Anomaly
http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/
HTTP blocking (a blockpage might be served)
Myanmar
Country
AS58952
Network
March 04, 2021, 12:18 PM UTC
Date & Time
Websites
Websites
Runtime: 6.5s

On March 04, 2021, 12:18 PM UTC, http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/ presented signs of HTTP blocking (a blockpage might be served) on AS58952 in Myanmar.

This might mean that http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/ was blocked, but false positives can occur.

Please explore the network measurement data below.

Failures

HTTP Experiment
null
DNS Experiment
null
Control
null

DNS Queries

Resolver:
162.158.161.249
Query:
IN A mymetroworld.blogspot.com
Engine:
system
Name
Class
TTL
Type
DATA
@
IN
A
142.251.33.97
Query:
IN AAAA mymetroworld.blogspot.com
Engine:
system
Name
Class
TTL
Type
DATA
@
IN
AAAA
2607:f8b0:400a:807::2001

TCP Connections

Connection to 2607:f8b0:400a:807::2001:80 failed.
Connection to 142.251.33.97:80 succeeded.

HTTP Requests

URL
GET http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/
Response Headers
Accept-Ranges:
none
Cache-Control:
private, max-age=0
Content-Type:
text/html; charset=UTF-8
Date:
Thu, 04 Mar 2021 16:27:47 GMT
Expires:
Thu, 04 Mar 2021 16:27:47 GMT
Last-Modified:
Sat, 29 Feb 2020 08:23:45 GMT
Server:
GSE
Vary:
Accept-Encoding
X-Content-Type-Options:
nosniff
X-Xss-Protection:
1; mode=block
Response Body
<!DOCTYPE html>
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<div id='blogtitle'><a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/'>New Generation of Metropolitan</a></div>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2015/03/stabilization-lining.html'>ဥမင&#4153; Stabilization &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Lining ဒ&#4142;ဇ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခခ&#4150;သ&#4145;ဘ&#4140;တရ&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;</a>
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စ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4144; &#169;
<strong>MyMetro</strong> | 
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Construction%20Technology' rel='tag'>Construction Technology</a>,
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<a class='comment-link' href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2015/03/stabilization-lining.html#comment-form' onclick=''> 1 ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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(Principles of tunnel stabilization and lining design)
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<a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-hFuUiJrqS5I/VPyCGuse1UI/AAAAAAAAGTY/0AbxIbQpkYc/s1600/Engineering-blueprint-TS.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-hFuUiJrqS5I/VPyCGuse1UI/AAAAAAAAGTY/0AbxIbQpkYc/s200/Engineering-blueprint-TS.jpg" /></a></div>
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ဥမင&#4153;တစ&#4153;ခ&#4143;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;သည&#4151;&#4153;အခ&#4139; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;နစဥ&#4153; (During Excavation) အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; ဥမင&#4153;&#4175;&#4155;ပ&#4147;မ&#4144;ပ&#4150;&#4143; (သ&#4141;&#4143;႔) လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;ပ&#4150;&#4143; (behavior) က&#4141;&#4143; သ&#4141;ရ&#4157;&#4141;န&#4140;&#4152;လည&#4153;ရန&#4153; လ&#4141;&#4143;အပ&#4153;သက&#4146;&#4151;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔ ထ&#4141;&#4143; behavior က&#4141;&#4143; Reinforcing စနစ&#4153;အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152; (သ&#4141;&#4143;႔) ပင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;ထ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;စနစ&#4153; အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔ ထည&#4151;&#4153;သ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; Modify လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;သည&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; န&#4140;&#4152;လည&#4153;သ&#4145;ဘ&#4140;&#4145;ပ&#4139;က&#4153;ရန&#4153; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ဥမင&#4153;တည&#4153;ၿင&#4141;မ&#4153;ခ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ခ&#4150;&#4151;မ&#4232; (Stabilization) ဆ&#4141;&#4143;သည&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;မ&#4232; မတ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;မ&#4142;&#4170; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;နစဥ&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;င&#4153;&#4152; ကနဥ&#4142;&#4152;ပင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;ထ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232; (Initial Support) က&#4141;&#4143; &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ပ&#4152;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; လ&#4150;&#4143;ၿခ&#4150;&#4147;စ&#4141;တ&#4153;ခ&#4154;ရ&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4170; &#4155;မန&#4153;ဆန&#4153;စ&#4156;&#4140; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4170; က&#4143;န&#4153;က&#4154;စရ&#4141;တ&#4153; သက&#4153;သ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;မ&#4232;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;စသည&#4153;&#4151; စနစ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; ဆ&#4141;&#4143;လ&#4141;&#4143;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; Lining