a> accounts for this compliant attitude by evoking the <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Jews" title="Persecution of Jews">history of Jewish persecution</a>: as had been the case before, appealing to their oppressors and complying with orders might avoid inflaming the situation until the onslaught abated.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112–1128_320-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031112–1128-320">&#91;301&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-323" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-323">&#91;t&#93;</a></sup> Timothy Snyder notes that it was only during the three months after the deportations of July–September 1942 that agreement on the need for armed resistance was reached.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010283_324-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010283-324">&#91;304&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341_325-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010341-325">&#91;305&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/Captured_Hehalutz_fighters_photograph" title="Captured Hehalutz fighters photograph"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg/170px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="239" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg/255px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg/340px-Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2138" data-file-height="3000" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Stroop_Report_-_Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising_13.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Captured insurgents of the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising" title="Warsaw Ghetto Uprising">Warsaw Ghetto Uprising</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>Several groups were formed, such as the <a href="/wiki/Jewish_Combat_Organization" title="Jewish Combat Organization">Jewish Combat Organization</a> in the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto" title="Warsaw Ghetto">Warsaw Ghetto</a> and the <a href="/wiki/United_Partisan_Organization" class="mw-redirect" title="United Partisan Organization">United Partisan Organization</a> in Vilna.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201682–85_326-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201682–85-326">&#91;306&#93;</a></sup> Over 100 revolts and uprisings occurred in at least 19 ghettos and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. The best known is the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising" title="Warsaw Ghetto Uprising">Warsaw Ghetto Uprising</a> of 1943, when around 1,000 poorly armed Jewish fighters held the SS at bay for four weeks.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201683–84_327-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201683–84-327">&#91;307&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-333" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-333">&#91;v&#93;</a></sup> During a revolt in Treblinka on 2 August 1943, inmates killed five or six guards and set fire to camp buildings; several managed to escape.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987286,_293–294_334-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987286,_293–294-334">&#91;312&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199899_335-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199899-335">&#91;313&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In the <a href="/wiki/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_Uprising" class="mw-redirect" title="Białystok Ghetto Uprising">Białystok Ghetto</a> on 16 August 1943, Jewish insurgents revolted when the Germans announced mass deportations. The fighting lasted five days.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199895–96_336-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199895–96-336">&#91;314&#93;</a></sup> On 14 October 1943, Jews in Sobibór, including Jewish-Soviet prisoners of war, attempted an escape,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199898_337-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199898-337">&#91;315&#93;</a></sup> killing 11 SS officers and a couple of Ukrainian camp guards.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987337_338-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987337-338">&#91;316&#93;</a></sup> Around 300 prisoners escaped, but 100 were recaptured and shot.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987341_339-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987341-339">&#91;317&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199898_337-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199898-337">&#91;315&#93;</a></sup> In October 1944, Jewish members of the <i><a href="/wiki/Sonderkommando" title="Sonderkommando">Sonderkommando</a></i> at Auschwitz attacked their guards and blew up Crematorium IV with explosives that had been smuggled in. Three German guards were killed, one of whom was stuffed into an oven. The <i>Sonderkommando</i> attempted a mass breakout, but all were killed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERees2005256–257_340-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERees2005256–257-340">&#91;318&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Estimates of Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from 20,000 to 100,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKennedy2007780_341-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKennedy2007780-341">&#91;319&#93;</a></sup> In the occupied Polish and Soviet territories, thousands of Jews fled into the swamps or forests and joined the partisans,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100–101_342-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100–101-342">&#91;320&#93;</a></sup> although the partisan movements did not always welcome them.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016648_343-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016648-343">&#91;321&#93;</a></sup> An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 joined the <a href="/wiki/Soviet_partisans" title="Soviet partisans">Soviet partisan</a> movement.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTETec2001546_344-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTETec2001546-344">&#91;322&#93;</a></sup> One of the famous Jewish groups was the <a href="/wiki/Bielski_partisans" title="Bielski partisans">Bielski partisans</a> in Belarus, led by the Bielski brothers.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100–101_342-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel1998100–101-342">&#91;320&#93;</a></sup> Jews also joined Polish forces, including the <a href="/wiki/Armia_Krajowa" class="mw-redirect" title="Armia Krajowa">Home Army</a>. According to Timothy Snyder, "more Jews fought in the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Uprising" title="Warsaw Uprising">Warsaw Uprising</a> of August 1944 than in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April 1943".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010302_345-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010302-345">&#91;323&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-351" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-351">&#91;w&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Flow_of_information_about_the_mass_murder">Flow of information about the mass murder</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/The_New_York_Times#World_War_II" title="The New York Times">The New York Times §&#160;World War II</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/The_Black_Book_of_Polish_Jewry" title="The Black Book of Polish Jewry">The Black Book of Polish Jewry</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Polish_White_Book" title="The Polish White Book">The Polish White Book</a>, <a href="/wiki/The_Black_Book_of_Poland" title="The Black Book of Poland">The Black Book of Poland</a>, <a href="/wiki/Raczy%C5%84ski%27s_Note" title="Raczyński&#39;s Note">Raczyński's Note</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Witold%27s_Report" title="Witold&#39;s Report">Witold's Report</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf/page1-170px-The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="254" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf/page1-255px-The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf/page1-340px-The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf.jpg 2x" data-file-width="856" data-file-height="1281" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied.pdf" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><i><a href="/wiki/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied_Poland" title="The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland">The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland</a></i> by the <a href="/wiki/Polish_government-in-exile" title="Polish government-in-exile">Polish government-in-exile</a>, addressed to the <a href="/wiki/Declaration_by_United_Nations" title="Declaration by United Nations">United Nations</a>, 10 December 1942</div></div></div>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Polish_government-in-exile" title="Polish government-in-exile">Polish government-in-exile</a> in London learned about the extermination camps from the Polish leadership in Warsaw, who from 1940 "received a continual flow of information about Auschwitz", according to historian <a href="/wiki/Michael_Fleming_(historian)" title="Michael Fleming (historian)">Michael Fleming</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35_352-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35-352">&#91;329&#93;</a></sup> On 6 January 1942, the Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, <a href="/wiki/Vyacheslav_Molotov" title="Vyacheslav Molotov">Vyacheslav Molotov</a>, sent out diplomatic notes about German atrocities. The notes were based on reports about bodies surfacing from poorly covered graves in pits and quarries, as well as mass graves found in areas the <a href="/wiki/Red_Army" title="Red Army">Red Army</a> had liberated, and on witness reports from German-occupied areas.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESpector1990158_353-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESpector1990158-353">&#91;330&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Escapes from the camps were few, but not unknown.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015532–533_354-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015532–533-354">&#91;331&#93;</a></sup> In February 1942, <a href="/wiki/Szlama_Ber_Winer" title="Szlama Ber Winer">Szlama Ber Winer</a> escaped from the Chełmno concentration camp in Poland, and passed detailed information about it to the <a href="/wiki/Oyneg_Shabbos_(group)" class="mw-redirect" title="Oyneg Shabbos (group)">Oneg Shabbat</a> group in the Warsaw Ghetto. His report, known by his pseudonym as the <a href="/wiki/Grojanowski_Report" title="Grojanowski Report">Grojanowski Report</a>, had reached London by June 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-yvChelmno_303-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvChelmno-303">&#91;284&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-355" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-355">&#91;332&#93;</a></sup> Also in 1942, <a href="/wiki/Jan_Karski" title="Jan Karski">Jan Karski</a> reported to the Allies on the plight of Jews after being smuggled into the Warsaw Ghetto twice.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008354_356-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008354-356">&#91;333&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000183_357-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000183-357">&#91;334&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-359" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-359">&#91;x&#93;</a></sup> On 27 April 1942, <a href="/wiki/Vyacheslav_Molotov" title="Vyacheslav Molotov">Vyacheslav Molotov</a> sent out another note about atrocities.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESpector1990158_353-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESpector1990158-353">&#91;330&#93;</a></sup> In late July or early August 1942, Polish leaders learned about the mass killings taking place inside Auschwitz. The Polish Interior Ministry prepared a report, <i>Sprawozdanie 6/42</i>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35_352-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35-352">&#91;329&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming2014b144_360-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming2014b144-360">&#91;336&#93;</a></sup> which said at the end:
</p>
<blockquote><p>There are different methods of execution. People are shot by firing squads, killed by an "air hammer", and poisoned by gas in special gas chambers. Prisoners condemned to death by the Gestapo are murdered by the first two methods. The third method, the gas chamber, is employed for those who are ill or incapable of work and those who have been brought in transports especially for the purpose/Soviet prisoners of war, and, recently Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35_352-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35-352">&#91;329&#93;</a></sup></p></blockquote>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:The_Black_Book_of_Poland_(21%E2%80%9324).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/The_Black_Book_of_Poland_%2821%E2%80%9324%29.jpg/220px-The_Black_Book_of_Poland_%2821%E2%80%9324%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/The_Black_Book_of_Poland_%2821%E2%80%9324%29.jpg/330px-The_Black_Book_of_Poland_%2821%E2%80%9324%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/The_Black_Book_of_Poland_%2821%E2%80%9324%29.jpg/440px-The_Black_Book_of_Poland_%2821%E2%80%9324%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1027" data-file-height="768" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:The_Black_Book_of_Poland_(21%E2%80%9324).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Photos from <i><a href="/wiki/The_Black_Book_of_Poland" title="The Black Book of Poland">The Black Book of Poland</a></i>, published in London in 1942 by the <a href="/wiki/Polish_government-in-exile" title="Polish government-in-exile">Polish government-in-exile</a></div></div></div>
<p>The report was sent to Polish officials in London by courier and had reached them by 12 November 1942, when it was translated into English and added to another report, "Report on Conditions in Poland". Dated 27 November, this was forwarded to the Polish Embassy in the United States.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35–36_361-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFleming2014a35–36-361">&#91;337&#93;</a></sup> On 10 December 1942, the Polish Foreign Affairs Minister, <a href="/wiki/Edward_Bernard_Raczy%C5%84ski" title="Edward Bernard Raczyński">Edward Raczyński</a>, addressed the <a href="/wiki/Declaration_by_United_Nations" title="Declaration by United Nations">fledgling United Nations</a> on the killings; the address was distributed with the title <i><a href="/wiki/The_Mass_Extermination_of_Jews_in_German_Occupied_Poland" title="The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland">The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland</a></i>. He told them about the use of poison gas; about Treblinka, Bełżec and Sobibor; that the Polish underground had referred to them as extermination camps; and that tens of thousands of Jews had been killed in Bełżec in March and April 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZimmerman2015181_362-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZimmerman2015181-362">&#91;338&#93;</a></sup> One in three Jews in Poland were already dead, he estimated, from a population of 3,130,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZimmerman2015181–182_363-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZimmerman2015181–182-363">&#91;339&#93;</a></sup> Raczyński's address was covered by the <i>New York Times</i> and <i>The Times</i> of London. <a href="/wiki/Winston_Churchill" title="Winston Churchill">Winston Churchill</a> received it, and <a href="/wiki/Anthony_Eden" title="Anthony Eden">Anthony Eden</a> presented it to the British cabinet. On 17 December 1942, 11 Allies issued the <a href="/wiki/Joint_Declaration_by_Members_of_the_United_Nations" title="Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations">Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations</a> condemning the "bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZimmerman2015182_364-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZimmerman2015182-364">&#91;340&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-365" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-365">&#91;341&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The British and American governments were reluctant to publicize the intelligence they had received. Although the information was felt to be correct, the stories were so extreme that they feared the public would discount them as exaggerations and that the credibility of both governments would be undermined.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENovick200023_366-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENovick200023-366">&#91;342&#93;</a></sup> A BBC Hungarian Service memo, written by <a href="/wiki/Carlile_Aylmer_Macartney" title="Carlile Aylmer Macartney">Carlile Macartney</a>, a BBC broadcaster and senior Foreign Office adviser on Hungary, stated in 1942: "We shouldn't mention the Jews at all." The British government's view was that the Hungarian people's antisemitism would make them distrust the Allies if Allied broadcasts focused on the Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-367" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-367">&#91;343&#93;</a></sup> The US government also hesitated to emphasize the atrocities for fear of turning the war into a war about the Jews. Antisemitism and isolationism were common in the US before its entry into the war, and the government wanted to avoid too great a focus on Jewish suffering to keep isolationism from gaining ground.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENovick200027–28_368-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENovick200027–28-368">&#91;344&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Climax.2C_Holocaust_in_Hungary"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Climax,_Holocaust_in_Hungary">Climax, Holocaust in Hungary</span></h3>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r856303569"/><div class="thumb tmulti tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:224px;max-width:224px"><div class="tsingle" style="margin:1px;width:222px;max-width:222px"><div class="thumbimage"><a href="/wiki/File:May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg/220px-May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="156" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg/330px-May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg/440px-May_1944_-_Jews_from_Carpathian_Ruthenia_arrive_at_Auschwitz-Birkenau.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1687" data-file-height="1200" /></a></div><div class="thumbcaption" style="clear:left">Jews from <a href="/wiki/Carpathian_Ruthenia" title="Carpathian Ruthenia">Carpathian Ruthenia</a> arriving at Auschwitz, May 1944</div></div><div class="tsingle" style="margin:1px;width:222px;max-width:222px"><div class="thumbimage"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318,_KZ_Auschwitz,_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="167" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-N0827-318%2C_KZ_Auschwitz%2C_Ankunft_ungarischer_Juden.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2253" data-file-height="1707" /></a></div><div class="thumbcaption" style="clear:left">Jews from Hungary arriving at Auschwitz, summer 1944</div></div></div></div>
<p>Most of the Jewish ghettos of <a href="/wiki/General_Government" title="General Government">General Government</a> were liquidated in 1942–1943, and their populations shipped to the camps for extermination.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256–257_369-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256–257-369">&#91;345&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330–339,_375–379_370-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010330–339,_375–379-370">&#91;346&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-371" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-371">&#91;y&#93;</a></sup> About 42,000 Jews were shot during the <a href="/wiki/Operation_Harvest_Festival" class="mw-redirect" title="Operation Harvest Festival">Operation Harvest Festival</a> on 3–4 November 1943.<sup id="cite_ref-372" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-372">&#91;347&#93;</a></sup> At the same time, rail shipments arrived regularly from western and southern Europe at the extermination camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010360–373,_386–389,_390–396_373-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010360–373,_386–389,_390–396-373">&#91;348&#93;</a></sup> Few Jews were shipped from the occupied Soviet territories to the camps: the killing of Jews in this zone was mostly left in the hands of the SS, aided by locally recruited auxiliaries.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010345–353_374-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010345–353-374">&#91;349&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-376" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-376">&#91;z&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Shipments of Jews to the camps had priority over anything but the army's needs on the German railways, and continued even in the face of the increasingly dire military situation at the end of 1942.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEYahil1990376–378_377-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEYahil1990376–378-377">&#91;351&#93;</a></sup> Army leaders and economic managers complained about this diversion of resources and the killing of skilled Jewish workers,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKwiet200461,_69–71,_76–77_378-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKwiet200461,_69–71,_76–77-378">&#91;352&#93;</a></sup> but Nazi leaders rated ideological imperatives above economic considerations.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKwiet200477–78_379-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKwiet200477–78-379">&#91;353&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>By 1943 it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischer1998536–538_380-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischer1998536–538-380">&#91;354&#93;</a></sup> The mass murder continued nevertheless, reaching a "frenetic" pace in 1944.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016108_381-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016108-381">&#91;355&#93;</a></sup> Auschwitz was gassing up to 6,000 Jews a day by spring that year.<sup id="cite_ref-382" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-382">&#91;356&#93;</a></sup> On 19 March 1944, Hitler ordered the <a href="/wiki/Operation_Margarethe" title="Operation Margarethe">military occupation of Hungary</a> and dispatched Eichmann to Budapest to supervise the deportation of the country's Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200295_383-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200295-383">&#91;357&#93;</a></sup> From 22 March, Jews were required to wear the yellow star; forbidden from owning cars, bicycles, radios or telephones; then forced into ghettos.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBraham201145_384-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBraham201145-384">&#91;358&#93;</a></sup> From 15 May to 9 July, 440,000 Jews were deported from Hungary to Auschwitz-Birkenau, almost all to the gas chambers.<sup id="cite_ref-387" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-387">&#91;aa&#93;</a></sup> A month before the deportations began, Eichmann offered to exchange one million Jews for 10,000 trucks and other goods from the Allies, the so-called "<a href="/wiki/Joel_Brand" title="Joel Brand">blood for goods</a>" proposal.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201031,_76–77_388-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201031,_76–77-388">&#91;361&#93;</a></sup> <i>The Times</i> called it "a new level of fantasy and self-deception".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELöb200969_389-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELöb200969-389">&#91;362&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Death_marches">Death marches</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Death_marches_(Holocaust)" title="Death marches (Holocaust)">Death marches (Holocaust)</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg/220px-Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg" decoding="async" width="220" height="170" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg/330px-Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg/440px-Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg 2x" data-file-width="1550" data-file-height="1200" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Dachau_Death_Train.jpeg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Bodies of 2,000–3,000 prisoners evacuated from <a href="/wiki/Buchenwald" class="mw-redirect" title="Buchenwald">Buchenwald</a> in 40 sealed boxcars on 7 April 1945, arriving at <a href="/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp" title="Dachau concentration camp">Dachau</a> on 28 April</div></div></div>
<p>By mid-1944 those Jewish communities within easy reach of the Nazi regime had been largely exterminated,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107–109_390-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107–109-390">&#91;363&#93;</a></sup> in proportions ranging from about 25 percent in France<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219_391-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219-391">&#91;364&#93;</a></sup> to more than 90 percent in Poland.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_392-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488-392">&#91;365&#93;</a></sup> On 5 May Himmler claimed in a speech that "the Jewish question has in general been solved in Germany and in the countries occupied by Germany".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695_393-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695-393">&#91;366&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the camps in eastern Poland were closed down, with surviving inmates shipped to camps closer to Germany.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016290–292_394-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016290–292-394">&#91;367&#93;</a></sup> Efforts were made to conceal evidence of what had happened. The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and the corpses cremated.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410–412_395-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410–412-395">&#91;368&#93;</a></sup> Local commanders continued to kill Jews, and to shuttle them from camp to camp by forced "death marches".<sup id="cite_ref-MapUSHMM_396-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MapUSHMM-396">&#91;369&#93;</a></sup> Already sick after months or years of violence and starvation, some were marched to train stations and transported for days at a time without food or shelter in open freight cars, then forced to march again at the other end to the new camp. Others were marched the entire distance to the new camp. Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. Around 250,000 Jews died during these marches.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007648–650_397-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007648–650-397">&#91;370&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Liberation">Liberation</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_Berlin" title="Battle of Berlin">Battle of Berlin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Death_of_Adolf_Hitler" title="Death of Adolf Hitler">Death of Adolf Hitler</a>, <a href="/wiki/Prague_Offensive" title="Prague Offensive">Prague Offensive</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Victory_in_Europe_Day" title="Victory in Europe Day">Victory in Europe Day</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg/220px-Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="220" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg/330px-Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg/440px-Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1767" data-file-height="1766" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Mass_Grave_at_Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp_-_Fritz_Klein_-_IWM_BU4260.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Fritz Klein, the camp doctor, standing in a mass grave at <a href="/wiki/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp" title="Bergen-Belsen concentration camp">Bergen-Belsen</a> after the camp's liberation by the British <a href="/wiki/11th_Armoured_Division_(United_Kingdom)" title="11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)">11th Armoured Division</a>, April 1945</div></div></div>
<p>The first major camp to be encountered by Allied troops, <a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a>, was discovered by the advancing Soviets on 25 July 1944.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165_398-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165-398">&#91;371&#93;</a></sup> Treblinka, Sobibór, and Bełżec were never liberated, but were destroyed by the Germans in 1943.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411_399-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411-399">&#91;372&#93;</a></sup> Auschwitz was liberated, also by the Soviets, on 27 January 1945;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283_400-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283-400">&#91;373&#93;</a></sup> Buchenwald by the Americans on 11 April;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297_401-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297-401">&#91;374&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp" title="Bergen-Belsen concentration camp">Bergen-Belsen</a> by the British on 15 April;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340_402-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340-402">&#91;375&#93;</a></sup> Dachau by the Americans on 29 April;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798_403-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798-403">&#91;376&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp" title="Ravensbrück concentration camp">Ravensbrück</a> by the Soviets on 30 April;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577_404-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577-404">&#91;377&#93;</a></sup> and Mauthausen by the Americans on 5 May.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808–809_405-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808–809-405">&#91;378&#93;</a></sup> The Red Cross took control of <a href="/wiki/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Theresienstadt concentration camp">Theresienstadt</a> on 4 May, days before the Soviets arrived.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810_406-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810-406">&#91;379&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762_407-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762-407">&#91;380&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The Soviets found 7,600 inmates in Auschwitz.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289_408-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289-408">&#91;381&#93;</a></sup> Some 60,000 prisoners were discovered at Bergen-Belsen by the British <a href="/wiki/11th_Armoured_Division_(United_Kingdom)" title="11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)">11th Armoured Division</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-11thUSHMM_409-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11thUSHMM-409">&#91;382&#93;</a></sup> 13,000 corpses lay unburied, and another 10,000 people died from <a href="/wiki/Typhus" title="Typhus">typhus</a> or malnutrition over the following weeks.<sup id="cite_ref-BBUSHMM_410-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBUSHMM-410">&#91;383&#93;</a></sup> The BBC's war correspondent, <a href="/wiki/Richard_Dimbleby" title="Richard Dimbleby">Richard Dimbleby</a>, described the scenes that greeted him and the British Army at Belsen, in a report so graphic that the BBC declined to broadcast it for four days and did so, on 19 April, only after Dimbleby had threatened to resign:<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBell2017100_411-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBell2017100-411">&#91;384&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r856303468">.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}</style><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which.&#160;... The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them&#160;... Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live.&#160;... A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms.&#160;... He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days. This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life.</p><div class="templatequotecite">—&#8201;<cite>Richard Dimbleby, 15 April 1945<sup id="cite_ref-412" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-412">&#91;385&#93;</a></sup></cite></div>
</blockquote>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Victims_and_death_toll">Victims and death toll</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Overview">Overview</span></h3>
<table class="wikitable" style="float:right; width:20%; margin-left:0; margin-right:1.5em; font-size:90%;">

<tbody><tr>
<th>Victims</th>
<th>Estimated Killed</th>
<th>Source
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>Jews
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">5.9&#160;million</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">Hayes<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii_413-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii-413">&#91;386&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Soviet civilians (including 1.3 million Soviet Jews)
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">7&#160;million</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">USHMM<sup id="cite_ref-ushmm1_414-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ushmm1-414">&#91;387&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Soviet POWs
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">2–3&#160;million</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">Berenbaum<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_415-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125-415">&#91;388&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Ethnic Poles
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">1.8–1.9&#160;million</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">Piotrowski<sup id="cite_ref-PolishVictims_416-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PolishVictims-416">&#91;389&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Roma
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">196,000–220,000</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">USHMM<sup id="cite_ref-ushmm1_414-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ushmm1-414">&#91;387&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Disabled
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">Up to 250,000</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">USHMM<sup id="cite_ref-ushmm1_414-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ushmm1-414">&#91;387&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><span class="nowrap">Jehovah's Witnesses</span>
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">1,400–2,500</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">USHMM<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMJW_417-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMJW-417">&#91;390&#93;</a></sup> Milton<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_418-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-418">&#91;391&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Gay men
</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">Unknown</td>
<td style="text-align:left;">USHMM<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMgays_419-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMgays-419">&#91;392&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Holocaust_victims" title="Holocaust victims">Holocaust victims</a></div>
<p>Most historians define the Holocaust as the German genocide of the European Jews, carried out between 1941 and 1945.<sup id="cite_ref-definition_3-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-definition-3">&#91;a&#93;</a></sup> Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, writing in <i>The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust</i> (2000), favour a definition that focuses on the Jews, <a href="/wiki/Romani_genocide" title="Romani genocide">Roma</a> and handicapped (<a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Aktion T4</a> victims), because they were targets of Nazi efforts to destroy entire groups based on heredity.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052_9-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052-9">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The broadest definition of the Holocaust would include ethnic Poles, Soviet citizens, Soviet prisoners of war, gay men, and political opponents, and would raise the death toll to 17&#160;million.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045_420-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200045-420">&#91;393&#93;</a></sup> A research project started in 2000, led by <a href="/wiki/Geoffrey_Megargee" class="mw-redirect" title="Geoffrey Megargee">Geoffrey Megargee</a> and <a href="/wiki/Martin_C._Dean" title="Martin C. Dean">Martin Dean</a> for the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>, estimated in 2013 that 15–20 million people had died or been imprisoned in the sites they have identified to date.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013_421-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELichtblau2013-421">&#91;394&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Jews">Jews</span></h3>