ဆ&#4141;&#4143;သည&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; ဥမင&#4153;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;စ&#4170; အခ&#4154;&#4141;န&#4153;အ&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;ၾက&#4140;မ&#4157;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;စ အၿမ&#4146;တမ&#4153;&#4152; (Permanent Support) ပင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;ထ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;က&#4141;&#4143; လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4145;ပ&#4152;မည&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;ရရ&#4157;ည&#4153;ခ&#4150;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4170; ထ&#4141;န&#4153;&#4152;သ&#4141;မ&#4153;&#4152;ရလ&#4156;ယ&#4153;က&#4144;&#4145;သ&#4140; Long-term အၿပ&#4142;&#4152;သတ&#4153; ဥမင&#4153;န&#4150;ရ&#4150;ပင&#4153;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; မည&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4151; ဥမင&#4153; Lining စနစ&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;မည&#4153;ဆ&#4141;&#4143;သည&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မႀက&#4142;&#4152;&#4175; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;နမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; ဥမင&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;မည&#4153;&#4151; ရည&#4153;ရ&#4156;ယ&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;ပၚတ&#4156;င&#4153; မ&#4144;တည&#4153;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ဥမင&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ၾကရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; Stabilization &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Lining တ&#4141;&#4143;႔က&#4141;&#4143; သ&#4142;&#4152;&#4155;ခ&#4140;&#4152; Operations မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အ&#4155;ဖစ&#4153; &#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;ရ&#4156;က&#4153;ၾကပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ထ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4146;&#4151;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔ သ&#4142;&#4152;&#4155;ခ&#4140;&#4152;စနစ&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; "Two-pass" စနစ&#4153;ဟ&#4143; &#4145;ခၚ&#4145;၀ၚၾကသည&#4153;&#4171; အခ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;႕&#4145;သ&#4140; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;နမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; Stabilization &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Lining တ&#4141;&#4143;႔&#4175; လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4145;ပ&#4139;င&#4153;&#4152;စပ&#4153;&#4173; "One-pass" စနစ&#4153;အ&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;ၾကပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;</div>
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&nbsp;&#4145;အ&#4140;က&#4153;ပ&#4139;အခ&#4154;က&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; ဥမင&#4153;&#4175; Stabilization &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Lining တ&#4141;&#4143;႔အတ&#4156;က&#4153; ဒ&#4142;ဇ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;ပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;ဆ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရ&#4140;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; လက&#4153;&#4145;တ&#4156;႔က&#4154;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;ရ&#4156;&#4152;ခ&#4154;ယ&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ထည&#4153;&#4151;သ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; စဥ&#4153;&#4152;စ&#4140;&#4152;ရမည&#4153;&#4151; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခခ&#4150; သ&#4145;ဘ&#4140;တရ&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;ပင&#4153; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;-&nbsp;</div>
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၁&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining &#4175; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; အစ&#4141;တ&#4153;အပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တစ&#4153;ရပ&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; &#4174;ဥမင&#4153;ပတ&#4153;လည&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပင&#4153; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၂&#4171; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; အစ&#4141;တ&#4153;အပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တစ&#4153;ရပ&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မ&#4145;အ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;ရ &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၃&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; လ&#4141;&#4143;အပ&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;တစ&#4153;ရပ&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; ဥမင&#4153;န&#4150;ရ&#4150; ပတ&#4153;လည&#4153; တ&#4145;လ&#4157;&#4154;&#4140;က&#4153; Lining &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔အၾက&#4140;&#4152; လ&#4150;&#4143;ၿခ&#4150;&#4147;စ&#4141;တ&#4153;ခ&#4154;ရၿပ&#4142;&#4152; တဆက&#4153;တည&#4153;&#4152; ထ&#4141;စပ&#4153;မ&#4232; (Continuous Contact) &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၄&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining ဒ&#4142;ဇ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ရ&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4175; ရည&#4153;မ&#4157;န&#4153;&#4152;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;ရ&#4156;႕လ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4232; (Ground Movement)က&#4141;&#4143; တည&#4153;ၿင&#4141;မ&#4153;&#4145;စရန&#4153;သ&#4140; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; ထ&#4141;&#4143;&#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; ၀န&#4153; (Loads) က&#4141;&#4143; ထမ&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရန&#4153;မဟ&#4143;တ&#4153;&#4145;ပ&#4171;</div>