<table class="sortable wikitable" style="float:right; clear:right; text-align:right; margin-left:1.5em; font-size:90%">
<caption>Figures in <a href="/wiki/Peter_Hayes_(historian)" title="Peter Hayes (historian)">Peter Hayes</a> (2015), based on <a href="/wiki/Wolfgang_Benz" title="Wolfgang Benz">Wolfgang Benz</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jean_Ancel" title="Jean Ancel">Jean Ancel</a> and <a href="/wiki/Yitzak_Arad" class="mw-redirect" title="Yitzak Arad">Yitzak Arad</a><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii_413-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii-413">&#91;386&#93;</a></sup>
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th>Country <br /> (1945)</th>
<th>Death toll of Jews
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Albania</td>
<td>591
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Austria</td>
<td>65,459
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Baltic states</td>
<td>272,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Belgium</td>
<td>28,518
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Bulgaria</td>
<td>11,393
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Croatia</td>
<td>32,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Czechoslovakia</td>
<td>143,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Denmark</td>
<td>116
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">France</td>
<td>76,134
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Germany</td>
<td>165,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Greece</td>
<td>59,195
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Hungary</td>
<td>502,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Italy</td>
<td>6,513
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Luxembourg</td>
<td>1,200
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Netherlands</td>
<td>102,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Norway</td>
<td>758
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Poland</td>
<td>2,100,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Romania</td>
<td>220,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left">Serbia</td>
<td>10,700
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left"><span class="nowrap">Soviet Union</span></td>
<td>2,100,000
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td align="left"><b>Total</b></td>
<td><b>5,896,577</b>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>According to the <a href="/wiki/Yad_Vashem" title="Yad Vashem">Yad Vashem</a> Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, "[a]ll the serious research" confirms that between five and six million Jews died.<sup id="cite_ref-YadVashemnumbers_422-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-YadVashemnumbers-422">&#91;395&#93;</a></sup> Early postwar calculations were 4.2 to 4.5&#160;million from <a href="/wiki/Gerald_Reitlinger" title="Gerald Reitlinger">Gerald Reitlinger</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMichman2012197_423-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMichman2012197-423">&#91;396&#93;</a></sup> 5.1&#160;million from <a href="/wiki/Raul_Hilberg" title="Raul Hilberg">Raul Hilberg</a>; and 5.95&#160;million from <a href="/wiki/Jacob_Lestschinsky" title="Jacob Lestschinsky">Jacob Lestschinsky</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797_424-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901797-424">&#91;397&#93;</a></sup> In 1986 <a href="/wiki/Lucy_Dawidowicz" title="Lucy Dawidowicz">Lucy S. Dawidowicz</a> used the pre-war census figures to estimate 5.934&#160;million.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_425-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403-425">&#91;398&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Yehuda_Bauer" title="Yehuda Bauer">Yehuda Bauer</a> and Robert Rozett in the <i><a href="/wiki/Encyclopedia_of_the_Holocaust" title="Encyclopedia of the Holocaust">Encyclopedia of the Holocaust</a></i> (1990) estimate 5.59–5.86&#160;million.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799_426-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799-426">&#91;399&#93;</a></sup> A 1996 study led by <a href="/wiki/Wolfgang_Benz" title="Wolfgang Benz">Wolfgang Benz</a> suggested 5.29 to 6.2&#160;million, based on comparing pre- and post-war census records and surviving German documentation on deportations and killings.<sup id="cite_ref-YadVashemnumbers_422-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-YadVashemnumbers-422">&#91;395&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Martin_Gilbert" title="Martin Gilbert">Martin Gilbert</a> arrived at a minimum of 5.75&#160;million.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001245_427-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001245-427">&#91;400&#93;</a></sup> The figures include over one million children.<sup id="cite_ref-428" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-428">&#91;401&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The Jews killed represented around one third of the world population of Jews,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291_429-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert2001291-429">&#91;402&#93;</a></sup> and about two-thirds of European Jewry, based on an estimate of 9.7 million Jews in Europe at the start of the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199887_430-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199887-430">&#91;403&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799_426-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799-426">&#91;399&#93;</a></sup> Much of the uncertainty stems from the lack of a reliable figure for the number of Jews in Europe in 1939, numerous border changes that make avoiding double-counting of victims difficult, lack of accurate records from the perpetrators, and uncertainty about whether deaths occurring months after liberation, but caused by the persecution, should be counted.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMichman2012197_423-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMichman2012197-423">&#91;396&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Almost all Jews within areas occupied by the Germans were killed. There were 3,020,000 Jews in the Soviet Union in 1939, and the losses were 1–1.1 million.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799–1802_431-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauerRozett19901799–1802-431">&#91;404&#93;</a></sup> Around one million Jews were killed by the <i>Einsatzgruppen</i> in the occupied Soviet territories.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000221–222_432-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000221–222-432">&#91;405&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERhodes2002274_433-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERhodes2002274-433">&#91;406&#93;</a></sup> Of Poland's 3.3&#160;million Jews, about 90 percent were killed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_392-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488-392">&#91;365&#93;</a></sup> Many more died in the ghettos of Poland before they could be deported.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201629–31_434-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201629–31-434">&#91;407&#93;</a></sup> The death camps accounted for half the number of Jews killed; 80–90 percent of death-camp victims are estimated to have been Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403_425-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986403-425">&#91;398&#93;</a></sup> At <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz-Birkenau</a> the Jewish death toll was 1.1 million;<sup id="cite_ref-yvAuschwitz_301-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvAuschwitz-301">&#91;282&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998a62_435-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998a62-435">&#91;408&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a> 870,000–925,000;<sup id="cite_ref-436" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-436">&#91;409&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp" title="Bełżec extermination camp">Bełżec</a> 434,000–600,000;<sup id="cite_ref-437" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-437">&#91;410&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-yvBelzec_302-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvBelzec-302">&#91;283&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno</a> 152,000–320,000;<sup id="cite_ref-438" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-438">&#91;411&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-yvChelmno_303-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvChelmno-303">&#91;284&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp" title="Sobibór extermination camp">Sobibór</a> 170,000–250,000;<sup id="cite_ref-439" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-439">&#91;412&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-yvSob_306-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvSob-306">&#91;287&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a> 79,000.<sup id="cite_ref-yvMaj_304-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-yvMaj-304">&#91;285&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Roma">Roma</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Porajmos" class="mw-redirect" title="Porajmos">Porajmos</a> and <a href="/wiki/Antiziganism" title="Antiziganism">Antiziganism</a></div>
<p>Because the <a href="/wiki/Romani_people" title="Romani people">Roma</a> are traditionally a private people with a culture based on <a href="/wiki/Oral_history" title="Oral history">oral history</a>, less is known about their experience during the Holocaust than that of any other group.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047_440-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047-440">&#91;413&#93;</a></sup> Bauer writes that this can be attributed to the Roma's distrust and suspicion, and to their humiliation because some of the taboos in Romani culture regarding hygiene and sex were violated at Auschwitz.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998453_441-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998453-441">&#91;414&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The Roma were subject to discrimination under the Nuremberg racial laws.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich201050_442-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich201050-442">&#91;415&#93;</a></sup> The Germans saw them as hereditary criminals and "asocials", and this was reflected in their classification in the concentration camps, where they were usually counted among the asocials and given black triangles to wear.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015378–379_443-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2015378–379-443">&#91;416&#93;</a></sup> According to Niewyk and Nicosia, at least 130,000 died, out of nearly one million in German-occupied Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047_440-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200047-440">&#91;413&#93;</a></sup> The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum calculates at least 220,000.<sup id="cite_ref-RomaUSHMM_444-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RomaUSHMM-444">&#91;417&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Ian_Hancock" title="Ian Hancock">Ian Hancock</a>, who specializes in Romani history and culture, argues for between 500,000 and 1,500,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383–96_445-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHancock2004383–96-445">&#91;418&#93;</a></sup> The Roma refer to the genocide as the <i><a href="/wiki/Porajmos" class="mw-redirect" title="Porajmos">Pořajmos</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHuttenbach201631_446-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHuttenbach201631-446">&#91;419&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:242px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48,_Asperg,_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48%2C_Asperg%2C_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg/240px-Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48%2C_Asperg%2C_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg" decoding="async" width="240" height="155" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48%2C_Asperg%2C_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg/360px-Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48%2C_Asperg%2C_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48%2C_Asperg%2C_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg/480px-Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48%2C_Asperg%2C_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg 2x" data-file-width="800" data-file-height="517" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_R_165_Bild-244-48,_Asperg,_Deportation_von_Sinti_und_Roma.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Roma waiting to be deported from <a href="/wiki/Asperg" title="Asperg">Asperg</a>, Germany, 22 May 1940</div></div></div>
<p>The treatment of the Roma was not consistent across German-occupied territories, with those in France and the <a href="/wiki/Low_Countries" title="Low Countries">Low Countries</a> subject to restrictions on movement and some confinement to collection camps. Those in Central and Eastern Europe were sent to concentration camps and murdered by soldiers and execution squads.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418–421_447-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418–421-447">&#91;420&#93;</a></sup> Before being sent to the camps, they were herded into ghettos, including several hundred into the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto" title="Warsaw Ghetto">Warsaw Ghetto</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMDepoWar_233-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMDepoWar-233">&#91;219&#93;</a></sup> Further east, teams of <i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i> tracked down Romani encampments and murdered the inhabitants on the spot, leaving no records of the victims. They were also targeted by allies of the Germans, such as the <a href="/wiki/Usta%C5%A1e" class="mw-redirect" title="Ustaše">Ustaše</a> regime in Croatia, where a large number were killed in the <a href="/wiki/Jasenovac_concentration_camp" title="Jasenovac concentration camp">Jasenovac concentration camp</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418–421_447-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010418–421-447">&#91;420&#93;</a></sup> the total killed in Croatia numbered around 28,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009119_448-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009119-448">&#91;421&#93;</a></sup> After the Germans occupied Hungary, 1,000 Roma were deported to Auschwitz.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009114_449-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009114-449">&#91;422&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In May 1942, the Roma were placed under similar laws to the Jews. On 16 December 1942, Heinrich Himmler issued a decree that "Gypsy Mischlinge [mixed breeds], Roma Gypsies, and members of the clans of Balkan origins who are not of German blood" should be sent to Auschwitz, unless they had served in the <i><a href="/wiki/Wehrmacht" title="Wehrmacht">Wehrmacht</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444_450-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998444-450">&#91;423&#93;</a></sup> This was adjusted on 15 November 1943, when Himmler ordered that, in the occupied Soviet areas, "sedentary Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be treated as citizens of the country. Nomadic Gypsies and part-Gypsies are to be placed on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998445_451-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998445-451">&#91;424&#93;</a></sup> Bauer argues that this adjustment reflected Nazi ideology that the Roma, originally an Aryan population, had been "spoiled" by non-Romani blood.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1998446_452-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1998446-452">&#91;425&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Slavs">Slavs</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Generalplan_Ost" title="Generalplan Ost">Generalplan Ost</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hunger_Plan" title="Hunger Plan">Hunger Plan</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg/220px-Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="98" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg/330px-Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg/440px-Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1500" data-file-height="665" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Czeslawa_Kwoka_-_Brasse.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Czes%C5%82awa_Kwoka" title="Czesława Kwoka">Czesława Kwoka</a>, one of many <a href="/wiki/Poles" title="Poles">Polish</a> children murdered in Auschwitz by the Nazis</div></div></div>
<p>The Nazis considered the <a href="/wiki/Slav" class="mw-redirect" title="Slav">Slavs</a> as subhuman, or <i><a href="/wiki/Untermenschen" class="mw-redirect" title="Untermenschen">Untermenschen</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008174–175_453-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008174–175-453">&#91;426&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976359_454-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976359-454">&#91;427&#93;</a></sup> In a secret memorandum dated 25 May 1940, Heinrich Himmler stated that it was in German interests to foster divisions between the ethnic groups in the East. He also wanted to restrict non-Germans in the conquered territories to schools that would only teach them how to write their own name, count up to 500, and obey Germans.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012450–452_455-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012450–452-455">&#91;428&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz201123_456-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz201123-456">&#91;429&#93;</a></sup> Himmler's <i><a href="/wiki/Generalplan_Ost" title="Generalplan Ost">Generalplan Ost</a></i> (General Plan East), agreed to by Hitler in the summer of 1942,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMazower2008204-205_457-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMazower2008204-205-457">&#91;430&#93;</a></sup> involved exterminating, expelling, or enslaving all or most Slavs from their lands over a period of 20–30 years, to make <a href="/wiki/Lebensraum" title="Lebensraum">living space</a> for Germans.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMazower2008208–211_458-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMazower2008208–211-458">&#91;431&#93;</a></sup> In 1992, <a href="/wiki/Rudolph_Rummel" title="Rudolph Rummel">Rudolph Rummel</a> estimated the number of Slavs murdered by the Germans to be 10,547,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERummel199218_459-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERummel199218-459">&#91;432&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Ethnic_Poles">Ethnic Poles</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation" title="Nazi crimes against the Polish nation">Nazi crimes against the Polish nation</a>, <a href="/wiki/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%9345)" class="mw-redirect" title="Occupation of Poland (1939–45)">Occupation of Poland (1939–45)</a>, and <a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Poland" title="The Holocaust in Poland">The Holocaust in Poland</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg/220px-Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="139" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg/330px-Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg/440px-Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg 2x" data-file-width="743" data-file-height="471" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Execution_of_Poles_by_German_Einsatzkommando_Oktober_1939.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Execution of Poles by <i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzkommando" title="Einsatzkommando">Einsatzkommando</a></i>, <a href="/wiki/Leszno" title="Leszno">Leszno</a>, October 1939</div></div></div>
<p>German planners in November 1939 called for "the complete destruction" of all <a href="/wiki/Poles" title="Poles">Poles</a><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001153_460-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001153-460">&#91;433&#93;</a></sup> and resettlement of the land by German colonists.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerghahn199932–33_461-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerghahn199932–33-461">&#91;434&#93;</a></sup> The Polish political leadership was the target of an organized campaign of murder (<a href="/wiki/Intelligenzaktion" title="Intelligenzaktion">Intelligenzaktion</a> and <a href="/wiki/German_AB-Aktion_in_Poland" title="German AB-Aktion in Poland">AB-Aktion</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009112_462-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBloxham2009112-462">&#91;435&#93;</a></sup> German planners decided against a genocide of ethnic Poles on the same scale as against Jews, at least in the short term,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGellately2001154_463-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGellately2001154-463">&#91;436&#93;</a></sup> and planned to completely Germanize the Polish territories by removing or allowing to die of mistreatment 80–85% of the Polish population.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2008173–174_464-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2008173–174-464">&#91;437&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Between 1.8 and 1.9&#160;million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished at German hands during the course of the war; about four-fifths were ethnic Poles and the rest ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians.<sup id="cite_ref-PolishVictims_416-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PolishVictims-416">&#91;389&#93;</a></sup> At least 200,000 of these victims died in concentration camps, with around 146,000 killed in Auschwitz. Many others died as a result of general massacres or uprisings such as the <a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Uprising" title="Warsaw Uprising">Warsaw Uprising</a>, where between 120,000 and 200,000 civilians were killed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295_465-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295-465">&#91;438&#93;</a></sup> During the occupation, the Germans adopted a policy of restricting food rations and medical services, as well as the degradation of sanitation and public hygiene.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESzafranski196043_466-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESzafranski196043-466">&#91;439&#93;</a></sup> The death rate rose from a rate of 13 per 1000 before the war to 18 per 1000 during the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESzafranski196049_467-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESzafranski196049-467">&#91;440&#93;</a></sup> Around 6 million of the victims of World War II were Polish citizens, both Jewish and non-Jewish,<sup id="cite_ref-469" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-469">&#91;ab&#93;</a></sup> and over the course of the war Poland lost 20 percent of its pre-war population.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKochanski2012532_468-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKochanski2012532-468">&#91;441&#93;</a></sup> Over 90 percent of the death toll came through non-military losses, through various deliberate actions by Germany and the Soviet Union.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295_465-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiotrowski1998295-465">&#91;438&#93;</a></sup> Polish children were also kidnapped by Germans in order to be "Germanized", with perhaps as many as 200,000 children  stolen from their families.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELukas201225–27_470-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELukas201225–27-470">&#91;442&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Soviet_citizens_and_POWs">Soviet citizens and POWs</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war" title="German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war">German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war</a>, <a href="/wiki/German_occupation_of_Byelorussia_during_World_War_II" title="German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II">German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Reichskommissariat_Ukraine" title="Reichskommissariat Ukraine">Reichskommissariat Ukraine</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208,_KZ_Mauthausen,_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg/220px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="140" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg/330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg/440px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208%2C_KZ_Mauthausen%2C_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg 2x" data-file-width="779" data-file-height="494" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_192-208,_KZ_Mauthausen,_Sowjetische_Kriegsgefangene.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Naked Soviet POWs in the <a href="/wiki/Mauthausen_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Mauthausen concentration camp">Mauthausen concentration camp</a>, date unknown</div></div></div>
<p>Soviet civilian populations in the occupied areas were also heavily persecuted outside of events taking place in the frontline warfare of the <a href="/wiki/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)" title="Eastern Front (World War II)">Eastern Front</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016186–192_471-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016186–192-471">&#91;443&#93;</a></sup> Villages throughout the Soviet Union were destroyed by German troops.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFritz2011333–334_472-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFritz2011333–334-472">&#91;444&#93;</a></sup> Germans rounded up civilians for forced labor in Germany as well as causing famines by taking foodstuffs.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016214–215_473-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016214–215-473">&#91;445&#93;</a></sup> In <a href="/wiki/Belarus" title="Belarus">Belarus</a>, Germany imposed a regime that deported some 380,000 people for slave labor and killed hundreds of thousands of civilians. More than 600 villages had their entire populations killed and at least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed by the Germans. According to Timothy Snyder, of "the nine million people who were in the territory of Soviet Belarus in 1941, some 1.6 million were killed by the Germans in actions away from battlefields, including about 700,000 prisoners of war, 500,000 Jews, and 320,000 people counted as partisans (the vast majority of whom were unarmed civilians)".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010250–251_474-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010250–251-474">&#91;446&#93;</a></sup> The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has estimated that 3.3 million of the 5.7 million Soviet POWs died in German custody.<sup id="cite_ref-475" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-475">&#91;447&#93;</a></sup> The death rates decreased as the POWs were needed to help the German war effort; by 1943, half a million of them had been deployed as <a href="/wiki/Slave_labor" class="mw-redirect" title="Slave labor">slave labor</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_415-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125-415">&#91;388&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Political_opponents">Political opponents</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/German_resistance_to_Nazism" title="German resistance to Nazism">German resistance to Nazism</a></div>
<p>German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest opponents of the Nazis,<sup id="cite_ref-476" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-476">&#91;448&#93;</a></sup> and they were also among the first to be sent to concentration camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125_477-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125-477">&#91;449&#93;</a></sup> Before the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler issued the <a href="/wiki/Commissar_Order" title="Commissar Order">Commissar Order</a>, which ordered the execution of all political <a href="/wiki/Commissar" title="Commissar">commissars</a> and Communist Party members captured.<sup id="cite_ref-478" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-478">&#91;450&#93;</a></sup> <i><a href="/wiki/Nacht_und_Nebel" title="Nacht und Nebel">Nacht und Nebel</a></i> ("Night and Fog") was a directive of Hitler in December 1941, resulting in the kidnapping and <a href="/wiki/Forced_disappearance" title="Forced disappearance">disappearance</a> of political activists throughout the German occupied territories.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184_479-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184-479">&#91;451&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Gay_men">Gay men</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Holocaust" class="mw-redirect" title="Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust">Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust</a>, <a href="/wiki/Institut_f%C3%BCr_Sexualwissenschaft" title="Institut für Sexualwissenschaft">Institut für Sexualwissenschaft</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Pink_triangle" title="Pink triangle">Pink triangle</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg/170px-Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="232" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg/255px-Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg/340px-Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1666" data-file-height="2272" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Gedenktafel_Rosa_Winkel_Nollendorfplatz.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Pink-triangle memorial in <a href="/wiki/Nollendorfplatz" title="Nollendorfplatz">Nollendorfplatz</a>, Berlin</div></div></div>
<p>Around 50,000 German gay men were jailed between 1933 and 1945, and 5,000–15,000 are estimated to have been sent to concentration camps. It is not known how many homosexuals died during the Holocaust.<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMgays_419-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMgays-419">&#91;392&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_480-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-480">&#91;452&#93;</a></sup> James Steakley writes that what mattered in Germany was criminal intent or character, rather than acts, and the <i>"gesundes Volksempfinden"</i> ("healthy sensibility of the people") became the guiding legal principle.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESteakley1974-481">&#91;453&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In 1936, Himmler created the <a href="/wiki/Reich_Central_Office_for_the_Combating_of_Homosexuality_and_Abortion" title="Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion">Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237_482-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237-482">&#91;454&#93;</a></sup> The Gestapo raided <a href="/wiki/Gay_bar" title="Gay bar">gay bars</a>, tracked individuals using the address books of those they arrested, used the subscription lists of gay magazines to find others, and encouraged people to report suspected homosexual behavior and to scrutinize the behavior of their neighbors.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESteakley1974-481">&#91;453&#93;</a></sup> Lesbians were left relatively unaffected;<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMgays_419-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMgays-419">&#91;392&#93;</a></sup> the Nazis saw them as "asocials", rather than sexual deviants.<sup id="cite_ref-483" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-483">&#91;455&#93;</a></sup> Gay men convicted between 1933 and 1944 were sent to camps for "rehabilitation", where they were identified by pink triangles.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESteakley1974-481">&#91;453&#93;</a></sup> Hundreds were <a href="/wiki/Castration" title="Castration">castrated</a>, sometimes "voluntarily" to avoid criminal sentences.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGiles199245–7_484-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGiles199245–7-484">&#91;456&#93;</a></sup> Steakley writes that the full extent of gay suffering was slow to emerge after the war. Many victims kept their stories to themselves because homosexuality remained criminalized in postwar Germany.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESteakley1974-481">&#91;453&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Jehovah.27s_Witnesses"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Jehovah's_Witnesses">Jehovah's Witnesses</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of Jehovah&#39;s Witnesses in Nazi Germany">Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany</a></div>
<p>Because they refused to pledge allegiance to the Nazi party or to serve in the military, <a href="/wiki/Jehovah%27s_Witnesses" title="Jehovah&#39;s Witnesses">Jehovah's Witnesses</a> were sent to concentration camps where they were given the option of renouncing their faith and submitting to the state's authority.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346–349_485-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346–349-485">&#91;457&#93;</a></sup> They were marked out by purple triangles. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates between 2,700 and 3,300 were sent to concentration camps,<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMJW_417-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMJW-417">&#91;390&#93;</a></sup> but Sybil Milton states the number in the camps was 10,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_418-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-418">&#91;391&#93;</a></sup> Between 1,400<sup id="cite_ref-USHMMJW_417-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-USHMMJW-417">&#91;390&#93;</a></sup> and 2,500 died while in the camps.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_418-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-418">&#91;391&#93;</a></sup> Historian Detlef Garbe writes that "no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251_486-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251-486">&#91;458&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Persons_of_color">Persons of color</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_black_people_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany">Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany</a> and <a href="/wiki/Rhineland_Bastard" title="Rhineland Bastard">Rhineland Bastard</a></div>
<p>The number of Afro-Germans in Germany when the Nazis came to power is variously estimated at 5,000–25,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELusane200397–8_487-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELusane200397–8-487">&#91;459&#93;</a></sup> It is not clear whether these figures included Asians. Although blacks, including prisoners of war, in Germany and German-occupied Europe were subjected to incarceration, sterilization, murder, and other abuse, there was no programme to kill them all as there was for the Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-488" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-488">&#91;460&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Motivation">Motivation</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust" title="Responsibility for the Holocaust">Responsibility for the Holocaust</a> and <a href="/wiki/List_of_major_perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust" title="List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust">List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Motivation_of_perpetrators">Motivation of perpetrators</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png/220px-Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png" decoding="async" width="220" height="166" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png/330px-Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png/440px-Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png 2x" data-file-width="508" data-file-height="384" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Obersalzberg_meeting_-_May_1939.png" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Holocaust perpetrators <a href="/wiki/Heinrich_Himmler" title="Heinrich Himmler">Heinrich Himmler</a>, <a href="/wiki/Reinhard_Heydrich" title="Reinhard Heydrich">Reinhard Heydrich</a> and <a href="/wiki/Karl_Wolff" title="Karl Wolff">Karl Wolff</a> at the <a href="/wiki/Berghof_(residence)" title="Berghof (residence)">Berghof</a>, from silent color film shot by <a href="/wiki/Eva_Braun" title="Eva Braun">Eva Braun</a>, May 1939</div></div></div>