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၅&#4171; ထ&#4141;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;အရ&#4157;&#4141;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဥမင&#4153;တည&#4153;ၿင&#4141;မ&#4153;ခ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ခ&#4150;မ&#4232;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Lining စနစ&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; သတ&#4153;မ&#4157;တ&#4153;ထ&#4140;&#4152; သည&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232; (Ground Deformation) က&#4141;&#4143; ခ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4151;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; ႀက&#4150;&#4151;ခ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152; (Strength) က&#4141;&#4143; စ&#4143;စည&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚ&#4145;စ&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၆&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining &#4175; Axial Stiffness သည&#4153; ဥမင&#4153;ပတ&#4153;လည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157;လ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; Passive Pressure မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; စ&#4143;စည&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;စ&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; Non-uniform Loads မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143;&#4155;ဖန&#4153;႔ခ&#4156;&#4146;သ&#4156;&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;စသည&#4153;&#4171; ထ&#4141;&#4143;နည&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4155;ပင&#4153;မ&#4156;မ&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4150;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၇&#4171; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; (Ground deformations) က&#4141;&#4143; Modify &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ဥမင&#4153; Lining &#4175; Flexural stiffness မ&#4157;&#4140; သ&#4140;မန&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; လ&#4150;&#4143;&#4145;လ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;မရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4170; ထ&#4141;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232; မရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;ပ&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၈&#4171; တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152;အဆင&#4153;&#4151;/အလ&#4234;&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4140;ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဥမင&#4153; Lining မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ကနဥ&#4142;&#4152;ပင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;ထ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232; (initial construction support) သည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4239;&#4141;&#4232;င&#4153;&#4152;ယ&#4157;ဥ&#4153;လ&#4157;&#4154;င&#4153; အလ&#4156;န&#4153;&#4145;ပ&#4154;&#4140;&#4151;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ဖ&#4141;အ&#4140;&#4152; (Ground stress) မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4155;ပန&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4155;ဖန&#4153;႔ခ&#4156;&#4146;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚလ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; Flexural deformations မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; ဒဏ&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4140;ခ&#4150;ရသည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၉&#4171; ဒ&#4143;တ&#4141;ယအဆင&#4153;&#4151;/အလ&#4234;&#4140; ဥမင&#4153; Lining တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;မ&#4232;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;တည&#4153;ၿင&#4141;မ&#4153;မ&#4232; ရရ&#4157;&#4141;သည&#4153; အထ&#4141; &#4145;ရ&#4234;႕ဆ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;ထ&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ပ&#4139;က ထ&#4141;&#4143;အလ&#4234;&#4140;သည&#4153; သ&#4141;သ&#4140;ထင&#4153;ရ&#4157;&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; Flexural deformations ဒဏ&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; မခ&#4150;စ&#4140;&#4152;ရ&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4151;&#4145;ပ&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၀&#4171; တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152;အဆင&#4153;&#4151; တစ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;&#4151;တည&#4153;&#4152;သ&#4140;ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140;/ တစ&#4153;လ&#4234;&#4140;တည&#4153;&#4152;သ&#4140;ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဥမင&#4153; Lining မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; (&#4145;ယဘ&#4143;ယ&#4154;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; Segmental) သည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4239;&#4141;&#4232;င&#4153;&#4152;ယ&#4157;ဥ&#4153;ပ&#4139;က &#4145;ပ&#4154;&#4140;&#4151;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; (ရ&#4234;&#4150;႕&#4145;ပ&#4154;&#4140;&#4151;&#4145;&#4155;မမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157;အပ)&#4170; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;မ&#4157; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚလ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; Parasitic Flexural Stresses မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4145;လ&#4157;&#4154;&#4140;&#4151;ခ&#4154;&#4145;ပ&#4152;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4145;စရန&#4153; ထ&#4141;&#4143; Lining မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; တတ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;သမ&#4157;&#4154; ပ&#4139;&#4152;လ&#4234;&#4140;&#4145;အ&#4140;င&#4153; &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;သင&#4153;&#4151;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၁&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;အစ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;ရ&#4156;&#4152;ခ&#4154;ယ&#4153;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; ဂ&#4143;ဏ&#4153;သတ&#4209;&#4141;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; က&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;ည&#4142;&#4145;သ&#4140; တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152; နည&#4153;&#4152;လမ&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;ပၚတ&#4156;င&#4153; မ&#4144;တည&#4153;&#4145;နၿပ&#4142;&#4152; တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;မည&#4153;&#4151; အခ&#4154;&#4141;န&#4153;သည&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ပ&#4139;လ&#4157;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; Lining မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; အခ&#4154;&#4141;န&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153; တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;စ&#4156;မ&#4153;&#4152;သည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Lining Loads မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; ပမ&#4140;ဏမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အ&#4145;ပၚတ&#4156;င&#4153; အဓ&#4141;ကအ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; အက&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;ရ&#4157;&#4141;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၂&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining &#4175; အတ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;အတ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175;၀န&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152; (Ground Load) ထက&#4153; &#4145;ရလ&#4150;&#4143;&#4145;အ&#4140;င&#4153; &#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;ရ&#4156;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;မ&#4232;&#4170; စက&#4153;ပစၥည&#4153;&#4152;က&#4141;ရ&#4141;ယ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; သ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4146;/ရရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;မ&#4232;&#4170; တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;မ&#4232; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;န စသည&#4153;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔က&#4141;&#4143; ထည&#4153;&#4151;သ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;စဥ&#4153;&#4152;စ&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153;&#4151; အ&#4145;ပၚတ&#4156;င&#4153; အဓ&#4141;က မ&#4144;တည&#4153;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၃&#4171; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; ၀န&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152; (Ground Loads) &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Passive Pressures မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; ခန&#4153;႔မ&#4157;န&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; ဥမင&#4153; Lining တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;/တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152; မ&#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;မ&#4142;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;နမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ထ&#4141;&#4143;&#4145;နရ&#4140;&#4172; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚလ&#4140;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151;ဆက&#4153;&#4239;&#4234;ယ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4151; ဖ&#4141;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;လ&#4146;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152; (Stress redistribution) အ&#4145;ပၚ မ&#4144;တည&#4153;&#4145;န&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; တ&#4141;က&#4154;&#4145;သခ&#4154;&#4140;မ&#4232; မရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4145;ခ&#4154;&#4171; ဥမင&#4153;အလ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; တ&#4145;လ&#4157;&#4154;&#4140;က&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚ&#4145;န&#4145;သ&#4140; Loads &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Pressures မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152; ကၽ&#4156;မ&#4153;&#4152;က&#4154;င&#4153;မ&#4232;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; ဘ&#4144;မ&#4141;&#4145;ဗဒအ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;နမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143;လ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;&#4173; အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;လ&#4146;&#4145;နပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၄&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining အ&#4145;ပၚသက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;န&#4145;သ&#4140; အႀက&#4142;&#4152;မ&#4140;&#4152;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; ၀န&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152;စက&#4153;&#4175; Shield jacking loads မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; Lining &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; တ&#4156;&#4146;ကပ&#4153;&#4145;ပ&#4152;မည&#4153;&#4151; Grout Pressures မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;စသည&#4153;&#4151; တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ငန&#4153;&#4152;စဥ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157; ထ&#4156;က&#4153;&#4145;ပၚလ&#4140;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၅&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining Rings မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အ&#4145;ပၚ သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;န&#4145;သ&#4140; Stress မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; သခ&#4196;&#4154;&#4140;နည&#4153;&#4152;လမ&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; Structural analysis &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4175; တ&#4141;က&#4154;မ&#4232;သည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ထ&#4143;&#4175; Loads &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Support Conditions မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; ခန&#4153;႔မ&#4157;န&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4175; တ&#4141;က&#4154;မ&#4232;ထက&#4153; မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4140; ပ&#4141;&#4143;မ&#4141;&#4143;သည&#4153;&#4171;&nbsp;</div>
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၁၆&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining Rings မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; ပတ&#4153;လည&#4153;ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; အန&#4140;&#4152;သတ&#4153;&#4145;ဘ&#4140;င&#4153;ခတ&#4153;ထ&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ပ&#4139;က (တနည&#4153;&#4152;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; Lining &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔အၾက&#4140;&#4152; &#4145;နရ&#4140;လ&#4156;တ&#4153;မရ&#4157;&#4141; ထ&#4141;စပ&#4153;တ&#4156;&#4146;ကပ&#4153;&#4145;နပ&#4139;က) ဥမင&#4153;န&#4150;ရ&#4150;သည&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151;က&#4156;&#4140;&#4173; Flexural deformation မ&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4145;ပ&#4171; ဥမင&#4153; Lining &#4145;န&#4140;က&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; Grout မလ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ခ&#4146;&#4151;မ&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;နရ&#4140;လ&#4156;တ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မရ&#4157;&#4141;ဘ&#4146;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Flexural &#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; Lining Structural Failure မ&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4171;</div>
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၁၇&#4171; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232; (Ground Deformation) တည&#4153;ၿင&#4141;မ&#4153;မ&#4232;မရ&#4157;&#4141;ခင&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;ခ&#4146;&#4151;&#4145;သ&#4140; Lining အစ&#4141;တ&#4153;အပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; Structural Performance က&#4141;&#4143; Axial thrust &#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; ဥမင&#4153; Lining Diameter အ&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;အလ&#4146;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157; တ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4140;ရရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140; Deformation မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; Analyze &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; ခန&#4153;႔မ&#4157;န&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171; အလ&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4144; &#4145;&#4155;မအမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;အစ&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ယခင&#4153;ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157; ရရ&#4157;&#4141;လ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; အ&#4145;တ&#4156;႔အႀက&#4150;&#4147;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခခ&#4150;&#4173;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;က&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4170; တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152;လ&#4141;&#4143;အပ&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အ&#4155;ဖစ&#4153; သတ&#4153;မ&#4157;တ&#4153;&#4173;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;က&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4170; တ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;က&#4141;ရ&#4141;ယ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;စ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151;ၾကပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4152; အတည&#4153;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;က&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152; သင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဒ&#4142;ဇ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တန&#4153;ဖ&#4141;&#4143;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; သတ&#4153;မ&#4157;တ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;</div>
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၁၈&#4171; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4150;&#4143;ပ&#4154;က&#4153;ယ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232; (Ground Deformation) တည&#4153;ၿင&#4141;မ&#4153;မ&#4232;ရရ&#4157;&#4141;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152;မ&#4157; တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; Lining အစ&#4141;တ&#4153;အပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အတ&#4156;က&#4153;မ&#4144; Axial Loads တစ&#4153;ခ&#4143;တည&#4153;&#4152;အတ&#4156;က&#4153;သ&#4140; ခန&#4153;႔မ&#4157;န&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; ဥမင&#4153;အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; &#4145;န&#4140;က&#4153;ထပ&#4153;တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;လ&#4140;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4151; သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; Long-term Ground Squeezing သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အတ&#4156;က&#4153; Allowances မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; သင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;သလ&#4141;&#4143; ထည&#4153;&#4151;သ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;စဥ&#4153;&#4152;စ&#4140;&#4152;ရမည&#4153;&#4171;</div>
<a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-pAjKntFjCjQ/VPyFl8mOKwI/AAAAAAAAGTk/Vtf8lwW2RrM/s1600/Design%2BLining.png" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="163" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-pAjKntFjCjQ/VPyFl8mOKwI/AAAAAAAAGTk/Vtf8lwW2RrM/s1600/Design%2BLining.png" width="200" /></a> <br />
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ဥမင&#4153; Lining ဒ&#4142;ဇ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မအ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;န &#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;လ&#4146;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; မ&#4145;သခ&#4154;&#4140;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152; အစ&#4142;အစဥ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;နစဥ&#4153;အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; တ&#4150;&#4143;႔&#4155;ပန&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; ထည&#4153;&#4151;သ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;စဥ&#4153;&#4152;စ&#4140;&#4152;ရပ&#4139;မည&#4153;&#4171; ထ&#4141;&#4143;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ရင&#4153;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4146; မ&#4145;သခ&#4154;&#4140;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; Lining (Elastic Structural Rings) အ&#4145;ပၚ သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;န&#4145;သ&#4140; Stresses မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; သခ&#4196;&#4154;&#4140;နည&#4153;&#4152;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4175; တ&#4141;က&#4154;မ&#4232;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; သဟဇ&#4140;တမ&#4155;ဖစ&#4153; (အ&#4145;စ&#4152;မကပ&#4153;)သည&#4153;&#4151; သ&#4145;ဘ&#4140;လည&#4153;&#4152;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; မည&#4153;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔ပင&#4153;ဆ&#4141;&#4143;&#4145;စ Economical Lining Design တစ&#4153;ခ&#4143;အတ&#4156;က&#4153; ယ&#4150;&#4143;ၾကည&#4153;စ&#4141;တ&#4153;ခ&#4154;ရ&#4145;သ&#4140; လမ&#4153;&#4152;ည&#4234;န&#4153; (Guidance) ဆ&#4141;&#4143;သည&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;အစ&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4144;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ယခင&#4153;ကတ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;ခ&#4146;&#4151;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဥမင&#4153;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152;အ&#4145;တ&#4156;႔အႀက&#4150;&#4147;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အ&#4145;ပၚ အ&#4145;&#4155;ခခ&#4150;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ထပ&#4153;မ&#4150;&#4173;ဆ&#4141;&#4143;ရ&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4153; <b>ဥမင&#4153; Lining &#4175; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; အစ&#4141;တ&#4153;အပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တစ&#4153;ရပ&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မႀက&#4142;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;
</b></div>
<blockquote>
<b>The most important part of the tunnel lining is the ground.</b></blockquote>
<b>Ref:</b> Tunnel Stabilization and Lining, Thomas R. Kuesel, Consulting Engineer, Chairman Emeritus, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade &amp; Douglas, Inc, "Tunnel Engineering Handbook", 2004.