<p>In his 1965 essay "Command and Compliance", which originated in his work as an expert witness for the prosecution at the <a href="/wiki/Frankfurt_Auschwitz_Trials" class="mw-redirect" title="Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials">Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials</a>, the German historian Hans Buchheim wrote there was no coercion to murder Jews and others, and all who committed such actions did so out of free will.<sup id="cite_ref-Buchheim1968_3723_489-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buchheim1968_3723-489">&#91;461&#93;</a></sup> Buchheim wrote that chances to avoid executing criminal orders "were both more numerous and more real than those concerned are generally prepared to admit",<sup id="cite_ref-Buchheim1968_3723_489-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buchheim1968_3723-489">&#91;461&#93;</a></sup> and that he found no evidence that SS men who refused to carry out criminal orders were sent to concentration camps or executed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381_490-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381-490">&#91;462&#93;</a></sup> Moreover, SS rules prohibited acts of gratuitous sadism, as Himmler wished for his men to remain "decent"; acts of sadism were carried out on the initiative of those who were either especially cruel or wished to prove themselves ardent National Socialists.<sup id="cite_ref-Buchheim1968_3723_489-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Buchheim1968_3723-489">&#91;461&#93;</a></sup> Finally, he argued that those of a non-criminal bent who committed crimes did so because they wished to conform to the values of the group they had joined and were afraid of being branded "weak" by their colleagues if they refused.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386–7_491-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386–7-491">&#91;463&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Similarly, in <i>Ordinary Men</i> (1992), <a href="/wiki/Christopher_Browning" title="Christopher Browning">Christopher Browning</a> examined the deeds of German <a href="/wiki/Reserve_Police_Battalion_101" title="Reserve Police Battalion 101">Reserve Police Battalion 101</a> of the <i><a href="/wiki/Orpo_battalions" class="mw-redirect" title="Orpo battalions">Ordnungspolizei</a></i> ("order police"), used to commit massacres and round-ups of Jews, as well as mass deportations to the death camps. The members of the battalion were middle-aged men of working-class background from Hamburg, who were too old for regular military duty. They were given no special training. During the murder of 1,500 Jews from <a href="/wiki/J%C3%B3zef%C3%B3w,_Bi%C5%82goraj_County" title="Józefów, Biłgoraj County">Józefów</a>, their commander allowed them to opt out of direct participation. Fewer than 12 men out of a battalion of 500 did so. Influenced by the <a href="/wiki/Milgram_experiment" title="Milgram experiment">Milgram experiment</a> on obedience, Browning argued that the men killed out of peer pressure, not bloodlust.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857_492-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857-492">&#91;464&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="German_public">German public</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/German_collective_guilt" title="German collective guilt">German collective guilt</a></div>
<p>In his 1983 book, <i>Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich</i>, <a href="/wiki/Ian_Kershaw" title="Ian Kershaw">Ian Kershaw</a> examined the <i><a href="/wiki/Alltagsgeschichte" title="Alltagsgeschichte">Alltagsgeschichte</a></i> (history of everyday life) in Bavaria during the Nazi period. The most common viewpoint of Bavarians was indifference towards what was happening to the Jews, he wrote. Most Bavarians were vaguely aware of the genocide, but they were vastly more concerned about the war. Kershaw argued that "the road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved with indifference".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789–91_493-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789–91-493">&#91;465&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198971_494-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198971-494">&#91;466&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Kershaw's assessment faced criticism from historians Otto Dov Kulka and Michael Kater. Kater maintained that Kershaw had downplayed the extent of popular antisemitism. Although most of the "spontaneous" antisemitic actions of Nazi Germany had been staged, Kater argued that these had involved substantial numbers of Germans, and therefore it was wrong to view the extreme antisemitism of the Nazis as coming solely from above.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_495-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-495">&#91;467&#93;</a></sup> Kulka argued that "passive complicity" would be a better term than "indifference".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793_496-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793-496">&#91;468&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Focusing on the views of Germans opposed to the Nazi regime, the German historian Christof Dipper, in his essay "<i>Der Deutsche Widerstand und die Juden</i>" (1983), argued that the majority of the anti-Nazi national-conservatives were antisemitic. No one in the <a href="/wiki/German_resistance" class="mw-redirect" title="German resistance">German resistance</a> supported the Holocaust, but Dipper wrote that the national conservatives did not intend to restore civil rights to the Jews after the planned overthrow of Hitler.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_495-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-495">&#91;467&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Aftermath">Aftermath</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust" title="Aftermath of the Holocaust">Aftermath of the Holocaust</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Trials">Trials</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_trials" title="Nuremberg trials">Nuremberg trials</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dachau_trials" title="Dachau trials">Dachau trials</a>, <a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_trial" title="Auschwitz trial">Auschwitz trial</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Frankfurt_Auschwitz_trials" title="Frankfurt Auschwitz trials">Frankfurt Auschwitz trials</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg/220px-Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="170" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg/330px-Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg/440px-Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2944" data-file-height="2274" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Defendants_in_the_dock_at_the_Nuremberg_Trials.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials. The main target of the prosecution was <a href="/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring" title="Hermann Göring">Hermann Göring</a> (at the left edge on the first row of benches), considered to be the most important surviving official in the <i><a href="/wiki/Third_Reich" class="mw-redirect" title="Third Reich">Third Reich</a></i> after Hitler's death. Göring later committed suicide.</div></div></div>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_trials" title="Nuremberg trials">Nuremberg trials</a> were a series of <a href="/wiki/Military_tribunal" class="mw-redirect" title="Military tribunal">military tribunals</a>, held by the <a href="/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II" title="Allies of World War II">Allied forces</a> after <a href="/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War II</a> in <a href="/wiki/Nuremberg" title="Nuremberg">Nuremberg</a>, Germany, to prosecute prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of <a href="/wiki/Nazi_Germany" title="Nazi Germany">Nazi Germany</a>. The first of these trials was the 1945–1946 trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_497-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-497">&#91;469&#93;</a></sup> This tribunal tried 22 political and military leaders of the Third Reich,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255_498-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255-498">&#91;470&#93;</a></sup> except for <a href="/wiki/Adolf_Hitler" title="Adolf Hitler">Adolf Hitler</a>, <a href="/wiki/Heinrich_Himmler" title="Heinrich Himmler">Heinrich Himmler</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Joseph_Goebbels" title="Joseph Goebbels">Joseph Goebbels</a>, all of whom had committed suicide several months before.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_497-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-497">&#91;469&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The prosecution entered indictments against 24 major war criminals<sup id="cite_ref-499" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-499">&#91;ac&#93;</a></sup> and seven organizations—the leadership of the <a href="/wiki/Nazism" title="Nazism">Nazi</a> party, the Reich Cabinet, the <a href="/wiki/Schutzstaffel" title="Schutzstaffel">Schutzstaffel</a> (SS), <a href="/wiki/Sicherheitsdienst" title="Sicherheitsdienst">Sicherheitsdienst</a> (SD), the <a href="/wiki/Gestapo" title="Gestapo">Gestapo</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Sturmabteilung" title="Sturmabteilung">Sturmabteilung</a> (SA) and the "General Staff and High Command". The indictments were for: participation in a <a href="/wiki/Conspiracy_(crime)" class="mw-redirect" title="Conspiracy (crime)">common plan or conspiracy</a> for the accomplishment of a <a href="/wiki/Crime_against_peace" title="Crime against peace">crime against peace</a>; planning, initiating and waging <a href="/wiki/War_of_aggression" title="War of aggression">wars of aggression</a> and other crimes against peace; <a href="/wiki/War_crime" title="War crime">war crimes</a>; and <a href="/wiki/Crimes_against_humanity#Nuremberg_trials" title="Crimes against humanity">crimes against humanity</a>. The tribunal passed judgements ranging from acquittal to death by hanging.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643–644_500-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643–644-500">&#91;471&#93;</a></sup> Eleven defendants were executed, including <a href="/wiki/Joachim_von_Ribbentrop" title="Joachim von Ribbentrop">Joachim von Ribbentrop</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wilhelm_Keitel" title="Wilhelm Keitel">Wilhelm Keitel</a>, <a href="/wiki/Alfred_Rosenberg" title="Alfred Rosenberg">Alfred Rosenberg</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Alfred_Jodl" title="Alfred Jodl">Alfred Jodl</a>. Ribbentrop, the judgement declared, "played an important part in Hitler's 'final solution of the Jewish question'".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEConot1984495_501-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEConot1984495-501">&#91;472&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Further trials at Nuremberg took place between 1946 and 1949, which tried a further 185 defendants.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646_502-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646-502">&#91;473&#93;</a></sup> West Germany initially tried few ex-Nazis, but after the 1958 <i>Einsatzgruppen</i> trial, the government set up a governmental agency to investigate crimes.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008412_503-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008412-503">&#91;474&#93;</a></sup> Other trials of Nazis and collaborators took place in Western and Eastern Europe414-428}} In 1960, Israeli <a href="/wiki/Mossad" title="Mossad">Mossad</a> agents kidnapped Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel to stand trial for war crimes. The trial ended in his conviction in December 1961, and his execution in May 1962. Eichmann's trial and death revived interest in war criminals and the Holocaust in general.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008430–433_504-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008430–433-504">&#91;475&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Reparations">Reparations</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Reparations_Agreement_between_Israel_and_West_Germany" title="Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany">Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany</a> and <a href="/wiki/List_of_companies_involved_in_the_Holocaust" title="List of companies involved in the Holocaust">List of companies involved in the Holocaust</a></div>
<p>In March 1951, the government of <a href="/wiki/Israel" title="Israel">Israel</a> requested $1.5&#160; billion from the <a href="/wiki/West_Germany" title="West Germany">Federal Republic of Germany</a> to finance the rehabilitation of 500,000 Jewish survivors, arguing that Germany had stolen $6 billion from the European Jews. Israelis were divided about the idea of taking money from Germany. The <a href="/wiki/Conference_on_Jewish_Material_Claims_Against_Germany" class="mw-redirect" title="Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany">Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany</a> (known as the Claims Conference) was opened in New York, and after negotiations, the claim was reduced to <span class="nowrap">$845 million</span>.<sup id="cite_ref-YVReparations_505-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-YVReparations-505">&#91;476&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531–532_506-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531–532-506">&#91;477&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In 1988, West Germany allocated another $125&#160;million for reparations. Companies such as <a href="/wiki/BMW" title="BMW">BMW</a>, <a href="/wiki/Deutsche_Bank" title="Deutsche Bank">Deutsche Bank</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ford" class="mw-redirect" title="Ford">Ford</a>, <a href="/wiki/Opel" title="Opel">Opel</a>, <a href="/wiki/Siemens" title="Siemens">Siemens</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Volkswagen" title="Volkswagen">Volkswagen</a> faced lawsuits for their use of <a href="/wiki/Forced_labour_under_German_rule_during_World_War_II" title="Forced labour under German rule during World War II">forced labor during the war</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-YVReparations_505-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-YVReparations-505">&#91;476&#93;</a></sup> In response, Germany set up the <a href="/wiki/Foundation_%22Remembrance,_Responsibility_and_Future%22" class="mw-redirect" title="Foundation &quot;Remembrance, Responsibility and Future&quot;">"Remembrance, Responsibility and Future" Foundation</a> in 2000, which paid €4.45 billion to former slave laborers (up to €7,670 each).<sup id="cite_ref-507" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-507">&#91;478&#93;</a></sup> In 2013, Germany agreed to provide €772&#160;million to fund nursing care, social services, and medication for 56,000 Holocaust survivors around the world.<sup id="cite_ref-508" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-508">&#91;479&#93;</a></sup> The French state-owned railway company, the <a href="/wiki/SNCF" title="SNCF">SNCF</a>, agreed in 2014 to pay $60&#160;million to Jewish-American survivors, around $100,000 each, for its role in the <a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_deportations_of_French_Jews_to_death_camps" title="Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps">transport of 76,000 Jews from France</a> to extermination camps between 1942 and 1944.<sup id="cite_ref-509" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-509">&#91;480&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-510" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-510">&#91;481&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBazyler2005173_511-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBazyler2005173-511">&#91;482&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Uniqueness_question">Uniqueness question</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/Historikerstreit" title="Historikerstreit">Historikerstreit</a> and <a href="/wiki/Prague_Declaration_on_European_Conscience_and_Communism" title="Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism">Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism</a></div>
<p>In <i><a href="/wiki/Is_the_Holocaust_Unique%3F" title="Is the Holocaust Unique?">Is the Holocaust Unique?</a></i> (1995), Shimon Samuels described the acrimonious debate in Holocaust scholarship between "specifists" and "universalists". The former fear debasement of the Holocaust by invidious comparisons. The latter consider it immoral to hold the Holocaust as beyond comparison.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259_512-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259-512">&#91;483&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Peter_Novick" title="Peter Novick">Peter Novick</a> argued that it is "deeply offensive" to view the Holocaust as unique: What else can all of this possibly mean except 'your catastrophe, unlike ours, is ordinary'&#160; ... "<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENovick20009_513-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENovick20009-513">&#91;484&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Historian Dan Stone wrote in 2010 that the idea of the Holocaust as unique has been overtaken by attempts to place it in the context of early-20th-century <a href="/wiki/Stalinism" title="Stalinism">Stalinism</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ethnic_cleansing" title="Ethnic cleansing">ethnic cleansing</a>, war, and the Nazis' plans for "demographic reordering" after the war.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone2010211–212_514-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone2010211–212-514">&#91;485&#93;</a></sup> Specifist arguments continue nevertheless to inform the views of many specialists. A 2015 view from a historian of the Third Reich, <a href="/wiki/Richard_J._Evans" title="Richard J. Evans">Richard J. Evans</a>:
</p>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r856303468"/><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>Thus although the Nazi 'Final Solution' was one genocide among many, it had features that made it stand out from all the rest as well. Unlike all the others it was bounded neither by space nor by time. It was launched not against a local or regional obstacle, but at a world-enemy seen as operating on a global scale. It was bound to an even larger plan of racial reordering and reconstruction involving further genocidal killing on an almost unimaginable scale, aimed, however, at clearing the way in a particular region – Eastern Europe – for a further struggle against the Jews and those the Nazis regarded as their puppets. It was set in motion by ideologues who saw world history in racial terms. It was, in part, carried out by industrial methods. These things all make it unique. </p><div class="templatequotecite">—&#8201;<cite>Richard Evans, <i>The Third Reich in History and Memory</i><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385_47-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385-47">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup></cite></div>
</blockquote>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Category:The_Holocaust_by_country" title="Category:The Holocaust by country">Category:The Holocaust by country</a></div>
<div class="div-col columns column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_victims" title="Holocaust victims">Holocaust victims</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_denial" title="Holocaust denial">Holocaust denial</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_studies" title="Holocaust studies">Holocaust studies</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Individuals_and_groups_assisting_Jews_during_the_Holocaust" class="mw-redirect" title="Individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust">Individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_Holocaust_Remembrance_Day" title="International Holocaust Remembrance Day">International Holocaust Remembrance Day</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_response_to_the_Holocaust" title="International response to the Holocaust">International response to the Holocaust</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Holocaust_memorials_and_museums" title="List of Holocaust memorials and museums">List of Holocaust memorials and museums</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Holocaust_survivors" title="List of Holocaust survivors">List of Holocaust survivors</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust" title="Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust">Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust" title="Responsibility for the Holocaust">Responsibility for the Holocaust</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Righteous_Among_the_Nations" title="Righteous Among the Nations">Righteous Among the Nations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stolperstein" title="Stolperstein">Stolperstein</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Holocaust" title="Timeline of the Holocaust">Timeline of the Holocaust</a></li></ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Sources">Sources</span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span></h3>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em; list-style-type: lower-alpha;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-definition-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-definition_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-definition_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-definition_3-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-definition_3-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Jack_Fischel" title="Jack Fischel">Jack R. Fischel</a> (<i>Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust</i>, 2010): "The Holocaust refers to the Nazi objective of annihilating every Jewish man, woman, and child who fell under their control."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_19-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115-19">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<a href="/wiki/Martin_Gilbert" title="Martin Gilbert">Martin Gilbert</a> (<i>The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy</i>, 1985): "the systematic attempt to destroy all European Jewry—an attempt now known as the Holocaust".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518-26">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<a href="/wiki/Peter_Hayes_(historian)" title="Peter Hayes (historian)">Peter Hayes</a> (<i>How Was It Possible? A Holocaust Reader</i>, 2015): "The Holocaust, the Nazi attempt to eradicate the Jews of Europe, has come to be regarded as the emblematic event of Twentieth Century&#160;... Hitler's ideology depicted the Jews as uniquely dangerous to Germany and therefore uniquely destined to disappear completely from the Reich and all territories subordinate to it. The threat posted by supposedly corrupting but generally powerless Sinti and Roma was far less, and therefore addressed inconsistently in the Nazi realm. Gay men were defined as a problem only if they were German or having sex with Germans or having sex with Germans and considered 'curable' in most cases.&#160;... Germany's murderous intent toward the handicapped inhabitants of European mental institutions&#160;... was more comprehensive&#160;... but here, too, implementation was uneven and life-saving exceptions permitted, especially in Western Europe. Not only were some Slavs—Slovaks, Croats, Bulgarians, some Ukrainians—allotted a favored place in Hitler's New Order, but the fate of most of the other Slavs the Nazis derided as sub-humans&#160;... consisted of enslavement and gradual attrition, not the prompt massacre meted out to the Jews after 1941."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv_27-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv-27">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Raul_Hilberg" title="Raul Hilberg">Raul Hilberg</a> (<i><a href="/wiki/The_Destruction_of_the_European_Jews" title="The Destruction of the European Jews">The Destruction of the European Jews</a></i>, 2003): "With the passage of time, the response of the entire Jewish community to its massive loss became a pervasive problem. At the beginning there was little memorialization.&#160;... Little by little, some documents were gathered and books were written, and after about two decades the annihilation of the Jews was given a name: Holocaust."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031133_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031133-28">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
Ronnie S. Landau (<i>The Nazi Holocaust: Its History and Meaning</i>, 1992): "The Holocaust involved the deliberate, systematic murder of approximately 6 million Jews in Nazi-dominated Europe between 1941 and 1945."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELandau20163_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELandau20163-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<a href="/wiki/Michael_Marrus" title="Michael Marrus">Michael Marrus</a> (<i>Perspectives on the Holocaust</i>, 2015): "The Holocaust, the murder of close to six million Jews by the Nazis during the Second World War&#160;...".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus2015vii_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus2015vii-29">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<a href="/wiki/Timothy_D._Snyder" title="Timothy D. Snyder">Timothy D. Snyder</a> (<i>Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin</i>, 2010): "In this book the term <i>Holocaust</i> signifies the final version of the Final Solution, the German policy to eliminate the Jews of Europe by murdering them. Although Hitler certainly wished to remove the Jews from Europe in a Final Solution earlier, the Holocaust on this definition begins in summer 1941, with the shooting of Jewish women and children in the occupied Soviet Union. The term <i>Holocaust</i> is sometimes used in two other ways: to mean all German killing policies during the war, or to mean all oppression of Jews by the Nazi regime. In this book, <i>Holocaust</i> means the murder of the Jews in Europe, as carried out by the Germans by guns and gas between 1941 and 1945."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-30">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<a href="/wiki/Dan_Stone_(historian)" title="Dan Stone (historian)">Dan Stone</a> (<i>Histories of the Holocaust</i>, 2010): "'Holocaust'&#160;... refers to the genocide of the Jews, which by no means excludes an understanding that other groups—notably Romanies and Slavs—were victims of genocide."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3-31">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a> (<i><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_Encyclopedia" title="Holocaust Encyclopedia">Holocaust Encyclopedia</a></i>, 2017): "The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators."<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Columbianumbers-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Columbianumbers_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Columbianumbers_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia (<i>The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust</i>, 2000): "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the mass murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans during World War II. Not everyone finds this a fully satisfactory definition. The Nazis also killed millions of people belonging to other groups: Gypsies, the physically and mentally handicapped, Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet citizens, political prisoners, religious dissenters, and homosexuals. Can it be said that any of these groups were treated in the same way as the Jews and for the same reasons and hence deserve to be included in the history of the Holocaust? A positive answer to this question would require a broader definition of the Holocaust and acknowledging as many as 17,000,000 victims. A more expansive view might also induce us to push the start of the Holocaust back from 1941 to 1939 (if we include the handicapped) or even to 1933 (if we assume that the whole thing was premeditated)."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200043_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200043-8">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<p>For Jehovah's Witnesses, see <a href="#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000">Niewyk &amp; Nicosia (2000</a>, pp.&#160;49–50). Note that Niewyk and Nicosia do not regard ethnic Poles, Soviet POWs, Soviet citizens, gay men, or religious dissenters as Holocaust victims. Their definition of "the Holocaust" includes the murder of the Jews, Roma and handicapped.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052-9">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Hebrew_language" title="Hebrew language">Hebrew</a>: <big><span lang="he" dir="rtl" title="Hebrew language text">השואה</span></big>, <i>HaShoah</i>, "the catastrophe"</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>: "Six million Jews died in the Holocaust.&#160;... According to the <i>American Jewish Yearbook</i>, the Jewish population of Europe was about 9.5 million in 1933.&#160;... By 1945, most European Jews—two out of every three—had been killed."<sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><i>Oxford Dictionaries</i> (2017): "from Old French holocauste, via late Latin from Greek holokauston, from holos 'whole' + kaustos 'burnt' (from kaiein 'burn')".<sup id="cite_ref-OED_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-OED-13">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The definition continued: "Figuratively, a great slaughter or sacrifice of life, as by fire or other accident, or in battle".<sup id="cite_ref-Whitney_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Whitney-15">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The Hebrew word <i>churban</i> is used by many <a href="/wiki/Orthodox_Jews" class="mw-redirect" title="Orthodox Jews">Orthodox Jews</a> to refer to the Holocaust.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199846_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199846-23">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Stone (2010): "Europe's Romany (Gypsy) population was also the victim of genocide under the Nazis. Many other population groups, notably Poles, Ukrainians, and Soviet prisoners of war were killed in huge numbers, and smaller groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Black Germans, and homosexuals suffered terribly under Nazi rule. The evidence suggests that the Slav nations of Europe were also destined, had Germany won the war, to become victims of systematic mass murder; and even the terrible brutality of the occupation in eastern Europe, especially in Poland, can be understood as genocidal according to the definition put forward by <a href="/wiki/Raphael_Lemkin" title="Raphael Lemkin">Raphael Lemkin</a> in his major study, <i>Axis Rule in Occupied Europe</i> (1944), the book that introduced the term 'genocide' to our vocabulary.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20102_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone20102-34">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Stone (2010): "[The Jews] were not just considered as racially inferior (like Romanies), deviants (like homosexuals) or enemy nationals standing in the way of German colonial expression (like Slavs)."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20102_34-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone20102-34">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Eberhard_J%C3%A4ckel" title="Eberhard Jäckel">Eberhard Jäckel</a> (1986): "The National Socialist killing of the Jews was unique in that never before had a state with the authority of its responsible leader decided and announced that a specific human group, including its aged, its women, its children and infants, would be killed as quickly as possible, and then carried through this resolution using every possible means of state power."<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51">&#91;42&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The full extent of Mengele's work is unknown because records he sent to Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer are assumed to have been destroyed.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999348_65-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMüller-Hill1999348-65">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELifton2000358_66-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELifton2000358-66">&#91;56&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-77">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The party was originally formed after World War I as the <i>Deutsche Arbeiterpartei</i> or DAP (<a href="/wiki/German_Workers%27_Party" title="German Workers&#39; Party">German Workers' Party</a>) and changed its name in April 1920 to the <i>Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei</i> or NDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi Party).<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder197663_76-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder197663-76">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-129"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-129">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The French had planned to try Grynszpan for murder, but the German invasion in 1940 interrupted the proceedings. Grynszpan was handed over to the Germans and his fate is unknown.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer1997301–302_128-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer1997301–302-128">&#91;116&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-167"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-167">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">After the invasion of Poland, the Germans planned to set up a Jewish reservation in southeast Poland around the transit camp in <a href="/wiki/Nisko" title="Nisko">Nisko</a>, but the "Nisko Plan" failed, in part because it was opposed by <a href="/wiki/Hans_Frank" title="Hans Frank">Hans Frank</a>, the new Governor-General of the General Government territory.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201631_157-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201631-157">&#91;144&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-158" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-158">&#91;145&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016264_159-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016264-159">&#91;146&#93;</a></sup> Adolf Eichmann was assigned to remove Jews from Germany, Austria, and the <a href="/wiki/Protectorate_of_Bohemia_and_Moravia" title="Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia">Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia</a> to the reservation.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani200477–79_160-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani200477–79-160">&#91;147&#93;</a></sup> Although the idea was to remove 80,000 Jews, Eichmann had managed to send only 4,700 by March 1940, and the plan was abandoned in April.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2004259–260,_280,_288_161-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2004259–260,_280,_288-161">&#91;148&#93;</a></sup> By mid-October the idea of a Jewish reservation had been revived by Heinrich Himmler, because of the influx of <a href="/wiki/Volksdeutsche" title="Volksdeutsche">Germanic settlers</a> into the <a href="/wiki/Warthegau" class="mw-redirect" title="Warthegau">Warthegau</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016261–263_162-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016261–263-162">&#91;149&#93;</a></sup> Resettlement continued until January 1941 under <a href="/wiki/Odilo_Globocnik" class="mw-redirect" title="Odilo Globocnik">Odilo Globocnik</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2004266_163-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2004266-163">&#91;150&#93;</a></sup> and included both Jews and Poles.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010156–159_164-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010156–159-164">&#91;151&#93;</a></sup> By that time 95,000 Jews were already concentrated in the area,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEdelheit199452_165-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEdelheit199452-165">&#91;152&#93;</a></sup> but the plan to deport up to 600,000 additional Jews to the <a href="/wiki/Lublin_reservation" class="mw-redirect" title="Lublin reservation">Lublin reservation</a> failed for logistical and political reasons.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016262_166-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016262-166">&#91;153&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-244"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-244">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Some scholars say they were orchestrated by the <a href="/wiki/Organization_of_Ukrainian_Nationalists" title="Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists">Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAmar201599_242-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAmar201599-242">&#91;228&#93;</a></sup> other scholars are less sure.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194_243-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010194-243">&#91;229&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-246"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-246">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The exact details of who killed whom and when are murky and have led to much debate in Poland.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196_245-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010196-245">&#91;230&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-259"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-259">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The Germans continued to use the ravine for mass killings throughout the war, and the total killed there could have been as high as 100,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016199_258-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016199-258">&#91;242&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-274"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-274">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Goebbels noted: "Regarding the Jewish question, the Fuhrer is determined to clear the table. He warned the Jews that if they were to cause another world war, it would lead to their own destruction. Those were not empty words. Now the world war has come. The destruction of the Jews must be its necessary consequence. We cannot be sentimental about it. It is not for us to feel sympathy for the Jews. We should have sympathy rather with our own German people. If the German people have to sacrifice 160,000 victims in yet another campaign in the east, then those responsible for this bloody conflict will have to pay for it with their lives."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach1998122_273-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach1998122-273">&#91;256&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-280"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-280">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee-Protokoll</a>: "Diese Aktionen sind jedoch lediglich als Ausweichmöglichkeiten anzusprechen, doch werden hier bereits jene praktischen Erfahrungen gesammelt, die im Hinblick auf die kommende Endlösung der Judenfrage von wichtiger Bedeutung sind."<sup id="cite_ref-279" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-279">&#91;261&#93;</a></sup><div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<p>Translation, <a href="/wiki/Avalon_Project" title="Avalon Project">Avalon Project</a>: "These actions are, however, only to be considered provisional, but practical experience is already being collected which is of the greatest importance in relation to the future final solution of the Jewish question."<sup id="cite_ref-protocol_269-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-protocol-269">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-323"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-323">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Henri_Michel" title="Henri Michel">Henri Michel</a> argues that resistance consisted not only of physical opposition but of any activity that gave the Jews dignity and humanity in humiliating and inhumane conditions. Bauer defines resistance as actions that in any way opposed the German directives, laws, or conduct.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBauer1997117_321-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBauer1997117-321">&#91;302&#93;</a></sup> Hilberg cautions against overstating the extent of Jewish resistance, arguing that by turning isolated incidents into resistance, it elevates the slaughter of innocent people into some kind of battle, and diminishes the heroism of those who took active measures to resist the Germans. He asserts that the blending of the passive majority with the active few is a way of deflecting questions about the survival strategies and leadership of the Jewish community.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996126–137_322-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg1996126–137-322">&#91;303&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-331"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-331">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">About 7000 died during the fighting and around 7000 sent to Treblinka.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016616_330-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016616-330">&#91;310&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-333"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-333">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">According to Polish and Jewish accounts, hundreds or thousands of Germans were killed,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGutman1994243_328-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEGutman1994243-328">&#91;308&#93;</a></sup> while the Germans reported 16 dead.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016269_329-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016269-329">&#91;309&#93;</a></sup> The Germans reported around 14,000 Jews killed<sup id="cite_ref-331" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-331">&#91;u&#93;</a></sup> and between 53,000<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016636_332-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016636-332">&#91;311&#93;</a></sup> and 56,000 deported.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016269_329-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016269-329">&#91;309&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-351"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-351">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/French_Jews" class="mw-redirect" title="French Jews">French Jews</a> were active in the <a href="/wiki/French_Resistance" title="French Resistance">French Resistance</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016273_346-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016273-346">&#91;324&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Zionism" title="Zionism">Zionist</a> Jews formed the <i><a href="/wiki/Armee_Juive" class="mw-redirect" title="Armee Juive">Armee Juive</a></i> (Jewish Army), which participated in armed resistance under a Zionist flag, smuggled Jews out of the country,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993274_347-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993274-347">&#91;325&#93;</a></sup> and participated in the liberation of Paris and other cities.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993275_348-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEZuccotti1993275-348">&#91;326&#93;</a></sup> As many as 1.5&#160;million Jewish soldiers fought in the <a href="/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II" title="Allies of World War II">Allied</a> armies, including 500,000 in the <a href="/wiki/Red_Army" title="Red Army">Red Army</a>, 550,000 in the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Armed_Forces" title="United States Armed Forces">U.S. Army</a>, 100,000 in the Polish army, and 30,000 in the British army. About 200,000 Jewish soldiers serving in the Red Army died in the war, either in combat or after capture.<sup id="cite_ref-349" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-349">&#91;327&#93;</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Jewish_Brigade" title="Jewish Brigade">Jewish Brigade</a>, a unit of 5,000 Jewish volunteers from the <a href="/wiki/Mandatory_Palestine" title="Mandatory Palestine">British Mandate of Palestine</a>, fought in the British Army.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELaqueur2001351_350-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELaqueur2001351-350">&#91;328&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-359"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-359">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Some reports have Karski infiltrating Bełżec disguised as a guard,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELukas2012159_358-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELukas2012159-358">&#91;335&#93;</a></sup> but other sources state that he smuggled himself into a transit camp where Jews were sent on to Bełżec.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000183_357-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000183-357">&#91;334&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-371"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-371">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">The only exception was <a href="/wiki/Lodz_Ghetto" class="mw-redirect" title="Lodz Ghetto">Lodz Ghetto</a>, which was not liquidated until mid-1944.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256–257_369-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDworkvan_Pelt2003256–257-369">&#91;345&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-376"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-376">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">One exception was the area around Bialystok, where over 100,000 Jews were deported to extermination camps, most to Treblinka but a few to Auschwitz.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010352–353_375-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010352–353-375">&#91;350&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-387"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-387">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Braham (2011) and the USHMM give the figure as 440,000, Longerich (2010) as 437,000.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBraham201145_384-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBraham201145-384">&#91;358&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010408_385-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010408-385">&#91;359&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-386" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-386">&#91;360&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-469"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-469">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Half the death toll were Jews.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEKochanski2012532_468-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEKochanski2012532-468">&#91;441&#93;</a></sup></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-499"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-499">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Two of the indictments were dropped before the end of the trial. <a href="/wiki/Robert_Ley" title="Robert Ley">Robert Ley</a> committed suicide in prison, and <a href="/wiki/Gustav_Krupp" class="mw-redirect" title="Gustav Krupp">Gustav Krupp</a> was judged unfit for trial.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_497-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-497">&#91;469&#93;</a></sup> </span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Citations">Citations</span></h3>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 25em; -webkit-column-width: 25em; column-width: 25em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/learn/timeline-of-events/1942-1945/deportation-of-hungarian-jews">"Deportation of Hungarian Jews"</a>. <i>Timeline of Events</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171125004028/https://www.ushmm.org/learn/timeline-of-events/1942-1945/deportation-of-hungarian-jews">Archived</a> from the original on 25 November 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Timeline+of+Events&amp;rft.atitle=Deportation+of+Hungarian+Jews&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Flearn%2Ftimeline-of-events%2F1942-1945%2Fdeportation-of-hungarian-jews&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r879151008">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELandau20163-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELandau20163_2-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELandau20163_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLandau2016">Landau 2016</a>, p.&#160;3.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005687">"Jewish Population of Europe in 1945"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171014015924/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005687">Archived</a> 14 October 2017 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 9 October 2017.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200043-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200043_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000">Niewyk &amp; Nicosia 2000</a>, p.&#160;43.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052_9-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052_9-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia200052_9-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000">Niewyk &amp; Nicosia 2000</a>, p.&#160;52.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-42000facilities-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42000facilities_10-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/research/publications/encyclopedia-camps-ghettos">"Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170914214939/https://www.ushmm.org/research/publications/encyclopedia-camps-ghettos">Archived</a> 14 September 2017 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe20081-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe20081_11-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe20081_11-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCrowe2008">Crowe 2008</a>, p.&#160;1.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDawidowicz1986xxxvii_12-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFDawidowicz1986">Dawidowicz 1986</a>, p.&#160;xxxvii.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-OED-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-OED_13-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/holocaust">"Holocaust"</a>. <i>Oxford Dictionaries</i>. Oxford University Press. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171005101041/https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/holocaust">Archived</a> from the original on 5 October 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Oxford+Dictionaries&amp;rft.atitle=Holocaust&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fen.oxforddictionaries.com%2Fdefinition%2Fholocaust&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Whitney-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Whitney_15-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation encyclopaedia"><a href="/wiki/William_Dwight_Whitney" title="William Dwight Whitney">Whitney, William Dwight</a>, ed. (1904). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/stream/centurydictio04whit#page/2858/mode/2up">"Holocaust"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Century_Dictionary" title="Century Dictionary">The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia</a></i>. <b>4</b>. p.&#160;2859.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Holocaust&amp;rft.btitle=The+Century+Dictionary+and+Cyclopedia&amp;rft.pages=2859&amp;rft.date=1904&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fstream%2Fcenturydictio04whit%23page%2F2858%2Fmode%2F2up&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-HolocaustYadVashem-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-HolocaustYadVashem_17-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%206419.pdf">"Holocaust"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Holocaust Resource Center, <a href="/wiki/Yad_Vashem" title="Yad Vashem">Yad Vashem</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180205060512/http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206419.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 5 February 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">19 May</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Holocaust&amp;rft.pub=Holocaust+Resource+Center%2C+Yad+Vashem&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25206419.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-YVDefinition-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-YVDefinition_18-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/resource_center/the_holocaust.asp">"The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion"</a>. Holocaust Resource Center, <a href="/wiki/Yad_Vashem" title="Yad Vashem">Yad Vashem</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150626234806/http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/resource_center/the_holocaust.asp">Archived</a> from the original on 26 June 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">26 June</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Definition+and+Preliminary+Discussion&amp;rft.pub=Holocaust+Resource+Center%2C+Yad+Vashem&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fyv%2Fen%2Fholocaust%2Fresource_center%2Fthe_holocaust.asp&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_19-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_19-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010115_19-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel2010">Fischel 2010</a>, p.&#160;115.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Meltzer, Julian (23 May 1943). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/1943/05/23/archives/palestine-zionists-find-outlook-dark-they-see-little-hope-now-for.html">"Palestine Zionists Find Outlook Dark"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180810045616/https://www.nytimes.com/1943/05/23/archives/palestine-zionists-find-outlook-dark-they-see-little-hope-now-for.html">Archived</a> 10 August 2018 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, <i>The New York Times</i>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELustigmanLustigman1994111-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELustigmanLustigman1994111_21-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLustigmanLustigman1994">Lustigman &amp; Lustigman 1994</a>, p.&#160;111.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016201_22-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBlack2016">Black 2016</a>, p.&#160;201.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199846-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199846_23-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel1998">Fischel 1998</a>, p.&#160;46.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006xix_25-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBerenbaum2006">Berenbaum 2006</a>, p.&#160;xix.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert198518_26-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGilbert1985">Gilbert 1985</a>, p.&#160;18.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv_27-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xiii–xiv_27-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHayes2015">Hayes 2015</a>, p.&#160;xiii–xiv.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031133-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHilberg20031133_28-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHilberg2003">Hilberg 2003</a>, p.&#160;1133.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus2015vii-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus2015vii_29-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMarrus2015">Marrus 2015</a>, p.&#160;vii.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder2010412_30-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSnyder2010">Snyder 2010</a>, p.&#160;412.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3_31-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20101–3_31-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFStone2010">Stone 2010</a>, pp.&#160;1–3.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143">"Introduction to the Holocaust"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171001054753/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143">Archived</a> from the original on 1 October 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">4 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Introduction+to+the+Holocaust&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005143&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGray2015">Gray 2015</a>, p.&#160;8; for Gray, see <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.harrowschool.org.uk/Senior-Management-Team">"Senior Management Team"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Harrow_School" title="Harrow School">Harrow School</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180327170557/https://www.harrowschool.org.uk/Senior-Management-Team">Archived</a> from the original on 27 March 2018.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Senior+Management+Team&amp;rft.pub=Harrow+School&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.harrowschool.org.uk%2FSenior-Management-Team&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone20102-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20102_34-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone20102_34-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFStone2010">Stone 2010</a>, p.&#160;2.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGray2015">Gray 2015</a>, p.&#160;4; <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/learn/introduction-to-the-holocaust">"What Was the Holocaust?"</a>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190202135845/https://www.ushmm.org/learn/introduction-to-the-holocaust">Archived</a> from the original on 2 February 2019.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=What+Was+the+Holocaust%3F&amp;rft.pub=United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Flearn%2Fintroduction-to-the-holocaust&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGray20154-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGray20154_38-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGray2015">Gray 2015</a>, p.&#160;4.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGray2015">Gray 2015</a>, p.&#160;5; <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.hmd.org.uk/learn-about-the-holocaust-and-genocides/the-holocaust/">"The Holocaust"</a>. Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190210185621/https://www.hmd.org.uk/learn-about-the-holocaust-and-genocides/the-holocaust/">Archived</a> from the original on 10 February 2019.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust&amp;rft.pub=Holocaust+Memorial+Day+Trust&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.hmd.org.uk%2Flearn-about-the-holocaust-and-genocides%2Fthe-holocaust%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGray20154–5-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGray20154–5_40-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGray2015">Gray 2015</a>, pp.&#160;4–5.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGray20155-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGray20155_41-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGray2015">Gray 2015</a>, p.&#160;5.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006103_42-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBerenbaum2006">Berenbaum 2006</a>, p.&#160;103.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad1987154–159-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad1987154–159_43-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFArad1987">Arad 1987</a>, pp.&#160;154–159.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel1998167-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel1998167_44-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel1998">Fischel 1998</a>, p.&#160;167.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008447_46-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCrowe2008">Crowe 2008</a>, p.&#160;447.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385_47-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans2015385_47-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFEvans2015">Evans 2015</a>, p.&#160;385.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Gassing-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Gassing_48-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005220">"Gassing Operations"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150208103605/http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005220">Archived</a> from the original on 8 February 2015<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">25 January</span> 2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Gassing+Operations&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005220&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<p>In German: <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wannsee-Protokoll">"Wannsee-Protokoll"</a>. <i>EuroDocs</i>. Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060622052218/http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wannsee-Protokoll">Archived</a> from the original on 22 June 2006.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=EuroDocs&amp;rft.atitle=Wannsee-Protokoll&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Feudocs.lib.byu.edu%2Findex.php%2FWannsee-Protokoll&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/> Original: <cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.insitu-linz09.at/fileadmin/user_upload/insitu_dateien/orte/dokumente/21_Eichmann_protokoll_wannseekonferenz.pdf">"Besprechungsprotokoll"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180818174417/http://www.insitu-linz09.at/fileadmin/user_upload/insitu_dateien/orte/dokumente/21_Eichmann_protokoll_wannseekonferenz.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 18 August 2018.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Besprechungsprotokoll&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.insitu-linz09.at%2Ffileadmin%2Fuser_upload%2Finsitu_dateien%2Forte%2Fdokumente%2F21_Eichmann_protokoll_wannseekonferenz.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/>
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<li id="cite_note-aktr-284"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-aktr_284-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%205724.pdf">"Aktion Reinhard"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center</i>. Yad Vashem. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170311230635/http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%205724.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 11 March 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&amp;rft.atitle=Aktion+Reinhard&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25205724.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699-285"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699_285-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGerlach2016">Gerlach 2016</a>, p.&#160;99.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699,_note_165-286"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGerlach201699,_note_165_286-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGerlach2016">Gerlach 2016</a>, p.&#160;99, note 165.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMontague201214–16,_64–65-287"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMontague201214–16,_64–65_287-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMontague2012">Montague 2012</a>, pp.&#160;14–16, 64–65.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201670–71-288"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201670–71_288-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBlack2016">Black 2016</a>, pp.&#160;70–71.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201057–58-289"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201057–58_289-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel2010">Fischel 2010</a>, pp.&#160;57–58.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881-290"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881_290-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel1998">Fischel 1998</a>, p.&#160;81.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282-291"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010282_291-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLongerich2010">Longerich 2010</a>, p.&#160;282.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–85-292"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel199881–85_292-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel1998">Fischel 1998</a>, pp.&#160;81–85.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70-293"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70_293-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack201669–70_293-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBlack2016">Black 2016</a>, pp.&#160;69–70.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEArad198798-295"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEArad198798_295-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFArad1987">Arad 1987</a>, p.&#160;98.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-yvAuschwitz-301"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-yvAuschwitz_301-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-yvAuschwitz_301-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.yadvashem.org/holocaust/about/final-solution/auschwitz">"Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp"</a>. <i>About the Holocaust</i>. Yad Vashem. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171005190544/http://www.yadvashem.org/holocaust/about/final-solution/auschwitz">Archived</a> from the original on 5 October 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=About+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.atitle=Auschwitz-Birkenau+Extermination+Camp&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fholocaust%2Fabout%2Ffinal-solution%2Fauschwitz&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-yvBelzec-302"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-yvBelzec_302-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-yvBelzec_302-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%205981.pdf">"Belzec"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Holocaust Resource Center</i>. Yad Vashem. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141006110928/http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%205981.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 6 October 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Resource+Center&amp;rft.atitle=Belzec&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww1.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2Fmicrosoft%2520word%2520-%25205981.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162-308"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b162_308-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFPiper1998b">Piper 1998b</a>, p.&#160;162.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157-309"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPiper1998b157_309-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFPiper1998b">Piper 1998b</a>, p.&#160;157.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-382"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-382">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007327">"Killing Centers"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170506031425/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007327">Archived</a> from the original on 6 May 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Killing+Centers&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007327&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans200295-383"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans200295_383-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFEvans2002">Evans 2002</a>, p.&#160;95.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBraham201145-384"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBraham201145_384-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBraham201145_384-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBraham2011">Braham 2011</a>, p.&#160;45.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010408-385"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010408_385-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLongerich2010">Longerich 2010</a>, p.&#160;408.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-386"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-386">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/learn/timeline-of-events/1942-1945/deportation-of-hungarian-jews">"Deportation of Hungarian Jews"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171125004028/https://www.ushmm.org/learn/timeline-of-events/1942-1945/deportation-of-hungarian-jews">Archived</a> 25 November 2017 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 5 October 2017.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel201031,_76–77-388"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel201031,_76–77_388-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel2010">Fischel 2010</a>, pp.&#160;31, 76–77.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELöb200969-389"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELöb200969_389-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLöb2009">Löb 2009</a>, p.&#160;69, citing "A Monstrous 'Offer<span class="nowrap" style="padding-left:0.1em;">&#39;</span>", <i>The Times</i>, 20 July 1944.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107–109-390"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBlack2016107–109_390-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBlack2016">Black 2016</a>, pp.&#160;107–109.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219-391"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWeinberg2001219_391-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWeinberg2001">Weinberg 2001</a>, p.&#160;219.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488-392"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_392-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEPolonsky2001488_392-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFPolonsky2001">Polonsky 2001</a>, p.&#160;488.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695-393"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012695_393-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLongerich2012">Longerich 2012</a>, p.&#160;695.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBergen2016290–292-394"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBergen2016290–292_394-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBergen2016">Bergen 2016</a>, pp.&#160;290–292.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410–412-395"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010410–412_395-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLongerich2010">Longerich 2010</a>, pp.&#160;410–412.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-MapUSHMM-396"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-MapUSHMM_396-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005162&amp;MediaId=382">"Map of the Death Marches"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120816055537/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005162&amp;MediaId=382">Archived</a> from the original on 16 August 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 September</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Map+of+the+Death+Marches&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Fmedia_nm.php%3FModuleId%3D10005162%26MediaId%3D382&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007648–650-397"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFriedländer2007648–650_397-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFriedländer2007">Friedländer 2007</a>, pp.&#160;648–650.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165-398"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENiewykNicosia2000165_398-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000">Niewyk &amp; Nicosia 2000</a>, p.&#160;165.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411-399"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2010411_399-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLongerich2010">Longerich 2010</a>, p.&#160;411.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283-400"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008283_400-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHitchcock2008">Hitchcock 2008</a>, p.&#160;283.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297-401"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008297_401-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHitchcock2008">Hitchcock 2008</a>, p.&#160;297.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340-402"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008340_402-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHitchcock2008">Hitchcock 2008</a>, p.&#160;340.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798-403"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985798_403-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGilbert1985">Gilbert 1985</a>, p.&#160;798.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577-404"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015577_404-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWachsmann2015">Wachsmann 2015</a>, p.&#160;577.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808–809-405"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985808–809_405-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGilbert1985">Gilbert 1985</a>, pp.&#160;808–809.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810-406"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGilbert1985810_406-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGilbert1985">Gilbert 1985</a>, p.&#160;810.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762-407"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECesarani2016762_407-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCesarani2016">Cesarani 2016</a>, p.&#160;762.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289-408"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHitchcock2008289_408-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHitchcock2008">Hitchcock 2008</a>, p.&#160;289.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-11thUSHMM-409"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11thUSHMM_409-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006188">"The 11th Armoured Division (Great Britain)"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120816011400/http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006188">Archived</a> from the original on 16 August 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 September</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=The+11th+Armoured+Division+%28Great+Britain%29&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10006188&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-BBUSHMM-410"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-BBUSHMM_410-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005224">"Bergen-Belsen"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120815232046/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005224">Archived</a> from the original on 15 August 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 September</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Bergen-Belsen&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005224&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBell2017100-411"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBell2017100_411-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBell2017">Bell 2017</a>, p.&#160;100.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-412"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-412">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="/wiki/Richard_Dimbleby" title="Richard Dimbleby">Dimbleby, Richard</a> (15 April 1945). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/4445811.stm">"Liberation of Belsen"</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090213180129/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/4445811.stm">Archived</a> 13 February 2009 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>. BBC News. Retrieved September 2012.<div class="paragraphbreak" style="margin-top:0.5em"></div>
<p>"Richard Dimbleby reporting from Bergen-Belsen", <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hLYavpMSFs">part 1/2</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180201173903/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hLYavpMSFs">Archived</a> 1 February 2018 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opn15-59L1I">part 2/2</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141009112310/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opn15-59L1I">Archived</a> 9 October 2014 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, BBC News, courtesy of YouTube.
</p>
</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii-413"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii_413-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHayes2015xii_413-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHayes2015">Hayes 2015</a>, p.&#160;xii.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-ushmm1-414"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ushmm1_414-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ushmm1_414-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ushmm1_414-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/documenting-numbers-of-victims-of-the-holocaust-and-nazi-persecution">"Archived copy"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190203000323/https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/documenting-numbers-of-victims-of-the-holocaust-and-nazi-persecution">Archived</a> from the original on 3 February 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">28 January</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Archived+copy&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fencyclopedia.ushmm.org%2Fcontent%2Fen%2Farticle%2Fdocumenting-numbers-of-victims-of-the-holocaust-and-nazi-persecution&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-comment">CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_Archived_copy_as_title" title="Category:CS1 maint: Archived copy as title">link</a>)</span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125-415"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_415-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBerenbaum2006125_415-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBerenbaum2006">Berenbaum 2006</a>, p.&#160;125.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-PolishVictims-416"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-PolishVictims_416-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-PolishVictims_416-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005473">"Polish Victims"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160507145904/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005473">Archived</a> from the original on 7 May 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 June</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Polish+Victims&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005473&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-USHMMJW-417"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-USHMMJW_417-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-USHMMJW_417-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-USHMMJW_417-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006187">"Jehovah's Witnesses"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170411222547/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006187">Archived</a> from the original on 11 April 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 June</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Jehovah%27s+Witnesses&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10006187&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350-418"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_418-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_418-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001350_418-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMilton2001">Milton 2001</a>, p.&#160;350.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-USHMMgays-419"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-USHMMgays_419-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-USHMMgays_419-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-USHMMgays_419-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005261">"Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180612135957/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005261">Archived</a> from the original on 12 June 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Persecution+of+Homosexuals+in+the+Third+Reich&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005261&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-475"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-475">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007178">"Nazi Persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120822091145/http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007178">Archived</a> from the original on 22 August 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">1 September</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Nazi+Persecution+of+Soviet+Prisoners+of+War&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007178&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-476"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-476">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007332">"Non-Jewish Resistance"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20111120214424/http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007332">Archived</a> from the original on 20 November 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Non-Jewish+Resistance&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007332&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125-477"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWachsmann2015125_477-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWachsmann2015">Wachsmann 2015</a>, p.&#160;125.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-478"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-478">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007454">"Commissar Order"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170729104712/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007454">Archived</a> from the original on 29 July 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Commissar+Order&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10007454&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184-479"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEFischel2010184_479-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFFischel2010">Fischel 2010</a>, p.&#160;184.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108-480"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarran2000108_480-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHarran2000">Harran 2000</a>, p.&#160;108.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESteakley1974-481"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESteakley1974_481-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSteakley1974">Steakley 1974</a>.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237-482"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELongerich2012237_482-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLongerich2012">Longerich 2012</a>, p.&#160;237.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-483"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-483">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005478">"Lesbians and the Third Reich"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180612140447/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005478">Archived</a> from the original on 12 June 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 June</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Lesbians+and+the+Third+Reich&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005478&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGiles199245–7-484"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGiles199245–7_484-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGiles1992">Giles 1992</a>, pp.&#160;45–7.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346–349-485"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMilton2001346–349_485-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMilton2001">Milton 2001</a>, pp.&#160;346–349.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251-486"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEGarbe2001251_486-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFGarbe2001">Garbe 2001</a>, p.&#160;251.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTELusane200397–8-487"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTELusane200397–8_487-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFLusane2003">Lusane 2003</a>, pp.&#160;97–8.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-488"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-488">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005479">"Blacks during the Holocaust"</a>. <i>Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170426164033/https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005479">Archived</a> from the original on 26 April 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">29 May</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.atitle=Blacks+during+the+Holocaust&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ushmm.org%2Fwlc%2Fen%2Farticle.php%3FModuleId%3D10005479&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Buchheim1968_3723-489"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Buchheim1968_3723_489-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Buchheim1968_3723_489-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Buchheim1968_3723_489-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBuchheim1968">Buchheim 1968</a>, pp.&#160;372–3.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381-490"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968381_490-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBuchheim1968">Buchheim 1968</a>, p.&#160;381.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386–7-491"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBuchheim1968386–7_491-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBuchheim1968">Buchheim 1968</a>, pp.&#160;386–7.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857-492"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBrowning199857_492-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBrowning1998">Browning 1998</a>, p.&#160;57.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789–91-493"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198789–91_493-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMarrus1987">Marrus 1987</a>, pp.&#160;89–91.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans198971-494"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans198971_494-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFEvans1989">Evans 1989</a>, p.&#160;71.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792-495"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_495-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198792_495-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMarrus1987">Marrus 1987</a>, p.&#160;92.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793-496"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMarrus198793_496-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMarrus1987">Marrus 1987</a>, p.&#160;93.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643-497"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_497-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_497-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643_497-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBiddiss2001">Biddiss 2001</a>, p.&#160;643.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255-498"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESnyder1976255_498-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSnyder1976">Snyder 1976</a>, p.&#160;255.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643–644-500"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001643–644_500-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBiddiss2001">Biddiss 2001</a>, pp.&#160;643–644.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEConot1984495-501"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEConot1984495_501-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFConot1984">Conot 1984</a>, p.&#160;495.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646-502"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBiddiss2001646_502-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBiddiss2001">Biddiss 2001</a>, p.&#160;646.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008412-503"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008412_503-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCrowe2008">Crowe 2008</a>, p.&#160;412.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowe2008430–433-504"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowe2008430–433_504-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCrowe2008">Crowe 2008</a>, pp.&#160;430–433.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-YVReparations-505"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-YVReparations_505-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-YVReparations_505-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205817.pdf">"Reparations and Restitutions"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>Shoah Resource Center</i>. Yad Vashem. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170516212256/http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205817.pdf">Archived</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> from the original on 16 May 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 July</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Shoah+Resource+Center&amp;rft.atitle=Reparations+and+Restitutions&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yadvashem.org%2Fodot_pdf%2FMicrosoft%2520Word%2520-%25205817.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531–532-506"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEZweig2001531–532_506-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFZweig2001">Zweig 2001</a>, pp.&#160;531–532.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-507"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-507">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.bundesarchiv.de/zwangsarbeit/leistungen/direktleistungen/leistungsprogramm/index.html.en">"Payment Programme of the Foundation EVZ"</a>. <a href="/wiki/German_Federal_Archives" title="German Federal Archives">Bundesarchiv</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20181005014933/http://www.bundesarchiv.de/zwangsarbeit/leistungen/direktleistungen/leistungsprogramm/index.html.en">Archived</a> from the original on 5 October 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 July</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Payment+Programme+of+the+Foundation+EVZ&amp;rft.pub=Bundesarchiv&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bundesarchiv.de%2Fzwangsarbeit%2Fleistungen%2Fdirektleistungen%2Fleistungsprogramm%2Findex.html.en&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-508"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-508">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Staff (29 May 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/germany-to-pay-772-million-euros-in-reparations-to-holocaust-survivors-a-902528.html">"Holocaust Reparations: Germany to Pay 772 Million Euros to Survivors"</a>. <i>Spiegel Online International</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141213061723/http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/germany-to-pay-772-million-euros-in-reparations-to-holocaust-survivors-a-902528.html">Archived</a> from the original on 13 December 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 December</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Spiegel+Online+International&amp;rft.atitle=Holocaust+Reparations%3A+Germany+to+Pay+772+Million+Euros+to+Survivors&amp;rft.date=2013-05-29&amp;rft.au=Staff&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.spiegel.de%2Finternational%2Fgermany%2Fgermany-to-pay-772-million-euros-in-reparations-to-holocaust-survivors-a-902528.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-509"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-509">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Staff (5 December 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.lemonde.fr/ameriques/article/2014/12/05/etats-unis-paris-va-indemniser-les-victimes-de-la-shoah-transportees-par-la-sncf_4535530_3222.html">"Pour le rôle de la SNCF dans la Shoah, Paris va verser 100 000 euros à chaque déporté américain"</a>. <i>Le Monde</i> (in French). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141205193821/http://www.lemonde.fr/ameriques/article/2014/12/05/etats-unis-paris-va-indemniser-les-victimes-de-la-shoah-transportees-par-la-sncf_4535530_3222.html">Archived</a> from the original on 5 December 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 December</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Le+Monde&amp;rft.atitle=Pour+le+r%C3%B4le+de+la+SNCF+dans+la+Shoah%2C+Paris+va+verser+100+000+euros+%C3%A0+chaque+d%C3%A9port%C3%A9+am%C3%A9ricain&amp;rft.date=2014-12-05&amp;rft.au=Staff&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lemonde.fr%2Fameriques%2Farticle%2F2014%2F12%2F05%2Fetats-unis-paris-va-indemniser-les-victimes-de-la-shoah-transportees-par-la-sncf_4535530_3222.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-510"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-510">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news">Davies, Lizzie (17 February 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/feb/17/france-admits-deporting-jews">"France responsible for sending Jews to concentration camps, says court"</a>. <i>The Guardian</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171010004913/https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/feb/17/france-admits-deporting-jews">Archived</a> from the original on 10 October 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">9 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&amp;rft.atitle=France+responsible+for+sending+Jews+to+concentration+camps%2C+says+court&amp;rft.date=2009-02-17&amp;rft.au=Davies%2C+Lizzie&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fworld%2F2009%2Ffeb%2F17%2Ffrance-admits-deporting-jews&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBazyler2005173-511"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBazyler2005173_511-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBazyler2005">Bazyler 2005</a>, p.&#160;173.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259-512"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESamuels2009259_512-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSamuels2009">Samuels 2009</a>, p.&#160;259.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTENovick20009-513"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTENovick20009_513-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFNovick2000">Novick 2000</a>, p.&#160;9.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEStone2010211–212-514"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStone2010211–212_514-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFStone2010">Stone 2010</a>, pp.&#160;211–212.</span>
</li>
</ol></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Works_cited">Works cited</span></h3>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r853264625">.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}</style><div class="refbegin refbegin-hanging-indents columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 26em; -webkit-column-width: 26em; column-width: 26em;">
<dl><dd><cite id="CITEREFAmar2015" class="citation book">Amar, Tarik Cyril (2015). <i>The Paradox of Ukrainian Lviv: A Borderland City between Stalinists, Nazis, and Nationalists</i>. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1501700839" title="Special:BookSources/1501700839">1501700839</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Paradox+of+Ukrainian+Lviv%3A+A+Borderland+City+between+Stalinists%2C+Nazis%2C+and+Nationalists&amp;rft.place=Ithaca%2C+NY&amp;rft.pub=Cornell+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rft.isbn=1501700839&amp;rft.aulast=Amar&amp;rft.aufirst=Tarik+Cyril&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFArad1987" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Yitzhak_Arad" title="Yitzhak Arad">Arad, Yitzhak</a> (1987). <i>Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps</i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-253-21305-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-253-21305-1">978-0-253-21305-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Belzec%2C+Sobibor%2C+Treblinka%3A+The+Operation+Reinhard+Death+Camps&amp;rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&amp;rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1987&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-253-21305-1&amp;rft.aulast=Arad&amp;rft.aufirst=Yitzhak&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFArad2009" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2009). <i>The Holocaust in the Soviet Union</i>. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8032-4519-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8032-4519-8">978-0-8032-4519-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+in+the+Soviet+Union&amp;rft.place=Lincoln%2C+NE&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8032-4519-8&amp;rft.aulast=Arad&amp;rft.aufirst=Yitzhak&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFAradGutmanMargaliot2014" class="citation book">Arad, Yitzhak; Gutman, Yisrael; Margaliot, Abraham, eds. (2014) [1981]. <i>Documents on the Holocaust: Selected Sources on the Destruction of the Jews of Germany and Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union</i>. Pergamon Press/Elsevier. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-803-25937-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-803-25937-9">978-0-803-25937-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Documents+on+the+Holocaust%3A+Selected+Sources+on+the+Destruction+of+the+Jews+of+Germany+and+Austria%2C+Poland%2C+and+the+Soviet+Union&amp;rft.pub=Pergamon+Press%2FElsevier&amp;rft.date=2014&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-803-25937-9&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBajohrPohl2008" class="citation book">Bajohr, Frank; Pohl, Dieter (2008). <i>Massenmord und schlechtes Gewissen: Die deutsche Bevölkerung die NS-Führung und der Holocaust</i>. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Massenmord+und+schlechtes+Gewissen%3A+Die+deutsche+Bev%C3%B6lkerung+die+NS-F%C3%BChrung+und+der+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Frankfurt+am+Main&amp;rft.pub=Fischer+Taschenbuch+Verlag&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.aulast=Bajohr&amp;rft.aufirst=Frank&amp;rft.au=Pohl%2C+Dieter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBauer1997" class="citation encyclopaedia"><a href="/wiki/Yehuda_Bauer" title="Yehuda Bauer">Bauer, Yehuda</a> (1997) [1979]. "Forms of Jewish Resistance".  In Niewyk, Donald L. <i>The Holocaust: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation</i>. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp.&#160;116–132. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-669-41700-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-669-41700-9">0-669-41700-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Forms+of+Jewish+Resistance&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Problems+and+Perspectives+of+Interpretation&amp;rft.place=Boston&amp;rft.pages=116-132&amp;rft.pub=Houghton+Mifflin&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.isbn=0-669-41700-9&amp;rft.aulast=Bauer&amp;rft.aufirst=Yehuda&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBauer1998" class="citation encyclopaedia">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1998) [1994]. "Gypsies".  In <a href="/wiki/Yisrael_Gutman" class="mw-redirect" title="Yisrael Gutman">Gutman, Yisrael</a>; <a href="/wiki/Michael_Berenbaum" title="Michael Berenbaum">Berenbaum, Michael</a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp</i>. Bloomington,&#160;IN: Indiana University Press. pp.&#160;441–455. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-253-20884-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-253-20884-X">0-253-20884-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Gypsies&amp;rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&amp;rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&amp;rft.pages=441-455&amp;rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&amp;rft.aulast=Bauer&amp;rft.aufirst=Yehuda&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBauer2001" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2001) [1982]. <i>A History of the Holocaust</i> (Revised ed.). New York: Franklin Watts. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-531-15576-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-531-15576-5">0-531-15576-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=A+History+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.edition=Revised&amp;rft.pub=Franklin+Watts&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-531-15576-5&amp;rft.aulast=Bauer&amp;rft.aufirst=Yehuda&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBauer1994" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Yehuda_Bauer" title="Yehuda Bauer">Bauer, Yehuda</a> (1994). <i>Jews for Sale?: Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933–1945</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780300059137" title="Special:BookSources/9780300059137">9780300059137</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Jews+for+Sale%3F%3A+Nazi-Jewish+Negotiations%2C+1933%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.isbn=9780300059137&amp;rft.aulast=Bauer&amp;rft.aufirst=Yehuda&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBauer2002" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2002). <i>Rethinking the Holocaust</i>. New Haven,&#160;CT: Yale University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-09300-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-09300-4">0-300-09300-4</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Rethinking+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-09300-4&amp;rft.aulast=Bauer&amp;rft.aufirst=Yehuda&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBauerRozett1990" class="citation encyclopaedia"><a href="/wiki/Yehuda_Bauer" title="Yehuda Bauer">Bauer, Yehuda</a>; Rozett, Robert (1990). "Appendix".  In <a href="/wiki/Israel_Gutman" title="Israel Gutman">Gutman, Israel</a>. <i>Encyclopedia of the Holocaust</i>. New York: Macmillan Library Reference. pp.&#160;1797–1802. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-02-896090-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-02-896090-4">0-02-896090-4</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Appendix&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pages=1797-1802&amp;rft.pub=Macmillan+Library+Reference&amp;rft.date=1990&amp;rft.isbn=0-02-896090-4&amp;rft.aulast=Bauer&amp;rft.aufirst=Yehuda&amp;rft.au=Rozett%2C+Robert&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBaumel2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). "Concentration Camps".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;133–135. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Concentration+Camps&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pages=133-135&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Baumel&amp;rft.aufirst=Judith+Tydor&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBazyler2005" class="citation book">Bazyler, Michael J. (2005) [2003]. <i>Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts</i>. New York and London: New York University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0814729380" title="Special:BookSources/978-0814729380">978-0814729380</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Holocaust+Justice%3A+The+Battle+for+Restitution+in+America%27s+Courts&amp;rft.place=New+York+and+London&amp;rft.pub=New+York+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.isbn=978-0814729380&amp;rft.aulast=Bazyler&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBell2017" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Martin_Bell" title="Martin Bell">Bell, Martin</a> (2017). <i>War and the Death of News</i>. London: Oneworld Publications. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-7860-7109-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-7860-7109-5">978-1-7860-7109-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=War+and+the+Death+of+News&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Oneworld+Publications&amp;rft.date=2017&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-7860-7109-5&amp;rft.aulast=Bell&amp;rft.aufirst=Martin&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBen-RafaelGlöcknerSternberg2011" class="citation book">Ben-Rafael, Eliezer; Glöckner, Olaf; Sternberg, Yitzhak (2011). <i>Jews and Jewish Education in Germany Today</i>. Leiden: Brill. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-90-04-25329-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-90-04-25329-2">978-90-04-25329-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Jews+and+Jewish+Education+in+Germany+Today&amp;rft.place=Leiden&amp;rft.pub=Brill&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-90-04-25329-2&amp;rft.aulast=Ben-Rafael&amp;rft.aufirst=Eliezer&amp;rft.au=Gl%C3%B6ckner%2C+Olaf&amp;rft.au=Sternberg%2C+Yitzhak&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBenz1996" class="citation book">Benz, Wolfgang (1996). <i>Dimension des Völkermords. Die Zahl der jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus</i> (in German). Dtv. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/3-423-04690-2" title="Special:BookSources/3-423-04690-2">3-423-04690-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Dimension+des+V%C3%B6lkermords.+Die+Zahl+der+j%C3%BCdischen+Opfer+des+Nationalsozialismus&amp;rft.pub=Dtv&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.isbn=3-423-04690-2&amp;rft.aulast=Benz&amp;rft.aufirst=Wolfgang&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBerenbaum2002" class="citation book">Berenbaum, Michael (2002). "Foreword".  In Braham, Randolph L.; Miller, Scott. <i>The Nazis' Last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungary</i>. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p.&#160;9.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Foreword&amp;rft.btitle=The+Nazis%27+Last+Victims%3A+The+Holocaust+in+Hungary&amp;rft.place=Detroit&amp;rft.pages=9&amp;rft.pub=Wayne+State+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.aulast=Berenbaum&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBerenbaum2006" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2006). <i>The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</i> (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8018-8358-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8018-8358-3">978-0-8018-8358-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+World+Must+Know%3A+The+History+of+the+Holocaust+as+Told+in+the+United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&amp;rft.place=Washington%2C+DC&amp;rft.edition=2nd&amp;rft.pub=United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8018-8358-3&amp;rft.aulast=Berenbaum&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBergen2016" class="citation book">Bergen, Doris (2016). <i>War &amp; Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust</i> (Third ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman &amp; Littlefield. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-4422-4228-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-4422-4228-9">978-1-4422-4228-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=War+%26+Genocide%3A+A+Concise+History+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Lanham%2C+MD&amp;rft.edition=Third&amp;rft.pub=Rowman+%26+Littlefield&amp;rft.date=2016&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-4422-4228-9&amp;rft.aulast=Bergen&amp;rft.aufirst=Doris&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBerghahn1999" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Volker_Berghahn" title="Volker Berghahn">Berghahn, Volker R.</a> (1999). "Germans and Poles, 1871–1945".  In Bullivant, Keith; Giles, Geoffrey J.; Pape, Walter. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=j6VCNno2DVMC&amp;pg=PA15"><i>Yearbook of European Studies. Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences</i></a>. <b>13</b>. Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA: Rodopi. pp.&#160;15–36. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-9042006881" title="Special:BookSources/978-9042006881">978-9042006881</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Germans+and+Poles%2C+1871%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.btitle=Yearbook+of+European+Studies.+Germany+and+Eastern+Europe%3A+Cultural+Identities+and+Cultural+Differences&amp;rft.place=Amsterdam+and+Atlanta%2C+GA&amp;rft.pages=15-36&amp;rft.pub=Rodopi&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.isbn=978-9042006881&amp;rft.aulast=Berghahn&amp;rft.aufirst=Volker+R.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dj6VCNno2DVMC%26pg%3DPA15&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBiddiss2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Biddiss, Michael (2001). "Nuremberg trials".  In Dear, Ian; Foot, Richard D. <i>The Oxford Companion to World War II</i>. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.&#160;643–646. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-280670-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-280670-X">0-19-280670-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Nuremberg+trials&amp;rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Companion+to+World+War+II&amp;rft.place=Oxford&amp;rft.pages=643-646&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-280670-X&amp;rft.aulast=Biddiss&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBlack2016" class="citation book">Black, Jeremy (2016). <i>The Holocaust: History and Memory</i>. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-253-02214-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-253-02214-1">978-0-253-02214-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+History+and+Memory&amp;rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&amp;rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2016&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-253-02214-1&amp;rft.aulast=Black&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeremy&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBloxham2009" class="citation book">Bloxham, Donald (2009). <i>The Final Solution: A Genocide</i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-955034-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-955034-0">978-0-19-955034-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Final+Solution%3A+A+Genocide&amp;rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-19-955034-0&amp;rft.aulast=Bloxham&amp;rft.aufirst=Donald&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBraham2011" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Randolph_L._Braham" title="Randolph L. Braham">Braham, Randolph L.</a> (2011). "Hungary: The Controversial Chapter of the Holocaust".  In Braham, Randolph L.; vanden Heuvel, William Jacobus. <i>The Auschwitz Reports and the Holocaust in Hungary</i>. Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs. pp.&#160;29–49.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Hungary%3A+The+Controversial+Chapter+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.btitle=The+Auschwitz+Reports+and+the+Holocaust+in+Hungary&amp;rft.place=Boulder%2C+CO&amp;rft.pages=29-49&amp;rft.pub=Social+Science+Monographs&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.aulast=Braham&amp;rft.aufirst=Randolph+L.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBrowning2001" class="citation encyclopaedia"><a href="/wiki/Christopher_Browning" title="Christopher Browning">Browning, Christopher</a> (2001). "Madagascar Plan".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;407–409. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Madagascar+Plan&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pages=407-409&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Browning&amp;rft.aufirst=Christopher&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBrowning1986" class="citation journal">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1986). "Nazi Ghettoization Policy in Poland: 1939–41". <i><a href="/wiki/Central_European_History" title="Central European History">Central European History</a></i>. <b>19</b> (4): 343–368. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1017%2Fs0008938900011158">10.1017/s0008938900011158</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/4546081">4546081</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Central+European+History&amp;rft.atitle=Nazi+Ghettoization+Policy+in+Poland%3A+1939%E2%80%9341&amp;rft.volume=19&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=343-368&amp;rft.date=1986&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1017%2Fs0008938900011158&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F4546081&amp;rft.aulast=Browning&amp;rft.aufirst=Christopher&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBrowning1998" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1998) [1992]. <i>Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland</i>. New York: HarperPerennial. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-06-099506-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-06-099506-8">0-06-099506-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Ordinary+Men%3A+Reserve+Police+Battalion+101+and+the+Final+Solution+in+Poland&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=HarperPerennial&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-06-099506-8&amp;rft.aulast=Browning&amp;rft.aufirst=Christopher&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBrowning2004" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2004). <i>The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939&#160;– March 1942</i>. Jerusalem: <a href="/wiki/Yad_Vashem" title="Yad Vashem">Yad Vashem</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Origins+of+the+Final+Solution%3A+The+Evolution+of+Nazi+Jewish+Policy%2C+September+1939+%E2%80%93+March+1942&amp;rft.place=Jerusalem&amp;rft.pub=Yad+Vashem&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.aulast=Browning&amp;rft.aufirst=Christopher&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBuchheim1968" class="citation book">Buchheim, Hans (1968). "Command and Compliance".  In <a href="/wiki/Helmut_Krausnick" title="Helmut Krausnick">Helmut Krausnick</a>; Hans Buchheim; Broszat, Martin; Jacobsen, Hans-Adolf. <i>The Anatomy of the SS State</i>. New York: Walker and Company. pp.&#160;303–396.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Command+and+Compliance&amp;rft.btitle=The+Anatomy+of+the+SS+State&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pages=303-396&amp;rft.pub=Walker+and+Company&amp;rft.date=1968&amp;rft.aulast=Buchheim&amp;rft.aufirst=Hans&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBurleigh2001" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Michael_Burleigh" title="Michael Burleigh">Burleigh, Michael</a> (2001). <i>The Third Reich: A New History</i>. New York: Hill and Wang. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8090-9326-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-8090-9326-X">0-8090-9326-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich%3A+A+New+History&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Hill+and+Wang&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-8090-9326-X&amp;rft.aulast=Burleigh&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFBurleighWippermann1991" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Michael_Burleigh" title="Michael Burleigh">Burleigh, Michael</a>; Wippermann, Wolfgang (1991). <i>The Racial State: Germany 1933–1945</i>. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-521-39802-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-521-39802-9">0-521-39802-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Racial+State%3A+Germany+1933%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+UK&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1991&amp;rft.isbn=0-521-39802-9&amp;rft.aulast=Burleigh&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rft.au=Wippermann%2C+Wolfgang&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFCesarani2004" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/David_Cesarani" title="David Cesarani">Cesarani, David</a> (2004). <i>Becoming Eichmann: Rethinking the Life, Crimes, and Trial of a 'Desk Murderer'<span></span></i>. [New York]: Da Capo Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-306-81476-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-306-81476-1">978-0-306-81476-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Becoming+Eichmann%3A+Rethinking+the+Life%2C+Crimes%2C+and+Trial+of+a+%27Desk+Murderer%27&amp;rft.place=%5BNew+York%5D&amp;rft.pub=Da+Capo+Press&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-306-81476-1&amp;rft.aulast=Cesarani&amp;rft.aufirst=David&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFCesarani2016" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2016). <i>Final Solution: The Fate of the Jews 1933–1949</i>. New York: St. Martin's Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-250-00083-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-250-00083-5">978-1-250-00083-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Final+Solution%3A+The+Fate+of+the+Jews+1933%E2%80%931949&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=St.+Martin%27s+Press&amp;rft.date=2016&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-250-00083-5&amp;rft.aulast=Cesarani&amp;rft.aufirst=David&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFChase1999" class="citation book">Chase, Edward T. (1999) [1984]. "Preface". <i>The Transfer Agreement: The Dramatic Story of the Pact Between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine</i>. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Brookline Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0914153139" title="Special:BookSources/978-0914153139">978-0914153139</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Preface&amp;rft.btitle=The+Transfer+Agreement%3A+The+Dramatic+Story+of+the+Pact+Between+the+Third+Reich+and+Jewish+Palestine&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+Massachusetts&amp;rft.pub=Brookline+Books&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.isbn=978-0914153139&amp;rft.aulast=Chase&amp;rft.aufirst=Edward+T.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFConot1984" class="citation book">Conot, Robert (1984). <i>Justice at Nuremberg</i>. New York: Carroll &amp; Graf. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-88184-032-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-88184-032-2">978-0-88184-032-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Justice+at+Nuremberg&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Carroll+%26+Graf&amp;rft.date=1984&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-88184-032-2&amp;rft.aulast=Conot&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFCrowe2008" class="citation book">Crowe, David M. (2008). <i>The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath</i>. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8133-4325-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8133-4325-9">978-0-8133-4325-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+Roots%2C+History%2C+and+Aftermath&amp;rft.place=Boulder%2C+CO&amp;rft.pub=Westview+Press&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8133-4325-9&amp;rft.aulast=Crowe&amp;rft.aufirst=David+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFDawidowicz1986" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Lucy_Dawidowicz" title="Lucy Dawidowicz">Dawidowicz, Lucy</a> (1986) [1975]. <i>The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945</i> (Tenth Anniversary ed.). New York: Bantam. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-553-34532-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-553-34532-X">0-553-34532-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+War+Against+the+Jews%3A+1933%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.edition=Tenth+Anniversary&amp;rft.pub=Bantam&amp;rft.date=1986&amp;rft.isbn=0-553-34532-X&amp;rft.aulast=Dawidowicz&amp;rft.aufirst=Lucy&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFDworkvan_Pelt2003" class="citation book">Dwork, Deborah; van Pelt, Robert Jan (2003). <i>Holocaust: A History</i>. New York: W. W. Norton. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-393-05188-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-393-05188-9">0-393-05188-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Holocaust%3A+A+History&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.isbn=0-393-05188-9&amp;rft.aulast=Dwork&amp;rft.aufirst=Deborah&amp;rft.au=van+Pelt%2C+Robert+Jan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEdelheit1994" class="citation book">Edelheit, Abraham J. (1994). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=4LQWAQAAIAAJ&amp;q=Lublin-Lipowa+reservation"><i>History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary</i></a>. Westview Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0813322405" title="Special:BookSources/0813322405">0813322405</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=History+of+the+Holocaust%3A+A+Handbook+and+Dictionary&amp;rft.pub=Westview+Press&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.isbn=0813322405&amp;rft.aulast=Edelheit&amp;rft.aufirst=Abraham+J.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D4LQWAQAAIAAJ%26q%3DLublin-Lipowa%2Breservation&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEvans1989" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Richard_J._Evans" title="Richard J. Evans">Evans, Richard J.</a> (1989). <i>In Hitler's Shadow: West German Historians and the Attempt to Escape from the Nazi Past</i>. New York: Pantheon. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-679-72348-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-679-72348-X">0-679-72348-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=In+Hitler%27s+Shadow%3A+West+German+Historians+and+the+Attempt+to+Escape+from+the+Nazi+Past&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Pantheon&amp;rft.date=1989&amp;rft.isbn=0-679-72348-X&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEvans2002" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2002). <i>Lying About Hitler: The Holocaust, History and the David Irving Trial</i>. New York: Basic Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-465-02153-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-465-02153-0">0-465-02153-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Lying+About+Hitler%3A+The+Holocaust%2C+History+and+the+David+Irving+Trial&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Basic+Books&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=0-465-02153-0&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEvans2004" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2004) [2003]. <i>The Coming of the Third Reich</i>. New York: Penguin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-59420-004-1" title="Special:BookSources/1-59420-004-1">1-59420-004-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Coming+of+the+Third+Reich&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Penguin&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=1-59420-004-1&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEvans2005" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2005). <i>The Third Reich in Power</i>. New York: Penguin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-59420-074-2" title="Special:BookSources/1-59420-074-2">1-59420-074-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich+in+Power&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Penguin&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.isbn=1-59420-074-2&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEvans2008" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2008). <i>The Third Reich at War</i>. New York: Penguin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-59420-206-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-59420-206-3">978-1-59420-206-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich+at+War&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Penguin&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-59420-206-3&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFEvans2015" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2015). <i>The Third Reich in History and Memory</i>. London: Abacus. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-349-14075-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-349-14075-9">978-0-349-14075-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich+in+History+and+Memory&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Abacus&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-349-14075-9&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFritzsche2009" class="citation book">Fritzsche, Peter (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.ca/books?id=nIUFQGN2y4EC&amp;q=Volksgemeinschaft+idea"><i>Life and Death in the Third Reich</i></a>. Harvard University Press. pp.&#160;38–39. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0674033744" title="Special:BookSources/0674033744">0674033744</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Life+and+Death+in+the+Third+Reich&amp;rft.pages=38-39&amp;rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.isbn=0674033744&amp;rft.aulast=Fritzsche&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.ca%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DnIUFQGN2y4EC%26q%3DVolksgemeinschaft%2Bidea&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFischel1998" class="citation book">Fischel, Jack R. (1998). <i>The Holocaust</i>. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-313-29879-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-313-29879-3">0-313-29879-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Westport%2C+CT&amp;rft.pub=Greenwood+Press&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-313-29879-3&amp;rft.aulast=Fischel&amp;rft.aufirst=Jack+R.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFischel2010" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2010). <i>Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust</i> (Second ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8108-6774-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8108-6774-1">978-0-8108-6774-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Historical+Dictionary+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Lanham%2C+MD&amp;rft.edition=Second&amp;rft.pub=Scarecrow+Press&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8108-6774-1&amp;rft.aulast=Fischel&amp;rft.aufirst=Jack+R.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFischer2002" class="citation book">Fischer, Conan (2002). <i>The Rise of the Nazis</i>. New Frontiers in History (Second ed.). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7190-6067-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-7190-6067-2">0-7190-6067-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Rise+of+the+Nazis&amp;rft.place=Manchester%2C+UK&amp;rft.series=New+Frontiers+in+History&amp;rft.edition=Second&amp;rft.pub=Manchester+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=0-7190-6067-2&amp;rft.aulast=Fischer&amp;rft.aufirst=Conan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFischer1998" class="citation book">Fischer, Klaus (1998) [1995]. <i>Nazi Germany: A New History</i>. New York: Barnes &amp; Noble. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7607-0736-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-7607-0736-7">0-7607-0736-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Nazi+Germany%3A+A+New+History&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Barnes+%26+Noble&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-7607-0736-7&amp;rft.aulast=Fischer&amp;rft.aufirst=Klaus&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFisher2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Fisher, Ronit (2001). "Medical Experimentation".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;410–414. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Medical+Experimentation&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=410-414&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Fisher&amp;rft.aufirst=Ronit&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFleming2014a" class="citation journal">Fleming, Michael (Spring 2014a). "Allied Knowledge of Auschwitz: A (Further) Challenge to the 'Elusiveness' Narrative". <i>Holocaust and Genocide Studies</i>. <b>28</b> (1): 31–57. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1093%2Fhgs%2Fdcu014">10.1093/hgs/dcu014</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+and+Genocide+Studies&amp;rft.atitle=Allied+Knowledge+of+Auschwitz%3A+A+%28Further%29+Challenge+to+the+%27Elusiveness%27+Narrative&amp;rft.ssn=spring&amp;rft.volume=28&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=31-57&amp;rft.date=2014&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fhgs%2Fdcu014&amp;rft.aulast=Fleming&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFleming2014b" class="citation book">Fleming, Michael (2014b). <i>Auschwitz, the Allies and Censorship of the Holocaust</i>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-1070-6279-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-1070-6279-5">978-1-1070-6279-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Auschwitz%2C+the+Allies+and+Censorship+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Cambridge&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2014&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-1070-6279-5&amp;rft.aulast=Fleming&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFriedlander1994" class="citation journal"><a href="/wiki/Henry_Friedlander" title="Henry Friedlander">Friedlander, Henry</a> (1994). "Step by Step: The Expansion of Murder, 1939–1941". <i><a href="/wiki/German_Studies_Review" title="German Studies Review">German Studies Review</a></i>. <b>17</b> (3): 495–507. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.2307%2F1431896">10.2307/1431896</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/1431896">1431896</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=German+Studies+Review&amp;rft.atitle=Step+by+Step%3A+The+Expansion+of+Murder%2C+1939%E2%80%931941&amp;rft.volume=17&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=495-507&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F1431896&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F1431896&amp;rft.aulast=Friedlander&amp;rft.aufirst=Henry&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFriedländer1997" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Saul_Friedl%C3%A4nder" title="Saul Friedländer">Friedländer, Saul</a> (1997). <i>Nazi Germany and the Jews: The Years of Persecution 1933–1939</i>. New York: Harper Collins. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-06-019042-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-06-019042-6">0-06-019042-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Nazi+Germany+and+the+Jews%3A+The+Years+of+Persecution+1933%E2%80%931939&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Harper+Collins&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.isbn=0-06-019042-6&amp;rft.aulast=Friedl%C3%A4nder&amp;rft.aufirst=Saul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFriedländer2007" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2007). <i>The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1939–1945</i>. New York: Harper Perennial. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-06-093048-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-06-093048-6">978-0-06-093048-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Years+of+Extermination%3A+Nazi+Germany+and+the+Jews+1939%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Harper+Perennial&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-06-093048-6&amp;rft.aulast=Friedl%C3%A4nder&amp;rft.aufirst=Saul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFrilingIoanidIonesc2004" class="citation book">Friling, Tuvia; Ioanid, Radu; Ionesc, Mihail E., eds. (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.inshr-ew.ro/ro/files/Raport%20Final/Final_Report.pdf"><i>Final Report, International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania</i></a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. Iași: Polirom. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/973-681-989-2" title="Special:BookSources/973-681-989-2">973-681-989-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Final+Report%2C+International+Commission+on+the+Holocaust+in+Romania&amp;rft.place=Ia%C8%99i&amp;rft.pub=Polirom&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=973-681-989-2&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.inshr-ew.ro%2Fro%2Ffiles%2FRaport%2520Final%2FFinal_Report.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFFritz2011" class="citation book">Fritz, Stephen (2011). <i>Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East</i>. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8131-3416-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8131-3416-1">978-0-8131-3416-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Ostkrieg%3A+Hitler%27s+War+of+Extermination+in+the+East&amp;rft.place=Lexington%2C+KY&amp;rft.pub=University+Press+of+Kentucky&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8131-3416-1&amp;rft.aulast=Fritz&amp;rft.aufirst=Stephen&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGarbe2001" class="citation book">Garbe, Detlef (2001). "Social Disinterest, Governmental Disinformation, Renewed Persecution, and Now Manipulation of History?".  In Hans Hesse. <i>Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi-Regime 1933–1945</i>. Bremen: Edition Temmen. pp.&#160;251–265.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Social+Disinterest%2C+Governmental+Disinformation%2C+Renewed+Persecution%2C+and+Now+Manipulation+of+History%3F&amp;rft.btitle=Persecution+and+Resistance+of+Jehovah%27s+Witnesses+During+the+Nazi-Regime+1933%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=Bremen&amp;rft.pages=251-265&amp;rft.pub=Edition+Temmen&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.aulast=Garbe&amp;rft.aufirst=Detlef&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGellately2001" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Robert_Gellately" title="Robert Gellately">Gellately, Robert</a> (2001). <i>Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany</i>. Oxford: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-820560-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-820560-0">0-19-820560-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Backing+Hitler%3A+Consent+and+Coercion+in+Nazi+Germany&amp;rft.place=Oxford&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-820560-0&amp;rft.aulast=Gellately&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGellatelyStoltzfus2001" class="citation book">Gellately, Robert; <a href="/wiki/Nathan_Stoltzfus" title="Nathan Stoltzfus">Stoltzfus, Nathan</a> (2001). <i>Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany</i>. Princeton University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0691086842" title="Special:BookSources/978-0691086842">978-0691086842</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Social+Outsiders+in+Nazi+Germany&amp;rft.pub=Princeton+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=978-0691086842&amp;rft.aulast=Gellately&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rft.au=Stoltzfus%2C+Nathan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGerlach1998" class="citation journal"><a href="/wiki/Christian_Gerlach" title="Christian Gerlach">Gerlach, Christian</a> (December 1998). "The Wannsee Conference, the fate of German Jews, and Hitler's decision in principle to exterminate all European Jews". <i>The Journal of Modern History</i>. <b>70</b> (4): 759–812. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1086%2F235167">10.1086/235167</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Journal+of+Modern+History&amp;rft.atitle=The+Wannsee+Conference%2C+the+fate+of+German+Jews%2C+and+Hitler%27s+decision+in+principle+to+exterminate+all+European+Jews&amp;rft.volume=70&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=759-812&amp;rft.date=1998-12&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1086%2F235167&amp;rft.aulast=Gerlach&amp;rft.aufirst=Christian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGerlach2016" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2016). <i>The Extermination of the European Jews</i>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-521-70689-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-521-70689-0">0-521-70689-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Extermination+of+the+European+Jews&amp;rft.place=Cambridge&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2016&amp;rft.isbn=0-521-70689-0&amp;rft.aulast=Gerlach&amp;rft.aufirst=Christian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGilbert2001" class="citation encyclopaedia"><a href="/wiki/Martin_Gilbert" title="Martin Gilbert">Gilbert, Martin</a> (2001). "Final Solution".  In Dear, Ian; Foot, Richard D. <i>The Oxford Companion to World War II</i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp.&#160;285–292. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-280670-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-280670-X">0-19-280670-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Final+Solution&amp;rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Companion+to+World+War+II&amp;rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&amp;rft.pages=285-292&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-280670-X&amp;rft.aulast=Gilbert&amp;rft.aufirst=Martin&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGilbert1985" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1985). <i>The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War</i>. New York: Henry Holt. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8050-0348-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-8050-0348-7">0-8050-0348-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+A+History+of+the+Jews+of+Europe+During+the+Second+World+War&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Henry+Holt&amp;rft.date=1985&amp;rft.isbn=0-8050-0348-7&amp;rft.aulast=Gilbert&amp;rft.aufirst=Martin&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGiles1992" class="citation journal">Giles, Geoffrey J. (1992). "The Most Unkindest Cut of All: Castration, Homosexuality and Nazi Justice". <i><a href="/wiki/Journal_of_Contemporary_History" title="Journal of Contemporary History">Journal of Contemporary History</a></i>. <b>27</b> (1): 41–61. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1177%2F002200949202700103">10.1177/002200949202700103</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/260778">260778</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Contemporary+History&amp;rft.atitle=The+Most+Unkindest+Cut+of+All%3A+Castration%2C+Homosexuality+and+Nazi+Justice&amp;rft.volume=27&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=41-61&amp;rft.date=1992&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1177%2F002200949202700103&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F260778&amp;rft.aulast=Giles&amp;rft.aufirst=Geoffrey+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGray2015" class="citation book">Gray, Michael (2015). <i>Teaching the Holocaust: Practical Approaches for Ages 11–18</i>. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-317-65082-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-317-65082-9">978-1-317-65082-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Teaching+the+Holocaust%3A+Practical+Approaches+for+Ages+11%E2%80%9318&amp;rft.place=Abingdon+and+New+York&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-317-65082-9&amp;rft.aulast=Gray&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFGutman1994" class="citation book">Gutman, Israel (1994). <i>Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising</i>. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-395-60199-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-395-60199-1">0-395-60199-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Resistance%3A+The+Warsaw+Ghetto+Uprising&amp;rft.place=Boston%2C+MA&amp;rft.pub=Houghton+Mifflin&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.isbn=0-395-60199-1&amp;rft.aulast=Gutman&amp;rft.aufirst=Israel&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHanauske-Abel1996" class="citation journal">Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M. (7 December 1996). "Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and National Socialism in 1933". <i>BMJ</i>. <b>313</b> (7070): 1453–1463. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1136%2Fbmj.313.7070.1453">10.1136/bmj.313.7070.1453</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/29733730">29733730</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=BMJ&amp;rft.atitle=Not+a+slippery+slope+or+sudden+subversion%3A+German+medicine+and+National+Socialism+in+1933&amp;rft.volume=313&amp;rft.issue=7070&amp;rft.pages=1453-1463&amp;rft.date=1996-12-07&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1136%2Fbmj.313.7070.1453&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F29733730&amp;rft.aulast=Hanauske-Abel&amp;rft.aufirst=Hartmut+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHancock2004" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Ian_Hancock" title="Ian Hancock">Hancock, Ian</a> (2004). "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and Overview".  In Dan Stone. <i>The Historiography of the Holocaust</i>. New York,&#160;NY: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp.&#160;383–396.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Romanies+and+the+Holocaust%3A+A+Reevaluation+and+Overview&amp;rft.btitle=The+Historiography+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York%2C+NY&amp;rft.pages=383-396&amp;rft.pub=Palgrave-Macmillan&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.aulast=Hancock&amp;rft.aufirst=Ian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHarran2000" class="citation book">Harran, Marilyn J. (2000). <i>The Holocaust Chronicle</i>. Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7853-2963-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-7853-2963-3">0-7853-2963-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Chronicle&amp;rft.place=Lincolnwood%2C+IL&amp;rft.pub=Publications+International&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=0-7853-2963-3&amp;rft.aulast=Harran&amp;rft.aufirst=Marilyn+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHayes2015" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Peter_Hayes_(historian)" title="Peter Hayes (historian)">Hayes, Peter</a>, ed. (2015). <i>How Was It Possible?: A Holocaust Reader</i>. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=How+Was+It+Possible%3F%3A+A+Holocaust+Reader&amp;rft.place=Lincoln%2C+NE&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHilberg2003" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Raul_Hilberg" title="Raul Hilberg">Hilberg, Raul</a> (2003). <i>The Destruction of the European Jews</i> (3rd ed.). New Haven,&#160;CT: Yale University Press.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Destruction+of+the+European+Jews&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.edition=3rd&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.aulast=Hilberg&amp;rft.aufirst=Raul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHilberg1980" class="citation journal">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1980). "The Ghetto as a Form of Government". <i><a href="/wiki/Annals_of_the_American_Academy_of_Political_and_Social_Science" class="mw-redirect" title="Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science">Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science</a></i>. <b>450</b>: 98–112. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1177%2F000271628045000109">10.1177/000271628045000109</a>. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/1042561">1042561</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Annals+of+the+American+Academy+of+Political+and+Social+Science&amp;rft.atitle=The+Ghetto+as+a+Form+of+Government&amp;rft.volume=450&amp;rft.pages=98-112&amp;rft.date=1980&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1177%2F000271628045000109&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F1042561&amp;rft.aulast=Hilberg&amp;rft.aufirst=Raul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHilberg1993" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1993) [1992]. <i>Perpetrators Victims Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933–1945</i>. New York: HarperPerennial. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-06-099507-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-06-099507-6">0-06-099507-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Perpetrators+Victims+Bystanders%3A+The+Jewish+Catastrophe+1933%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=HarperPerennial&amp;rft.date=1993&amp;rft.isbn=0-06-099507-6&amp;rft.aulast=Hilberg&amp;rft.aufirst=Raul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHilberg1996" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1996). <i>The Politics of Memory: The Journey of a Holocaust Historian</i>. Chicago,&#160;IL: Ivan R. Dee. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1566631165" title="Special:BookSources/1566631165">1566631165</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Politics+of+Memory%3A+The+Journey+of+a+Holocaust+Historian&amp;rft.place=Chicago%2C+IL&amp;rft.pub=Ivan+R.+Dee&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.isbn=1566631165&amp;rft.aulast=Hilberg&amp;rft.aufirst=Raul&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHildebrand1984" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Klaus_Hildebrand" title="Klaus Hildebrand">Hildebrand, Klaus</a> (1984). <i>The Third Reich</i>. Translated by Falla, P. S. London: George Allen &amp; Unwin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-04-943033-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-04-943033-5">0-04-943033-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Third+Reich&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=George+Allen+%26+Unwin&amp;rft.date=1984&amp;rft.isbn=0-04-943033-5&amp;rft.aulast=Hildebrand&amp;rft.aufirst=Klaus&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHitchcock2008" class="citation book">Hitchcock, William I. (2008). <i>The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe</i>. New York: Free Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7432-7381-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7432-7381-7">978-0-7432-7381-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Bitter+Road+to+Freedom%3A+A+New+History+of+the+Liberation+of+Europe&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Free+Press&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7432-7381-7&amp;rft.aulast=Hitchcock&amp;rft.aufirst=William+I.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFHuttenbach2016" class="citation book">Huttenbach, Henry R. (2016) [1991]. "The Romani Pořajmos: The Nazi Genocide of Gypsies in Germany and Eastern Europe".  In Crowe, David; Kolsti, John. <i>The Gypsies of Eastern Europe</i>. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. pp.&#160;31–50. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-315-49024-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-315-49024-3">978-1-315-49024-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=The+Romani+Po%C5%99ajmos%3A+The+Nazi+Genocide+of+Gypsies+in+Germany+and+Eastern+Europe&amp;rft.btitle=The+Gypsies+of+Eastern+Europe&amp;rft.place=Abingdon+and+New+York&amp;rft.pages=31-50&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2016&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-315-49024-3&amp;rft.aulast=Huttenbach&amp;rft.aufirst=Henry+R.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFJones2006" class="citation book">Jones, Adam (2006). <i>Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction</i>. London: Routledge. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-415-35384-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-415-35384-X">0-415-35384-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Genocide%3A+A+Comprehensive+Introduction&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.isbn=0-415-35384-X&amp;rft.aulast=Jones&amp;rft.aufirst=Adam&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFKennedy2007" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/David_M._Kennedy" title="David M. Kennedy">Kennedy, David M.</a>, ed. (2007). <i>The Library of Congress World War II Companion</i>. New York: Simon &amp; Schuster. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7432-5219-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7432-5219-5">978-0-7432-5219-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Library+of+Congress+World+War+II+Companion&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Simon+%26+Schuster&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7432-5219-5&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFKershaw1998" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Ian_Kershaw" title="Ian Kershaw">Kershaw, Ian</a> (1998). <i>Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris</i>. New York: W. W. Norton. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-393-32035-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-393-32035-0">978-0-393-32035-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler+1889%E2%80%931936%3A+Hubris&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-393-32035-0&amp;rft.aulast=Kershaw&amp;rft.aufirst=Ian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFKershaw2000" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2000). <i>Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis</i>. New York: W. W. Norton. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-393-32252-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-393-32252-1">978-0-393-32252-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler+1936%E2%80%931945%3A+Nemesis&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=W.+W.+Norton&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-393-32252-1&amp;rft.aulast=Kershaw&amp;rft.aufirst=Ian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFKochanski2012" class="citation book">Kochanski, Halik (2012). <i>The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War</i>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-674-06814-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-674-06814-8">978-0-674-06814-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Eagle+Unbowed%3A+Poland+and+the+Poles+in+the+Second+World+War&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&amp;rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-674-06814-8&amp;rft.aulast=Kochanski&amp;rft.aufirst=Halik&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFKwiet2004" class="citation encyclopaedia">Kwiet, Konrad (2004). "Forced Labour of German Jews in Nazi Germany".  In Cesarani, David. <i>Holocaust: Concepts in Historical Studies: Volume II: From the Persecution of the Jews to Mass Murder</i>. London: Routledge. pp.&#160;59–81. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-415-27511-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-415-27511-3">0-415-27511-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Forced+Labour+of+German+Jews+in+Nazi+Germany&amp;rft.btitle=Holocaust%3A+Concepts+in+Historical+Studies%3A+Volume+II%3A+From+the+Persecution+of+the+Jews+to+Mass+Murder&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pages=59-81&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=0-415-27511-3&amp;rft.aulast=Kwiet&amp;rft.aufirst=Konrad&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLandau2016" class="citation book">Landau, Ronnie S. (2016) [1992]. <i>The Nazi Holocaust: Its History and Meaning</i>. London: I.B. Tauris. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-78076-971-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-78076-971-4">978-1-78076-971-4</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Holocaust%3A+Its+History+and+Meaning&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=I.B.+Tauris&amp;rft.date=2016&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-78076-971-4&amp;rft.aulast=Landau&amp;rft.aufirst=Ronnie+S.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLaqueur2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Laqueur, Walter (2001). "Jewish Brigade".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. p.&#160;351. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Jewish+Brigade&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=351&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Laqueur&amp;rft.aufirst=Walter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLichtblau2013" class="citation news">Lichtblau, Eric (1 March 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/03/sunday-review/the-holocaust-just-got-more-shocking.html">"The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking"</a>. <i>The New York Times</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2 March</span> 2013</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+New+York+Times&amp;rft.atitle=The+Holocaust+Just+Got+More+Shocking&amp;rft.date=2013-03-01&amp;rft.aulast=Lichtblau&amp;rft.aufirst=Eric&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2013%2F03%2F03%2Fsunday-review%2Fthe-holocaust-just-got-more-shocking.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLifton2000" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Robert_Jay_Lifton" title="Robert Jay Lifton">Lifton, Robert J.</a> (2000) [1986]. <i>The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide</i> (2000 ed.). New York: Basic Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-465-04905-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-465-04905-9">978-0-465-04905-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Doctors%3A+Medical+Killing+and+the+Psychology+of+Genocide&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.edition=2000&amp;rft.pub=Basic+Books&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-465-04905-9&amp;rft.aulast=Lifton&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLöb2009" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Ladislaus_L%C3%B6b" title="Ladislaus Löb">Löb, Ladislaus</a> (2009). <i>Rezso Kasztner. The Daring Rescue of Hungarian Jews: A Survivor's Account</i>. London: Random House/Pimlico.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Rezso+Kasztner.+The+Daring+Rescue+of+Hungarian+Jews%3A+A+Survivor%27s+Account&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Random+House%2FPimlico&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.aulast=L%C3%B6b&amp;rft.aufirst=Ladislaus&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLongerich2010" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Peter_Longerich" title="Peter Longerich">Longerich, Peter</a> (2010). <i>Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews</i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-280436-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-280436-5">978-0-19-280436-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Holocaust%3A+The+Nazi+Persecution+and+Murder+of+the+Jews&amp;rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-19-280436-5&amp;rft.aulast=Longerich&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLongerich2012" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2012). <i>Heinrich Himmler</i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-959232-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-959232-6">978-0-19-959232-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Heinrich+Himmler&amp;rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-19-959232-6&amp;rft.aulast=Longerich&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLukas2012" class="citation book">Lukas, Richard C. (2012). <i>The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation 1939–1944</i> (Third ed.). New York: Hippocrene Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7818-1302-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7818-1302-0">978-0-7818-1302-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Forgotten+Holocaust%3A+The+Poles+under+German+Occupation+1939%E2%80%931944&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.edition=Third&amp;rft.pub=Hippocrene+Books&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7818-1302-0&amp;rft.aulast=Lukas&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+C.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLusane2003" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Clarence_Lusane" title="Clarence Lusane">Lusane, Clarence</a> (2003). <i>Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experience of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans and African Americans in the Nazi Era</i>. London; New York: Routledge.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Black+Victims%3A+The+Historical+Experience+of+Afro-Germans%2C+European+Blacks%2C+Africans+and+African+Americans+in+the+Nazi+Era&amp;rft.place=London%3B+New+York&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.aulast=Lusane&amp;rft.aufirst=Clarence&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFLustigmanLustigman1994" class="citation journal">Lustigman, Marsha; Lustigman, Michael M. (16 October 1994). "Bibliographic Classification of Documents Dealing with the Subject 'Holocaust<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>". Alexandria, VA: 5th ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop: 111–120. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.7152%2Facro.v5i1.1378">10.7152/acro.v5i1.1378</a> (inactive 2018-05-29).</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Bibliographic+Classification+of+Documents+Dealing+with+the+Subject+%27Holocaust%27&amp;rft.pages=111-120&amp;rft.date=1994-10-16&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.7152%2Facro.v5i1.1378&amp;rft.aulast=Lustigman&amp;rft.aufirst=Marsha&amp;rft.au=Lustigman%2C+Michael+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMaier1997" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Charles_S._Maier" title="Charles S. Maier">Maier, Charles S.</a> (1997) [1988]. <i>The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity</i> (Reprint ed.). Cambridge,&#160;MA: Harvard University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-674-92977-2" title="Special:BookSources/0-674-92977-2">0-674-92977-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Unmasterable+Past%3A+History%2C+Holocaust%2C+and+German+National+Identity&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&amp;rft.edition=Reprint&amp;rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.isbn=0-674-92977-2&amp;rft.aulast=Maier&amp;rft.aufirst=Charles+S.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMarrus1987" class="citation book">Marrus, Michael R. (1987). <i>The Holocaust in History</i>. New York: Meridian. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-452-00953-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-452-00953-7">0-452-00953-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+in+History&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Meridian&amp;rft.date=1987&amp;rft.isbn=0-452-00953-7&amp;rft.aulast=Marrus&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael+R.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMarrus2015" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (2015). "Series Preface".  In Marrus, Michael R. <i>The Nazi Holocaust. Part 1: Perspectives on the Holocaust</i>. Westport and London: Meckler.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Series+Preface&amp;rft.btitle=The+Nazi+Holocaust.+Part+1%3A+Perspectives+on+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Westport+and+London&amp;rft.pub=Meckler&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rft.aulast=Marrus&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael+R.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMatthäus2004" class="citation encyclopaedia">Matthäus, Jürgen (2004). "Operation Barbarossa and the Onset of the Holocaust, June–December 1941". <i>The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939&#160;– March 1942</i>. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp.&#160;244–308. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8032-1327-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-8032-1327-1">0-8032-1327-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Operation+Barbarossa+and+the+Onset+of+the+Holocaust%2C+June%E2%80%93December+1941&amp;rft.btitle=The+Origins+of+the+Final+Solution%3A+The+Evolution+of+Nazi+Jewish+Policy%2C+September+1939+%E2%80%93+March+1942&amp;rft.place=Lincoln%2C+NE&amp;rft.pages=244-308&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=0-8032-1327-1&amp;rft.aulast=Matth%C3%A4us&amp;rft.aufirst=J%C3%BCrgen&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMazower2008" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Mark_Mazower" title="Mark Mazower">Mazower, Mark</a> (2008). <i>Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe</i>. New York: Penguin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-59420-188-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-59420-188-2">978-1-59420-188-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Empire%3A+Nazi+Rule+in+Occupied+Europe&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Penguin&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-59420-188-2&amp;rft.aulast=Mazower&amp;rft.aufirst=Mark&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMcKale2002" class="citation book">McKale, Donald M. (2002). <i>Hitler's Shadow War: The Holocaust and World War II</i>. New York: Cooper Square Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8154-1211-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-8154-1211-8">0-8154-1211-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler%27s+Shadow+War%3A+The+Holocaust+and+World+War+II&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Cooper+Square+Press&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=0-8154-1211-8&amp;rft.aulast=McKale&amp;rft.aufirst=Donald+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMichman2012" class="citation encyclopaedia">Michman, Dan (2012) [2010]. "Jews".  In Hayse, Peter; Roth, John K. <i>The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies</i>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp.&#160;185–202. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-966882-3" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-966882-3">978-0-19-966882-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Jews&amp;rft.btitle=The+Oxford+Handbook+of+Holocaust+Studies&amp;rft.place=Oxford%2C+UK&amp;rft.pages=185-202&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-19-966882-3&amp;rft.aulast=Michman&amp;rft.aufirst=Dan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMilton2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Milton, Sybil (2001). "Jehovah's Witnesses".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;346–350. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Jehovah%27s+Witnesses&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=346-350&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Milton&amp;rft.aufirst=Sybil&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMontague2012" class="citation book">Montague, Patrick (2012). <i>Chelmno and the Holocaust: A History of Hitler's First Death Camp</i>. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8078-3527-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8078-3527-2">978-0-8078-3527-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Chelmno+and+the+Holocaust%3A+A+History+of+Hitler%27s+First+Death+Camp&amp;rft.place=Chapel+Hill%2C+NC&amp;rft.pub=University+of+North+Carolina+Press&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8078-3527-2&amp;rft.aulast=Montague&amp;rft.aufirst=Patrick&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFMüller-Hill1999" class="citation journal"><a href="/wiki/Benno_M%C3%BCller-Hill" title="Benno Müller-Hill">Müller-Hill, Benno</a> (1999). "The Blood from Auschwitz and the Silence of the Scholars". <i>History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences</i>. <b>21</b> (3): 331–365. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.jstor.org/stable/23332180">23332180</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=History+and+Philosophy+of+the+Life+Sciences&amp;rft.atitle=The+Blood+from+Auschwitz+and+the+Silence+of+the+Scholars&amp;rft.volume=21&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=331-365&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fstable%2F23332180&amp;rft.aulast=M%C3%BCller-Hill&amp;rft.aufirst=Benno&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFNaimark2001" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Norman_Naimark" title="Norman Naimark">Naimark, Norman M.</a> (2001). <i>Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe</i>. Cambridge,&#160;MA: Harvard University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-674-00313-6" title="Special:BookSources/0-674-00313-6">0-674-00313-6</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Fires+of+Hatred%3A+Ethnic+Cleansing+in+Twentieth-Century+Europe&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&amp;rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-674-00313-6&amp;rft.aulast=Naimark&amp;rft.aufirst=Norman+M.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFNiewykNicosia2000" class="citation book">Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). <i>The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust</i>. New York: Columbia University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-231-11200-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-231-11200-9">0-231-11200-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Columbia+Guide+to+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Columbia+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=0-231-11200-9&amp;rft.aulast=Niewyk&amp;rft.aufirst=Donald+L.&amp;rft.au=Nicosia%2C+Francis+R.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFNoakesPridham1983" class="citation book">Noakes, Jeremy; Pridham, Geoffrey (1983). <i>Nazism: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, 1919–1945</i>. Schocken Books.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Nazism%3A+A+History+in+Documents+and+Eyewitness+Accounts%2C+1919%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.pub=Schocken+Books&amp;rft.date=1983&amp;rft.aulast=Noakes&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeremy&amp;rft.au=Pridham%2C+Geoffrey&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFNovick2000" class="citation book">Novick, Peter (2000) [1999]. <i>The Holocaust in American Life</i>. New York: Houghton Mifflin. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-618-08232-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-618-08232-8">0-618-08232-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+in+American+Life&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Houghton+Mifflin&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=0-618-08232-8&amp;rft.aulast=Novick&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFPeukert1987" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Detlev_Peukert" title="Detlev Peukert">Peukert, Detlev</a> (1987) [1982]. <i>Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition and Racism In Everyday Life</i>. Translated by Deveson, Richard. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-04480-1" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-04480-1">0-300-04480-1</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Inside+Nazi+Germany%3A+Conformity%2C+Opposition+and+Racism+In+Everyday+Life&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1987&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-04480-1&amp;rft.aulast=Peukert&amp;rft.aufirst=Detlev&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFPeukert1994" class="citation encyclopaedia">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1994). "The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' from the Spirit of Science".  In Crew, David F. <i>Nazism and German Society, 1933–1945</i>. London: Routledge. pp.&#160;274–299. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-415-08240-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-415-08240-4">0-415-08240-4</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=The+Genesis+of+the+%27Final+Solution%27+from+the+Spirit+of+Science&amp;rft.btitle=Nazism+and+German+Society%2C+1933%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pages=274-299&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.isbn=0-415-08240-4&amp;rft.aulast=Peukert&amp;rft.aufirst=Detlev&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFPiotrowski1998" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Tadeusz_Piotrowski_(sociologist)" title="Tadeusz Piotrowski (sociologist)">Piotrowski, Tadeusz</a> (1998). <i>Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration With Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918–1947</i>. Jefferson,&#160;NC: McFarland &amp; Company.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Poland%27s+Holocaust%3A+Ethnic+Strife%2C+Collaboration+With+Occupying+Forces+and+Genocide+in+the+Second+Republic%2C+1918%E2%80%931947&amp;rft.place=Jefferson%2C+NC&amp;rft.pub=McFarland+%26+Company&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.aulast=Piotrowski&amp;rft.aufirst=Tadeusz&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFPiper1998b" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Franciszek_Piper" title="Franciszek Piper">Piper, Franciszek</a> (1998b) [1994]. "Gas chambers and Crematoria".  In <a href="/wiki/Yisrael_Gutman" class="mw-redirect" title="Yisrael Gutman">Gutman, Yisrael</a>; <a href="/wiki/Michael_Berenbaum" title="Michael Berenbaum">Berenbaum, Michael</a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp</i>. Bloomington,&#160;IN: Indiana University Press. pp.&#160;157–182. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-253-20884-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-253-20884-X">0-253-20884-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Gas+chambers+and+Crematoria&amp;rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&amp;rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&amp;rft.pages=157-182&amp;rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&amp;rft.aulast=Piper&amp;rft.aufirst=Franciszek&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFPiper1998a" class="citation book">&#8212;&#8212;&#8212; (1998a) [1994]. "The Number of Victims".  In <a href="/wiki/Yisrael_Gutman" class="mw-redirect" title="Yisrael Gutman">Gutman, Yisrael</a>; <a href="/wiki/Michael_Berenbaum" title="Michael Berenbaum">Berenbaum, Michael</a>. <i>Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp</i>. Bloomington,&#160;IN: Indiana University Press. pp.&#160;61–80. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-253-20884-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-253-20884-X">0-253-20884-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=The+Number+of+Victims&amp;rft.btitle=Anatomy+of+the+Auschwitz+Death+Camp&amp;rft.place=Bloomington%2C+IN&amp;rft.pages=61-80&amp;rft.pub=Indiana+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.isbn=0-253-20884-X&amp;rft.aulast=Piper&amp;rft.aufirst=Franciszek&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFPolonsky2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Polonsky, Antony (2001). "Polish Jewry".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;486–493. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Polish+Jewry&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pages=486-493&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Polonsky&amp;rft.aufirst=Antony&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFProctor1988" class="citation book">Proctor, Robert (1988). <i>Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis</i>. Cambridge,&#160;MA: Harvard University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-674-74578-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-674-74578-7">0-674-74578-7</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Racial+Hygiene%3A+Medicine+Under+the+Nazis&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&amp;rft.pub=Harvard+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1988&amp;rft.isbn=0-674-74578-7&amp;rft.aulast=Proctor&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFRees2005" class="citation book">Rees, Laurence (2005). <i>Auschwitz: A New History</i>. New York: Public Affairs. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-58648-303-X" title="Special:BookSources/1-58648-303-X">1-58648-303-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Auschwitz%3A+A+New+History&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Public+Affairs&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.isbn=1-58648-303-X&amp;rft.aulast=Rees&amp;rft.aufirst=Laurence&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFRhodes2002" class="citation book">Rhodes, Richard (2002). <i>Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust</i>. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0375409004" title="Special:BookSources/978-0375409004">978-0375409004</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Masters+of+Death%3A+The+SS-Einsatzgruppen+and+the+Invention+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Alfred+A.+Knopf&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=978-0375409004&amp;rft.aulast=Rhodes&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFRoseman2003" class="citation book">Roseman, Mark (2003). <i>The Villa, The Lake, The Meeting: Wannsee and the Final Solution</i>. London: Penguin Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9-780-1419-2831-9" title="Special:BookSources/9-780-1419-2831-9">9-780-1419-2831-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Villa%2C+The+Lake%2C+The+Meeting%3A+Wannsee+and+the+Final+Solution&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Penguin+Books&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.isbn=9-780-1419-2831-9&amp;rft.aulast=Roseman&amp;rft.aufirst=Mark&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFRozett1990" class="citation encyclopaedia">Rozett, Robert (1990). "Railways, German".  In <a href="/wiki/Israel_Gutman" title="Israel Gutman">Gutman, Israel</a>. <i>Encyclopedia of the Holocaust</i>. New York: Macmillan Library Reference. pp.&#160;1221–1223. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-02-896090-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-02-896090-4">0-02-896090-4</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Railways%2C+German&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pages=1221-1223&amp;rft.pub=Macmillan+Library+Reference&amp;rft.date=1990&amp;rft.isbn=0-02-896090-4&amp;rft.aulast=Rozett&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFRozettSpector2013" class="citation book">Rozett, Robert; Spector, Shmuel, eds. (2013). <i>Encyclopedia of the Holocaust</i>. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1135969574" title="Special:BookSources/1135969574">1135969574</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Abingdon+and+New+York&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2013&amp;rft.isbn=1135969574&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFRummel1992" class="citation book">Rummel, R. J. (1992). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NAZIS.CHAP1.HTM"><i>Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder</i></a>. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publications.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Democide%3A+Nazi+Genocide+and+Mass+Murder&amp;rft.place=New+Brunswick%2C+NJ&amp;rft.pub=Transaction+Publications&amp;rft.date=1992&amp;rft.aulast=Rummel&amp;rft.aufirst=R.+J.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hawaii.edu%2Fpowerkills%2FNAZIS.CHAP1.HTM&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFSamuels2009" class="citation book">Samuels, Simon (2009). "Applying the Lessons of the Holocaust".  In Alan S. Rosenbaum. <a href="/wiki/Is_the_Holocaust_Unique%3F" title="Is the Holocaust Unique?"><i>Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide</i></a>. Boulder, CO Philadelphia, PA: Westview Press Perseus Books Group distributor. pp.&#160;259–270. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8133-4406-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8133-4406-5">978-0-8133-4406-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Applying+the+Lessons+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.btitle=Is+the+Holocaust+Unique%3F+Perspectives+on+Comparative+Genocide&amp;rft.place=Boulder%2C+CO+Philadelphia%2C+PA&amp;rft.pages=259-270&amp;rft.pub=Westview+Press+Perseus+Books+Group+distributor&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8133-4406-5&amp;rft.aulast=Samuels&amp;rft.aufirst=Simon&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFSnyder1976" class="citation book">Snyder, Louis (1976). <i>Encyclopedia of the Third Reich</i>. New York: McGraw Hill. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-07-059525-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-07-059525-9">0-07-059525-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclopedia+of+the+Third+Reich&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=McGraw+Hill&amp;rft.date=1976&amp;rft.isbn=0-07-059525-9&amp;rft.aulast=Snyder&amp;rft.aufirst=Louis&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFSnyder2010" class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Timothy_D._Snyder" title="Timothy D. Snyder">Snyder, Timothy</a> (2010). <i><a href="/wiki/Bloodlands:_Europe_Between_Hitler_and_Stalin" class="mw-redirect" title="Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin">Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin</a></i>. New York: Basic Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-465-00239-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-465-00239-9">978-0-465-00239-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Bloodlands%3A+Europe+Between+Hitler+and+Stalin&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Basic+Books&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-465-00239-9&amp;rft.aulast=Snyder&amp;rft.aufirst=Timothy&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFSteakley1974" class="citation journal">Steakley, James (January–February 1974). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/steakley-nazis.html">"Homosexuals and the Third Reich"</a>. <i>The Body Politic</i> (11).</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Body+Politic&amp;rft.atitle=Homosexuals+and+the+Third+Reich&amp;rft.issue=11&amp;rft.date=1974-01%2F1974-02&amp;rft.aulast=Steakley&amp;rft.aufirst=James&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fordham.edu%2Fhalsall%2Fpwh%2Fsteakley-nazis.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFSpector1990" class="citation journal">Spector, Shmuel (1 January 1990). "Aktion 1005—Effacing the murder of millions". <i>Holocaust and Genocide Studies</i>. <b>5</b> (2): 157–173. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1093%2Fhgs%2F5.2.157">10.1093/hgs/5.2.157</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Holocaust+and+Genocide+Studies&amp;rft.atitle=Aktion+1005%E2%80%94Effacing+the+murder+of+millions&amp;rft.volume=5&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=157-173&amp;rft.date=1990-01-01&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fhgs%2F5.2.157&amp;rft.aulast=Spector&amp;rft.aufirst=Shmuel&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFStone2010" class="citation book">Stone, Dan (2010). <i>Histories of the Holocaust</i>. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-956679-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-956679-2">978-0-19-956679-2</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Histories+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=Oxford+New+York&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2010&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-19-956679-2&amp;rft.aulast=Stone&amp;rft.aufirst=Dan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFStrous2007" class="citation journal">Strous, Rael D. (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/6/1/8">"Psychiatry during the Nazi Era: Ethical Lessons for the Modern Professional"</a>. <i>Annals of General Psychiatry</i>. <b>6</b> (8): 8. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1186%2F1744-859X-6-8">10.1186/1744-859X-6-8</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a>&#160;<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828151">1828151</a></span>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17326822">17326822</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Annals+of+General+Psychiatry&amp;rft.atitle=Psychiatry+during+the+Nazi+Era%3A+Ethical+Lessons+for+the+Modern+Professional&amp;rft.volume=6&amp;rft.issue=8&amp;rft.pages=8&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC1828151&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F17326822&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1186%2F1744-859X-6-8&amp;rft.aulast=Strous&amp;rft.aufirst=Rael+D.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.annals-general-psychiatry.com%2Fcontent%2F6%2F1%2F8&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFSzafranski1960" class="citation encyclopaedia">Szafranski, Jan (1960). "Poland's Losses in World War II". <i>1939-1945 War Losses in Poland</i>. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Zachodnie. pp.&#160;39–72.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Poland%27s+Losses+in+World+War+II&amp;rft.btitle=1939-1945+War+Losses+in+Poland&amp;rft.place=Warsaw&amp;rft.pages=39-72&amp;rft.pub=Wydawnictwo+Zachodnie&amp;rft.date=1960&amp;rft.aulast=Szafranski&amp;rft.aufirst=Jan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFTec2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Tec, Nechama (2001). "Resistance in Eastern Europe".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;543–550. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Resistance+in+Eastern+Europe&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=543-550&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Tec&amp;rft.aufirst=Nechama&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFTrunk1996" class="citation book">Trunk, Isaiah (1996) [1972]. <i>Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation</i>. Lincoln,&#160;NE: University of Nebraska Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8032-9428-X" title="Special:BookSources/0-8032-9428-X">0-8032-9428-X</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Judenrat%3A+The+Jewish+Councils+in+Eastern+Europe+under+Nazi+Occupation&amp;rft.place=Lincoln%2C+NE&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.isbn=0-8032-9428-X&amp;rft.aulast=Trunk&amp;rft.aufirst=Isaiah&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFUnited_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum1996" class="citation book">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (1996). <i>Historical Atlas of the Holocaust</i>. New York: Macmillan. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-02-897451-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-02-897451-4">0-02-897451-4</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Historical+Atlas+of+the+Holocaust&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Macmillan&amp;rft.date=1996&amp;rft.isbn=0-02-897451-4&amp;rft.au=United+States+Holocaust+Memorial+Museum&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFWachsmann2015" class="citation book">Wachsmann, Nikolaus (2015). <i>Kl: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps</i>. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-374-11825-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-374-11825-9">978-0-374-11825-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Kl%3A+A+History+of+the+Nazi+Concentration+Camps&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Farrar%2C+Straus+and+Giroux&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-374-11825-9&amp;rft.aulast=Wachsmann&amp;rft.aufirst=Nikolaus&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFWeinberg2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Weinberg, David (2001). "France".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;213–222. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=France&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=213-222&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Weinberg&amp;rft.aufirst=David&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFYahil1990" class="citation book">Yahil, Leni (1990). <i>The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945</i>. New York: Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-19-504523-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-19-504523-9">978-0-19-504523-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%3A+The+Fate+of+European+Jewry%2C+1932%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1990&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-19-504523-9&amp;rft.aulast=Yahil&amp;rft.aufirst=Leni&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFZimmerman2015" class="citation book">Zimmerman, Joshua D. (2015). <i>The Polish Underground and the Jews, 1939–1945</i>. New York: Cambridge University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-1070-1426-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-1070-1426-8">978-1-1070-1426-8</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Polish+Underground+and+the+Jews%2C+1939%E2%80%931945&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2015&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-1070-1426-8&amp;rft.aulast=Zimmerman&amp;rft.aufirst=Joshua+D.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFZuccotti1993" class="citation book">Zuccotti, Susan (1993). <i>The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews</i>. New York: Basic Books. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-465-03034-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-465-03034-3">0-465-03034-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust%2C+the+French%2C+and+the+Jews&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=Basic+Books&amp;rft.date=1993&amp;rft.isbn=0-465-03034-3&amp;rft.aulast=Zuccotti&amp;rft.aufirst=Susan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd>
<dd><cite id="CITEREFZweig2001" class="citation encyclopaedia">Zweig, Ronald (2001). "Reparations, German".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;530–532. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Reparations%2C+German&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=530-532&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Zweig&amp;rft.aufirst=Ronald&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></dd></dl>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
<p><b>Books</b>
</p>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Bibliography_of_The_Holocaust" title="Bibliography of The Holocaust">Bibliography of The Holocaust</a></div>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r853264625"/><div class="refbegin" style="">
<ul><li><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">Benz, Wolfgang (2001). "Death Toll".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp.&#160;137–145. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Death+Toll&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.pages=137-145&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Benz&amp;rft.aufirst=Wolfgang&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Dwork, Deborah; van Pelt, Robert Jan (2008). <i>Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present</i> (Revised and expanded ed.). New York: Norton. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-393-32291-0" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-393-32291-0">978-0-393-32291-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Auschwitz%3A+1270+to+the+Present&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.edition=Revised+and+expanded&amp;rft.pub=Norton&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-393-32291-0&amp;rft.aulast=Dwork&amp;rft.aufirst=Deborah&amp;rft.au=van+Pelt%2C+Robert+Jan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book">Fleming, Gerald (1994) [1984]. <i>Hitler and the Final Solution</i>. Berkeley &amp; Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-520-06022-9" title="Special:BookSources/0-520-06022-9">0-520-06022-9</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler+and+the+Final+Solution&amp;rft.place=Berkeley+%26+Los+Angeles%2C+CA&amp;rft.pub=University+of+California+Press&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.isbn=0-520-06022-9&amp;rft.aulast=Fleming&amp;rft.aufirst=Gerald&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation encyclopaedia">Keren, Nili (2001). "Children".  In Laqueur, Walter. <i>The Holocaust Encyclopedia</i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-08432-3">0-300-08432-3</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=Children&amp;rft.btitle=The+Holocaust+Encyclopedia&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-08432-3&amp;rft.aulast=Keren&amp;rft.aufirst=Nili&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></li>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Ian_Kershaw" title="Ian Kershaw">Kershaw, Ian</a> (2008). <i>Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution</i>. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-300-15127-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-300-15127-5">978-0-300-15127-5</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Hitler%2C+the+Germans%2C+and+the+Final+Solution&amp;rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&amp;rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-300-15127-5&amp;rft.aulast=Kershaw&amp;rft.aufirst=Ian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AThe+Holocaust" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r879151008"/></li></ul>
</div>
<p><b>External links</b>
</p>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.science.co.il/jewish/Holocaust-museums.php">Global Directory of Holocaust Museums</a>.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.h-net.org/~holoweb/">H-Holocaust</a>, H-Net discussion list for librarians, scholars and advanced students.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online_documents/holocaust.html">Online documents available from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library</a>.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.wienerlibrary.co.uk/">The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust &amp; Genocide</a>.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ushmm.org/educators/teaching-about-the-holocaust/common-questions">"Common Questions about the Holocaust"</a>, <a href="/wiki/United_States_Holocaust_Memorial_Museum" title="United States Holocaust Memorial Museum">United States Holocaust Memorial Museum</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/wannsee.asp">"Wannsee Protocol, January 20, 1942"</a>, <a href="/wiki/Avalon_Project" title="Avalon Project">Avalon Project</a>.</li>
<li>Stills from Soviet documentary "The Atrocities committed by German Fascists in the USSR" (<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-w5GLwBwN-0&amp;index=94&amp;list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9">(1)</a>; <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_4WoQfz-N0&amp;index=95&amp;list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9">(2)</a>; <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knCKIny5NPU&amp;index=96&amp;list=PL06DE3D4B636D50C9">(3)</a>)</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtRDt6uAB0U">Nazi Concentration and Prison Camps (1945)</a>, Nuremberg Trials Documentary]</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.holocaustchronicle.org/index.html">The Holocaust Chronicle</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/">Holocaust Education &amp; Archive Research Team</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=5kkEAAAAMBAJ&amp;pg=PA81">"Human laboratory animals"</a>. <i>Life</i> magazine, 22(8), 24 February 1947, pp.&#160;81–84.</li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Antisemitism" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Antisemitism_topics" title="Template:Antisemitism topics"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Antisemitism_topics" title="Template talk:Antisemitism topics"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Antisemitism_topics&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Antisemitism" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism" title="Antisemitism">Antisemitism</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Core topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Xenophobia" title="Xenophobia">Xenophobia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_antisemitism" title="History of antisemitism">History</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_antisemitism" title="Timeline of antisemitism">Timeline</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_antisemitism_in_the_19th_century" title="Timeline of antisemitism in the 19th century">19th <abbr title="Century">C.</abbr></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_antisemitism_in_the_20th_century" title="Timeline of antisemitism in the 20th century">20th</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_antisemitism_in_the_21st_century" title="Timeline of antisemitism in the 21st century">21st</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Geography_of_antisemitism" title="Geography of antisemitism">Geography</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Religious_antisemitism" title="Religious antisemitism">Religious antisemitism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitic_canard" title="Antisemitic canard">Canards</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Jews" title="Persecution of Jews">Persecution of Jews</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_antisemitism" title="New antisemitism">New antisemitism</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/3D_Test_of_Antisemitism" class="mw-redirect" title="3D Test of Antisemitism">3D Test</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Working_Definition_of_Antisemitism" title="Working Definition of Antisemitism">Working Definition</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Racial_antisemitism" title="Racial antisemitism">Racial antisemitism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Secondary_antisemitism" title="Secondary antisemitism">Secondary antisemitism</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Antisemitism and</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Christianity_and_antisemitism" class="mw-redirect" title="Christianity and antisemitism">Christianity</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Islam_and_antisemitism" class="mw-redirect" title="Islam and antisemitism">Islam</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nation_of_Islam_and_antisemitism" title="Nation of Islam and antisemitism">the Nation of Islam</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Universities_and_antisemitism" title="Universities and antisemitism">Universities</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Related topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Anti-Zionism" title="Anti-Zionism">Anti-Zionism</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/The_International_Jew" title="The International Jew">The International Jew</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jewish_Bolshevism" title="Jewish Bolshevism">Jewish Bolshevism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ku_Klux_Klan" title="Ku Klux Klan">Ku Klux Klan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Propaganda_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Propaganda in Nazi Germany">Nazi propaganda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philo-Semitism" title="Philo-Semitism">Philo-Semitism</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/The_Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion" title="The Protocols of the Elders of Zion">The Protocols of the Elders of Zion</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Self-hating_Jew" title="Self-hating Jew">Self-hating Jew</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Religious_antisemitism" title="Religious antisemitism">Religious antisemitism</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Anti-Judaism" title="Anti-Judaism">Anti-Judaism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Martin_Luther_and_antisemitism" title="Martin Luther and antisemitism">Martin Luther</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Spanish_Inquisition" title="Spanish Inquisition">Spanish Inquisition</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Portuguese_Inquisition" title="Portuguese Inquisition">Portuguese Inquisition</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Blood_curse" title="Blood curse">Blood curse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Blood_libel" title="Blood libel">Blood libel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Host_desecration" title="Host desecration">Host desecration</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Judensau" title="Judensau">Judensau</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pogrom" title="Pogrom">Pogrom</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Antisemitic laws, policies<br />and government actions</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ghetto_benches" title="Ghetto benches">Ghetto benches</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hep-Hep_riots" title="Hep-Hep riots">Hep-Hep riots</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pogrom#In_the_Russian_Empire" title="Pogrom">Pogroms in the Russian Empire</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/May_Laws" title="May Laws">May Laws</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/1968_Polish_political_crisis" title="1968 Polish political crisis">1968 Polish political crisis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Leo_Frank" title="Leo Frank">Leo Frank trial (USA)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dreyfus_affair" title="Dreyfus affair">Dreyfus Affair (France)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Farhud" title="Farhud">Farhud (Iraq)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/General_Order_No._11_(1862)" title="General Order No. 11 (1862)">General Order No. 11 (USA, 1862)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Historical_negationism" title="Historical negationism">Historical revisionism (negationism)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazism" title="Nazism">Nazi</a> <a href="/wiki/Nazi_Germany" title="Nazi Germany">Germany</a> <a class="mw-selflink selflink">and the Holocaust</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany" title="Racial policy of Nazi Germany">Racial policy of Nazi Germany</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_denial" title="Holocaust denial">Holocaust denial</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zionist_Occupation_Government_conspiracy_theory" title="Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory">The Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Antisemitic websites</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bible_Believers" title="Bible Believers">Bible Believers</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Daily_Stormer" title="The Daily Stormer">The Daily Stormer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Institute_for_Historical_Review" title="Institute for Historical Review">Institute for Historical Review</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jew_Watch" title="Jew Watch">Jew Watch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Metapedia" title="Metapedia">Metapedia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Craig_Cobb" title="Craig Cobb">Podblanc</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Radio_Islam" title="Radio Islam">Radio Islam</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Redwatch" title="Redwatch">Redwatch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Right_Stuff_(blog)" title="The Right Stuff (blog)">The Right Stuff</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stormfront_(website)" title="Stormfront (website)">Stormfront</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Organizations working<br />against antisemitism</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Anti-Defamation_League" title="Anti-Defamation League">Anti-Defamation League (ADL)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bay_Area_Holocaust_Oral_History_Project" title="Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project">Bay Area Holocaust Oral History Project (BAHOHP)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Community_Security_Trust" title="Community Security Trust">Community Security Trust</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Middle_East_Media_Research_Institute" title="Middle East Media Research Institute">Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Simon_Wiesenthal_Center" title="Simon Wiesenthal Center">Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Southern_Poverty_Law_Center" title="Southern Poverty Law Center">Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stephen_Roth_Institute" title="Stephen Roth Institute">Stephen Roth Institute</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yad_Vashem" title="Yad Vashem">Yad Vashem</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Locations</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_the_Arab_world" title="Antisemitism in the Arab world">Arab world</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Europe" title="Antisemitism in Europe">Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_contemporary_Austria" title="Antisemitism in contemporary Austria">Austria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Canada" title="Antisemitism in Canada">Canada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_21st-century_France" title="Antisemitism in 21st-century France">France</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Greece" title="Antisemitism in Greece">Greece</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_contemporary_Hungary" title="Antisemitism in contemporary Hungary">Hungary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_21st-century_Italy" title="Antisemitism in 21st-century Italy">Italy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Japan" title="Antisemitism in Japan">Japan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Norway" title="Antisemitism in Norway">Norway</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Pakistan" title="Antisemitism in Pakistan">Pakistan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Russia" title="Antisemitism in Russia">Russia</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_the_Russian_Empire" title="Antisemitism in the Russian Empire">Imperial</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_the_Soviet_Union" title="Antisemitism in the Soviet Union">Soviet</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Spain" title="Antisemitism in Spain">Spain</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Sweden" title="Antisemitism in Sweden">Sweden</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Turkey" title="Antisemitism in Turkey">Turkey</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Ukraine" title="Antisemitism in Ukraine">Ukraine</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_the_United_Kingdom" title="Antisemitism in the United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_the_United_States" title="Antisemitism in the United States">United States</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antisemitism_in_Venezuela" title="Antisemitism in Venezuela">Venezuela</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="More_articles_related_to_The_Holocaust" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background:#e8e8ff;"><div id="More_articles_related_to_The_Holocaust" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">More articles related to The Holocaust</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px;font-size:114%"><div style="padding:0px">
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="The_Holocaust" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:The_Holocaust" title="Template:The Holocaust"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:The_Holocaust" title="Template talk:The Holocaust"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:The_Holocaust&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="The_Holocaust" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">The Holocaust</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">By territory</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Albania" title="The Holocaust in Albania">Albania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Austria#The_Holocaust_in_Austria" title="History of the Jews in Austria">Austria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus" title="The Holocaust in Belarus">Belarus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Belgium" title="The Holocaust in Belgium">Belgium</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_the_Independent_State_of_Croatia" title="The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia">Croatia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_the_Czech_Republic" title="History of the Jews in the Czech Republic">Czech Republic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia" title="The Holocaust in Estonia">Estonia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_France" title="The Holocaust in France">France</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Germany" class="mw-redirect" title="The Holocaust in Germany">Germany</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Greece" class="mw-redirect" title="The Holocaust in Greece">Greece</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_in_Hungary" class="mw-redirect" title="Holocaust in Hungary">Hungary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Italy" title="The Holocaust in Italy">Italy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Latvia" title="The Holocaust in Latvia">Latvia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Lithuania" title="The Holocaust in Lithuania">Lithuania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Luxembourg" title="The Holocaust in Luxembourg">Luxembourg</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_the_Netherlands#Implementation_of_the_Final_Solution_in_the_Netherlands" title="History of the Jews in the Netherlands">The Netherlands</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Norway" title="The Holocaust in Norway">Norway</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Poland" title="The Holocaust in Poland">Poland</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Romania" class="mw-redirect" title="The Holocaust in Romania">Romania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Russia" title="The Holocaust in Russia">Russia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Serbia" title="The Holocaust in Serbia">Serbia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Slovakia" title="The Holocaust in Slovakia">Slovakia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Ukraine" title="The Holocaust in Ukraine">Ukraine</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Lists and<br />timelines</div></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_victims_of_Nazism" title="List of victims of Nazism">Victims of Nazism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Holocaust_survivors" title="List of Holocaust survivors">Holocaust survivors</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_survivors_of_Sobib%C3%B3r" title="List of survivors of Sobibór">Sobibór</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_victims_and_survivors_of_Auschwitz" title="List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz">Victims and survivors of Auschwitz</a></li></ul>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bibliography_of_The_Holocaust" title="Bibliography of The Holocaust">Books and other resources</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Holocaust_films" title="List of Holocaust films">Films</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_villages_and_towns_depopulated_of_Jews_during_the_Holocaust" title="List of villages and towns depopulated of Jews during the Holocaust">Depopulated shtetls</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps" title="List of Nazi concentration camps">Nazi concentration camps</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_ideologues" title="List of Nazi ideologues">Nazi ideologues</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_ghettos" title="List of Nazi ghettos">Nazi ghettos</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Individuals_and_groups_assisting_Jews_during_the_Holocaust" class="mw-redirect" title="Individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust">Rescuers of Jews</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Holocaust" title="Timeline of the Holocaust">Timeline</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_deportations_of_French_Jews_to_death_camps" title="Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps">France</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Holocaust_in_Norway" title="Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway">Norway</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Timeline of Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Camps_and_ghettos" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_concentration_camps" title="List of Nazi concentration camps">Camps</a> and <a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_ghettos" title="List of Nazi ghettos">ghettos</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Nazi_concentration_camps" title="Nazi concentration camps">Concentration</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bergen-Belsen_concentration_camp" title="Bergen-Belsen concentration camp">Bergen-Belsen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bogdanovka" title="Bogdanovka">Bogdanovka</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Buchenwald_concentration_camp" title="Buchenwald concentration camp">Buchenwald</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp" title="Dachau concentration camp">Dachau</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Danica_concentration_camp" title="Danica concentration camp">Danica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C4%90akovo_concentration_camp" title="Đakovo concentration camp">Đakovo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Flossenb%C3%BCrg_concentration_camp" title="Flossenbürg concentration camp">Flossenbürg</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gonars_concentration_camp" title="Gonars concentration camp">Gonars</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gospi%C4%87_concentration_camp" title="Gospić concentration camp">Gospić</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gross-Rosen_concentration_camp" title="Gross-Rosen concentration camp">Gross-Rosen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Herzogenbusch_concentration_camp" title="Herzogenbusch concentration camp">Herzogenbusch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jadovno_concentration_camp" title="Jadovno concentration camp">Jadovno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Janowska_concentration_camp" title="Janowska concentration camp">Janowska</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kaiserwald_concentration_camp" title="Kaiserwald concentration camp">Kaiserwald</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kaufering_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Kaufering concentration camp">Kaufering</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Krak%C3%B3w-P%C5%82asz%C3%B3w_concentration_camp" title="Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp">Kraków-Płaszów</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kru%C5%A1%C4%8Dica_concentration_camp" title="Kruščica concentration camp">Kruščica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lobor_concentration_camp" title="Lobor concentration camp">Lobor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mauthausen-Gusen_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp">Mauthausen-Gusen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mittelbau-Dora" class="mw-redirect" title="Mittelbau-Dora">Mittelbau-Dora</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Neuengamme_concentration_camp" title="Neuengamme concentration camp">Neuengamme</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ravensbr%C3%BCck_concentration_camp" title="Ravensbrück concentration camp">Ravensbrück</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sachsenhausen_concentration_camp" title="Sachsenhausen concentration camp">Sachsenhausen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Salaspils_concentration_camp" title="Salaspils concentration camp">Salaspils</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sere%C4%8F_concentration_camp" title="Sereď concentration camp">Sereď</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sisak_children%27s_concentration_camp" title="Sisak children&#39;s concentration camp">Sisak</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stutthof_concentration_camp" title="Stutthof concentration camp">Stutthof</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tenja_concentration_camp" title="Tenja concentration camp">Tenja</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Topovske_%C5%A0upe_concentration_camp" title="Topovske Šupe concentration camp">Topovske Šupe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Warsaw_concentration_camp" title="Warsaw concentration camp">Warsaw</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">Extermination</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Auschwitz_concentration_camp" title="Auschwitz concentration camp">Auschwitz-Birkenau</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Be%C5%82%C5%BCec_extermination_camp" title="Bełżec extermination camp">Bełżec</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Che%C5%82mno_extermination_camp" title="Chełmno extermination camp">Chełmno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jasenovac_concentration_camp" title="Jasenovac concentration camp">Jasenovac</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Majdanek_concentration_camp" title="Majdanek concentration camp">Majdanek</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Maly_Trostenets_extermination_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Maly Trostenets extermination camp">Maly Trostenets</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sajmi%C5%A1te_concentration_camp" title="Sajmište concentration camp">Sajmište</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slana_concentration_camp" title="Slana concentration camp">Slana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sobib%C3%B3r_extermination_camp" title="Sobibór extermination camp">Sobibór</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Treblinka_extermination_camp" title="Treblinka extermination camp">Treblinka</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Transit</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><b><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r872446130">.mw-parser-output .smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}</style><span class="smallcaps">be</span></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fort_Breendonk" title="Fort Breendonk">Breendonk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mechelen_transit_camp" title="Mechelen transit camp">Mechelen</a></li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/Concentration_camps_in_France" class="mw-redirect" title="Concentration camps in France"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r872446130"/><span class="smallcaps">fr</span></a></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gurs_internment_camp" title="Gurs internment camp">Gurs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Drancy_internment_camp" title="Drancy internment camp">Drancy</a></li>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/List_of_Italian_concentration_camps#World_War_II" title="List of Italian concentration camps"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r872446130"/><span class="smallcaps">it</span></a></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bolzano_Transit_Camp" title="Bolzano Transit Camp">Bolzano</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Borgo_San_Dalmazzo_concentration_camp" title="Borgo San Dalmazzo concentration camp">Borgo San Dalmazzo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Risiera_di_San_Sabba" title="Risiera di San Sabba">Risiera di San Sabba</a></li>
<li><b><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r872446130"/><span class="smallcaps">nl</span></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Amersfoort_concentration_camp" title="Amersfoort concentration camp">Amersfoort</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kamp_Schoorl" title="Kamp Schoorl">Schoorl</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Westerbork_transit_camp" title="Westerbork transit camp">Westerbork</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Methods</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gas_van" title="Gas van">Gas van</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gas_chamber" title="Gas chamber">Gas chamber</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Extermination_through_labour" title="Extermination through labour">Extermination through labour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_human_experimentation" title="Nazi human experimentation">Human experimentation</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Nazi units</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/SS-Totenkopfverb%C3%A4nde" title="SS-Totenkopfverbände">SS-<i>Totenkopfverbände</i></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Concentration_Camps_Inspectorate" title="Concentration Camps Inspectorate">Concentration Camps Inspectorate</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Politische_Abteilung" title="Politische Abteilung">Politische Abteilung</a></i></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Sanit%C3%A4tswesen" title="Sanitätswesen">Sanitätswesen</a></i></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Ghettos_in_Nazi-occupied_Europe" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe">Ghettos</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:#eef;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/Jewish_ghettos_in_German-occupied_Poland" title="Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland">Poland</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto" title="Białystok Ghetto">Białystok</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Krak%C3%B3w_Ghetto" title="Kraków Ghetto">Kraków</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA_Ghetto" title="Łódź Ghetto">Łódź</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lublin_Ghetto" title="Lublin Ghetto">Lublin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lw%C3%B3w_Ghetto" title="Lwów Ghetto">Lwów</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Radom_Ghetto" title="Radom Ghetto">Radom</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto" title="Warsaw Ghetto">Warsaw</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:#eef;font-weight:normal;">Elsewhere</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Budapest_Ghetto" title="Budapest Ghetto">Budapest</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kovno_Ghetto" title="Kovno Ghetto">Kovno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minsk_Ghetto" title="Minsk Ghetto">Minsk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Riga_Ghetto" title="Riga Ghetto">Riga</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp" class="mw-redirect" title="Theresienstadt concentration camp">Theresienstadt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vilna_Ghetto" title="Vilna Ghetto">Vilna</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:#eef;font-weight:normal;"><i><a href="/wiki/Judenrat" title="Judenrat">Judenrat</a></i></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Jewish_Ghetto_Police" title="Jewish Ghetto Police">Jewish Ghetto Police</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reich_Association_of_Jews_in_Germany" title="Reich Association of Jews in Germany">Reich Association of Jews in Germany</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C3%9Astred%C5%88a_%C5%BDidov" title="Ústredňa Židov">Ústredňa Židov</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Victims" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em">Victims</div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_during_World_War_II" title="History of the Jews during World War II">Jews</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/Roundup_(history)" title="Roundup (history)">Roundups</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><b><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r872446130"/><span class="smallcaps">fr</span></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Izieu" title="Izieu">Izieu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Round_up_of_Marseille" title="Round up of Marseille">Marseille</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vel%27_d%27Hiv_Roundup" title="Vel&#39; d&#39;Hiv Roundup">Vel' d'Hiv</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/Pogrom#During_the_Holocaust" title="Pogrom">Pogroms</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Kristallnacht" title="Kristallnacht">Kristallnacht</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Legionnaires%27_rebellion_and_Bucharest_pogrom" title="Legionnaires&#39; rebellion and Bucharest pogrom">Bucharest</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dorohoi_pogrom" title="Dorohoi pogrom">Dorohoi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ia%C8%99i_pogrom" title="Iași pogrom">Iaşi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom" title="Jedwabne pogrom">Jedwabne</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kaunas_pogrom" title="Kaunas pogrom">Kaunas</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lviv_pogroms" class="mw-redirect" title="Lviv pogroms">Lviv</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/1941_Odessa_massacre" title="1941 Odessa massacre">Odessa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tykocin_pogrom" class="mw-redirect" title="Tykocin pogrom">Tykocin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/W%C4%85sosz_pogrom" title="Wąsosz pogrom">Wąsosz</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;">"<a href="/wiki/Final_Solution" title="Final Solution">Final Solution</a>"</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wannsee_Conference" title="Wannsee Conference">Wannsee Conference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Operation_Reinhard" title="Operation Reinhard">Operation Reinhard</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_train" class="mw-redirect" title="Holocaust train">Holocaust trains</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aktion_Erntefest" title="Aktion Erntefest">Erntefest</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Extermination_camp" title="Extermination camp">Extermination camps</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;"><i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Babi_Yar" title="Babi Yar">Babi Yar</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kamianets-Podilskyi_massacre" title="Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre">Kamianets-Podilskyi</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ninth_Fort" title="Ninth Fort">Ninth Fort</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Massacres_in_Pia%C5%9Bnica" title="Massacres in Piaśnica">Piaśnica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ponary_massacre" title="Ponary massacre">Ponary</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rumbula_massacre" title="Rumbula massacre">Rumbula</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/Jewish_resistance_in_German-occupied_Europe" title="Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe">Resistance</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Jewish_partisans" title="Jewish partisans">Jewish partisans</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ghetto_uprising" class="mw-redirect" title="Ghetto uprising">Ghetto uprisings</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising" title="Warsaw Ghetto Uprising">Warsaw</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bia%C5%82ystok_Ghetto_uprising" title="Białystok Ghetto uprising">Białystok</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cz%C4%99stochowa_Ghetto_uprising" title="Częstochowa Ghetto uprising">Częstochowa</a></li></ul></li>
<li>"<a href="/wiki/Like_sheep_to_the_slaughter" title="Like sheep to the slaughter">Like sheep to the slaughter</a>"</li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/Rescuers_of_Jews_during_the_Holocaust" title="Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust">Rescue</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Aid_and_Rescue_Committee" title="Aid and Rescue Committee">Aid and Rescue Committee</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bielski_partisans" title="Bielski partisans">Bielski partisans</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Le_Chambon-sur-Lignon" title="Le Chambon-sur-Lignon">Le Chambon-sur-Lignon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rescue_of_the_Danish_Jews" title="Rescue of the Danish Jews">Danish underground</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Working_Group_(resistance_organization)" title="Working Group (resistance organization)">Working Group</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/%C5%BBegota" title="Żegota">Żegota</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;font-weight:normal;"><a href="/wiki/End_of_World_War_II_in_Europe" title="End of World War II in Europe">End of World War II</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Death_marches_(Holocaust)" title="Death marches (Holocaust)">Death marches</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wola_massacre" title="Wola massacre">Wola massacre</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_victims" title="Holocaust victims">Others</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Porajmos" class="mw-redirect" title="Porajmos">Romani people <span style="font-size:90%;">(gypsies)</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_crimes_against_the_Polish_nation" title="Nazi crimes against the Polish nation">Poles</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war" title="German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war">Soviet POWs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Generalplan_Ost" title="Generalplan Ost">Slavs in Eastern Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany">Homosexuals</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">People with disabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/World_War_II_persecution_of_Serbs" class="mw-redirect" title="World War II persecution of Serbs">Serbs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Suppression_of_Freemasonry#Nazi_Germany_and_occupied_Europe" title="Suppression of Freemasonry">Freemasons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of Jehovah&#39;s Witnesses in Nazi Germany">Jehovah's Witnesses</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Persecution_of_black_people_in_Nazi_Germany" title="Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany">Black people</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Responsibility" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Responsibility_for_the_Holocaust" title="Responsibility for the Holocaust">Responsibility</a></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Organizations</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_Party" title="Nazi Party">Nazi Party</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Schutzstaffel" title="Schutzstaffel"><i>Schutzstaffel</i> (SS)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reich_Main_Security_Office" title="Reich Main Security Office">Reich Security Main Office</a> (RSHA)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sicherheitsdienst" title="Sicherheitsdienst">Sicherheitsdienst</a> (SD)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Waffen-SS" title="Waffen-SS">Waffen-SS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/War_crimes_of_the_Wehrmacht" title="War crimes of the Wehrmacht">Wehrmacht</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Units</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Police_Regiment_Centre" title="Police Regiment Centre">Police Regiments</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ordnungspolizei#Police_Battalions" title="Ordnungspolizei">Orpo Police Battalions</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Collaboration_with_the_Axis_Powers_during_World_War_II" class="mw-redirect" title="Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II">Collaborators</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Arajs_Kommando" title="Arajs Kommando">Arajs Kommando</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lithuanian_Security_Police" title="Lithuanian Security Police">Lithuanian Security Police</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nederlandsche_SS" class="mw-redirect" title="Nederlandsche SS">Nederlandsche SS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rollkommando_Hamann" title="Rollkommando Hamann">Rollkommando Hamann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Special_Brigades" title="Special Brigades">Special Brigades</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Topf_and_Sons" title="Topf and Sons">Topf and Sons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trawniki_concentration_camp" title="Trawniki concentration camp">Trawnikis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ukrainian_Auxiliary_Police" title="Ukrainian Auxiliary Police">Ukrainian Auxiliary Police</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ypatingasis_b%C5%ABrys" title="Ypatingasis būrys">Ypatingasis būrys</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Individuals</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_major_perpetrators_of_the_Holocaust" title="List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust">Major perpetrators</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Nazi_ideologues" title="List of Nazi ideologues">Nazi ideologues</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><div id="Early_elementsAftermathRemembrance" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li>Early elements</li><li>Aftermath</li><li>Remembrance</li></ul></div></div></th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:7.5em">Early elements</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Racial_policy_of_Nazi_Germany" title="Racial policy of Nazi Germany">Nazi racial policy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nazi_eugenics" title="Nazi eugenics">Nazi eugenics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_Laws" title="Nuremberg Laws">Nuremberg Laws</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Haavara_Agreement" title="Haavara Agreement">Haavara Agreement</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Madagascar_Plan" title="Madagascar Plan">Madagascar Plan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lublin_Reservation" title="Lublin Reservation">Nisko Plan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Aktion_T4" title="Aktion T4">Forced euthanasia <span style="font-size:90%;">(Action T4)</span></a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:7.5em"><a href="/wiki/Category:Aftermath_of_the_Holocaust" title="Category:Aftermath of the Holocaust">Aftermath</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sh%27erit_ha-Pletah" title="Sh&#39;erit ha-Pletah">Holocaust survivors</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bricha" title="Bricha">Bricha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Survivor_guilt" title="Survivor guilt">Survivor guilt</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Secondary_antisemitism" title="Secondary antisemitism">Secondary antisemitism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anti-Jewish_violence_in_Central_and_Eastern_Europe,_1944%E2%80%9346" title="Anti-Jewish violence in Central and Eastern Europe, 1944–46">Postwar violence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nuremberg_trials" title="Nuremberg trials">Nuremberg trials</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Denazification" title="Denazification">Denazification</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reparations_Agreement_between_Israel_and_West_Germany" title="Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany">Reparations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_denial" title="Holocaust denial">Holocaust denial</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_trivialization" title="Holocaust trivialization">trivialization</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:7.5em">Remembrance</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_Memorial_Days" title="Holocaust Memorial Days">Days of remembrance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Holocaust_memorials_and_museums" title="List of Holocaust memorials and museums">Memorials and museums</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Holocaust_studies" title="Holocaust studies">Academia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Righteous_Among_the_Nations" title="Righteous Among the Nations">Righteous Among the Nations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Yizkor_books" title="Yizkor books">Yizkor books</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Einsatzgruppen_and_Einsatzkommandos" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist collapsible collapsed navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;"><div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Einsatzgruppen" title="Template:Einsatzgruppen"><abbr title="View this template" style="background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Einsatzgruppen" title="Template talk:Einsatzgruppen"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style="background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Einsatzgruppen&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style="background:#d7d7d7;;background:#c3c3c3;;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none; padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Einsatzgruppen_and_Einsatzkommandos" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzgruppen" title="Einsatzgruppen">Einsatzgruppen</a></i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Einsatzkommando" title="Einsatzkommando">Einsatzkommandos</a></i></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%">People</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Director</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Reinhard_Heydrich" title="Reinhard Heydrich">Reinhard Heydrich</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ernst_Kaltenbrunner" title="Ernst Kaltenbrunner">Ernst Kaltenbrunner</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Commanders of <br /><i>Einsatzgruppen</i></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Humbert_Achamer-Pifrader" title="Humbert Achamer-Pifrader">Humbert Achamer-Pifrader</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Walther_Bierkamp" title="Walther Bierkamp">Walther Bierkamp</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horst_B%C3%B6hme_(SS_officer)" title="Horst Böhme (SS officer)">Horst Böhme</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Erich_Ehrlinger" title="Erich Ehrlinger">Erich Ehrlinger</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wilhelm_Fuchs" title="Wilhelm Fuchs">Wilhelm Fuchs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heinz_Jost" title="Heinz Jost">Heinz Jost</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Erich_Naumann" title="Erich Naumann">Erich Naumann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Arthur_Nebe" title="Arthur Nebe">Arthur Nebe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Otto_Ohlendorf" title="Otto Ohlendorf">Otto Ohlendorf</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friedrich_Panzinger" title="Friedrich Panzinger">Friedrich Panzinger</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Otto_Rasch" title="Otto Rasch">Otto Rasch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Heinrich_Seetzen" title="Heinrich Seetzen">Heinrich Seetzen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Franz_Walter_Stahlecker" title="Franz Walter Stahlecker">Franz Walter Stahlecker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bruno_Streckenbach" title="Bruno Streckenbach">Bruno Streckenbach</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Commanders of<br /><i>Einsatzkommandos</i>,<br /><i>Sonderkommandos</i></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Erich_von_dem_Bach-Zelewski" title="Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski">Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rudolf_Batz" title="Rudolf Batz">Rudolf Batz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ernst_Biberstein" title="Ernst Biberstein">Ernst Biberstein</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wolfgang_Birkner" title="Wolfgang Birkner">Wolfgang Birkner</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Helmut_Bischoff" title="Helmut Bischoff">Helmut Bischoff</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Paul_Blobel" title="Paul Blobel">Paul Blobel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Walter_Blume_(SS_officer)" title="Walter Blume (SS officer)">Walter Blume</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friedrich-Wilhelm_Bock" title="Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock">Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Otto_Bradfisch" title="Otto Bradfisch">Otto Bradfisch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Werner_Braune" title="Werner Braune">Werner Braune</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friedrich_Buchardt" title="Friedrich Buchardt">Friedrich Buchardt</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fritz_Dietrich_(Nazi)" title="Fritz Dietrich (Nazi)">Fritz Dietrich</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Karl_J%C3%A4ger" title="Karl Jäger">Karl Jäger</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Friedrich_Jeckeln" title="Friedrich Jeckeln">Friedrich Jeckeln</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Waldemar_Klingelh%C3%B6fer" title="Waldemar Klingelhöfer">Waldemar Klingelhöfer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wolfgang_K%C3%BCgler" title="Wolfgang Kügler">Wolfgang Kügler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Walter_Kutschmann" title="Walter Kutschmann">Walter Kutschmann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rudolf_Lange" title="Rudolf Lange">Rudolf Lange</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gustav_Adolf_Nosske" title="Gustav Adolf Nosske">Gustav Adolf Nosske</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hans-Adolf_Pr%C3%BCtzmann" title="Hans-Adolf Prützmann">Hans-Adolf Prützmann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Walter_Rauff" title="Walter Rauff">Walter Rauff</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Martin_Sandberger" title="Martin Sandberger">Martin Sandberger</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hermann_Schaper" title="Hermann Schaper">Hermann Schaper</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Karl_Eberhard_Sch%C3%B6ngarth" title="Karl Eberhard Schöngarth">Karl Eberhard Schöngarth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Erwin_Schulz" title="Erwin Schulz">Erwin Schulz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Franz_Six" title="Franz Six">Franz Six</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eugen_Steimle" title="Eugen Steimle">Eugen Steimle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eduard_Strauch" title="Eduard Strauch">Eduard Strauch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Martin_Weiss_(Nazi_official)" title="Martin Weiss (Nazi official)">Martin Weiss</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Udo_von_Woyrsch" title="Udo von Woyrsch">Udo von Woyrsch</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Other members</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/August_Becker" title="August Becker">August Becker</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lothar_Fendler" title="Lothar Fendler">Lothar Fendler</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Joachim_Hamann" title="Joachim Hamann">Joachim Hamann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Emil_Haussmann" title="Emil Haussmann">Emil Haussmann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Felix_Landau" title="Felix Landau">Felix Landau</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Albert_Widmann" title="Albert Widmann">Albert Widmann</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Collaborators</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Viktors_Ar%C4%81js" title="Viktors Arājs">Viktors Arājs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Herberts_Cukurs" title="Herberts Cukurs">Herberts Cukurs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Antanas_Impulevi%C4%8Dius" title="Antanas Impulevičius">Antanas Impulevičius</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Konr%C4%81ds_Kal%C4%93js" title="Konrāds Kalējs">Konrāds Kalējs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Algirdas_Klimaitis" title="Algirdas Klimaitis">Algirdas Klimaitis</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%">Groups</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">German</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Schutzstaffel" title="Schutzstaffel">SS</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Reich_Main_Security_Office" title="Reich Main Security Office">RSHA</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sicherheitsdienst" title="Sicherheitsdienst">SD</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ordnungspolizei" title="Ordnungspolizei">Orpo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/8th_SS_Cavalry_Division_Florian_Geyer" title="8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer">8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Volksdeutscher_Selbstschutz" title="Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz">Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz</a></i></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sonderdienst" title="Sonderdienst">Sonderdienst</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;">Non-German</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><i><a href="/wiki/Schutzmannschaft" title="Schutzmannschaft">Schutzmannschaft</a></i> (<a href="/wiki/Belarusian_Auxiliary_Police" class="mw-redirect" title="Belarusian Auxiliary Police">Belarusian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Estonian_Auxiliary_Police" title="Estonian Auxiliary Police">Estonian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Latvian_Auxiliary_Police" title="Latvian Auxiliary Police">Latvian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lithuanian_Auxiliary_Police_Battalions" title="Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions">Lithuanian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ukrainian_Auxiliary_Police" title="Ukrainian Auxiliary Police">Ukrainian</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Arajs_Kommando" title="Arajs Kommando">Arajs <i>Kommando</i></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lithuanian_Security_Police" title="Lithuanian Security Police">Lithuanian Security Police</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rollkommando_Hamann" title="Rollkommando Hamann"><i>Rollkommando</i> Hamann</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lithuanian_TDA_Battalions" title="Lithuanian TDA Battalions">TDA</a></li>
<li><i><a href="/wiki/Ypatingasis_b%C5%ABrys" title="Ypatingasis būrys">Ypatingasis būrys</a></i></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background:#d7d7d7;;width:1%">Crimes</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;"><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Belarus" title="The Holocaust in Belarus">Belarus</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/%C5%81achwa_Ghetto" title="Łachwa Ghetto">Łachwa Ghetto</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minsk_Ghetto" title="Minsk Ghetto">Minsk Ghetto</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slutsk_Affair" class="mw-redirect" title="Slutsk Affair">Slutsk Affair</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background-color:#DCDCDC;"><a href="/wiki/The_Holocaust_in_Estonia" title="The Holocaust in Estonia">Estonia</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Kalevi-Liiva" title="Kalevi-Liiva">Kalevi-Liiva</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class=&