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<span class="dropcaps">ကၽ&#4156;န&#4153;</span>&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;&#8203;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;ခ&#4154;င&#4153;&#8203;&#4145;နခ&#4146;&#4151;&#8203;တ&#4146;&#4151;&#8203; အ&#8203;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;အရ&#4140;&#8203;&#4145;လ&#8203;&#4152;တစ&#4153;ခ&#4143;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ပ&#4139;တယ&#4153;&#4171; &#8203;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;ဖ&#4141;&#4143;႔စ&#4141;တ&#4153;က&#4144;&#8203;&#4152;လ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;&#4170; မ&#8203;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4151;&#8203;ပ&#4139;ဘ&#4144;&#8203;&#4152;လ&#4141;&#4143;႔ ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#8203;&#4152;&#4155;ဖတ&#4153;လ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;န&#4146;႔ &#8203;&#4145;နလ&#4140;တ&#4140; &#4239;&#4157;စ&#4153;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4156;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;င&#4153; &#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;ၾက&#4140;ပ&#4139;ၿပ&#4142;&#4171; အခ&#4143;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4151;&#8203; &#8203;&#4145;&#4155;ပ&#4140;လ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4151;&#8203;မယ&#4153;ဗ&#4154;&#4140;&#4171; <br><a href="http://i58.tinypic.com/2nu25px.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;" target="_blank"><img alt="Photos by depositphotos.com" border="0" height="211" src="http://i58.tinypic.com/2nu25px.jpg" width="320"></a>
<br>အ&#8203;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;က&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4151;&#8203; ရန&#4153;က&#4143;န&#4153;&#8203;ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕ႀက&#4142;&#8203;&#4152;န&#4146;႔ ပတ&#4153;သက&#4153;လ&#4141;&#4143;႔ပ&#4139;&#4171; တ&#4155;ခ&#4140;&#8203;&#4152;&#8203;က&#8203;မ&#4140;ၻ႔ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕ႀက&#4142;&#8203;&#4152;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4156;က&#4141;&#4143; အ&#8203;&#4145;ပၚစ&#4142;&#8203;&#4152;က ၾကည&#4151;&#8203;&#4153;&#8203;ရင&#4153; အရမ&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;လ&#4157;တ&#4140;က&#4141;&#4143; &#8203;&#4145;တ&#4156;႔ရမ&#4157;&#4140;ပ&#4139;&#4171; Urban plan စနစ&#4153;&#8203;တက&#4154;ရ&#4157;&#4141;တ&#4140;&#8203;ရယ&#4153;&#4170; ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕&#4155;ပဗ&#4141;သ&#4143;က&#4140;ဆ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရ&#4140; အလ&#4157;အပ&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4156;က&#4141;&#4143; ထ&#4141;န&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;သ&#4141;မ&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;တ&#4140;&#4170; သဘ&#4140;၀ ပတ&#4153;&#8203;၀န&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;က&#4154;င&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; ထ&#4141;န&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;သ&#4141;မ&#4153;&#8203;&#4152;ဖ&#4141;&#4143;႔&#8203; အၿမ&#4146;တ&#8203;&#4145;စ&#8203;ႀက&#4141;&#4147;&#8203;&#4152;စ&#4140;&#8203;&#4152;&#8203;&#4145;နၾက&#8203;&#8203;တ&#4140;&#8203;&#4145;တ&#4156;&#8203;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151;&#8203; &#8203;&#4145;နခ&#4154;င&#4153;စဖ&#4156;ယ&#4153;&#4170; သ&#4156;&#4140;&#8203;&#4152;လည&#4153;ခ&#4154;င&#4153;စဖ&#4156;ယ&#4153;လည&#4153;&#8203;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4139;&#8203;တယ&#4153;&#4171;<br>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2011/03/shotcrete-in-tunneling.html'>Shotcrete in tunneling</a>
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<p><div dir="ltr" style="text-align: left;" trbidi="on"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQAxeYJTOJnURszhowmkJevTJ5hTl2jwPiR67MzVB6kKDhBs5fajPk7oS77Gg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQAxeYJTOJnURszhowmkJevTJ5hTl2jwPiR67MzVB6kKDhBs5fajPk7oS77Gg"></a></div><div style="text-align: justify;">Shotcrete &#4175; ဘက&#4153;စ&#4150;&#4143;အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;ဝင&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4170; ပတ&#4153;ဝန&#4153;&#4152;က&#4154;င&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; လ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;&#4145;လ&#4154;&#4140;ည&#4142;စ&#4156;&#4140;  အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;စ&#4154;&#4152;သက&#4153;သ&#4140;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; ယ&#4145;န႔&#4145;ခတ&#4153; ဥမင&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; တ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;  (shaft) မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;ရ&#4140;တ&#4156;င&#4153; တ&#4156;င&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153;က&#4154;ယ&#4153;က&#4154;ယ&#4153; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4145;နၿပ&#4142;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171; လတ&#4153;တ&#4145;လ&#4140;  &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ထ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဥမင&#4153; မ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;&#4140;&#4155;ပင&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ခ&#4154;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;င&#4153;&#4152; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4170; ဥမင&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151;  တ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;(shaft)တ&#4141;&#4143;႔ ဆက&#4153;စပ&#4153;&#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; ဥမင&#4153;ခ&#4154;&#4146;႕ထ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; ဥမင&#4153;လမ&#4153;&#4152;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;  အဆက&#4153;&#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔တ&#4156;င&#4153; တ&#4156;&#4146;စပ&#4153;အ&#4145;န&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မအ&#4145;&#4155;ခအ&#4145;နက&#4141;&#4143;လ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;&#4173;  သင&#4153;&#4151;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; အ&#4145;ရ&#4140;အ&#4145;&#4239;&#4157;&#4140;&#4170; အထ&#4144;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔က&#4141;&#4143; အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4173; ရ&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔သည&#4153; Shotcrete &#4175;  အ&#4140;&#4152;သ&#4140;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;<br>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2011/03/shotcrete-in-tunneling.html#more'>အ&#4155;ပည&#4153;&#4151;အစ&#4150;&#4143;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔</a>
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<h2>
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2011/03/longest-rail-tunnnels-in-south-east.html'>Longest rail-tunnels in South-East Asia</a>
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0
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div dir="ltr" style="text-align: left;" trbidi="on"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-JlzGUSMCRdU/TXMGoQwluoI/AAAAAAAAFpM/tr-b8eMg_ZQ/s1600/hbm7bz8m.bmp" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="130" src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-JlzGUSMCRdU/TXMGoQwluoI/AAAAAAAAFpM/tr-b8eMg_ZQ/s200/hbm7bz8m.bmp" width="200"></a></div><div style="text-align: justify;">အ&#4145;ရ&#4157;႕&#4145;တ&#4140;င&#4153;အ&#4140;ရ&#4157;တ&#4156;င&#4153; အရ&#4157;ည&#4153;ဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;လ&#4140;မည&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;ဒသအ&#4145;ခၚ ဘ&#4142;ရ&#4140;ပစ&#4153; (Berapit) အမ&#4234;&#4140;ရထ&#4140;&#4152;လမ&#4153;&#4152;ဥမင&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; မ&#4145;လ&#4152;ရ&#4157;&#4140;&#4152;ကၽ&#4156;န&#4153;&#4152;ဆ&#4156;ယ&#4153; &#4145;&#4155;မ&#4140;က&#4153;ပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152;စ&#4142;&#4152;ခ&#4146;&#4151;ၿပ&#4142; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152; သ&#4141;ရသည&#4153;&#4171; ၂.၂ က&#4142;လ&#4141;&#4143;မ&#4142;တ&#4140;စ&#4142; ရ&#4157;ည&#4153;လ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153;&#4151; အဆ&#4141;&#4143;ပ&#4139;ဥမင&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; သမ&#4140;&#4152;႐&#4141;&#4143;&#4152;က&#4154;တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;နည&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4151; Drilling and blasting method က&#4141;&#4143; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;က&#4140; Sandvik DT820-SC ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152; jumbos မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖင&#4153;&#4151; တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;ခ&#4146;&#4151;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;</div></div>
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<h2>
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/07/elastic-medium.html'>Elastic medium တ&#4156;င&#4153; တ&#4143;န&#4153;ခ&#4139;မ&#4232;ရင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;မစ&#4153;မ&#4157; ထ&#4156;က&#4153;&#4145;ပၚလ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; လ&#4141;&#4232;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; ပ&#4154;&#4150;႕&#4239;&#4157;႔&#4150;သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;</a>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Technical%20section' rel='tag'>Technical section</a>
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4
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Simple_harmonic_motion_animation.gif/350px-Simple_harmonic_motion_animation.gif" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="150" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Simple_harmonic_motion_animation.gif/350px-Simple_harmonic_motion_animation.gif" width="320"></a></div><div style="text-align: justify;">&#4145;&#4155;မငလ&#4154;င&#4153;လ&#4232;ပ&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; ငလ&#4154;င&#4153;လ&#4141;&#4232;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; သက&#4153; &#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;သည&#4151;&#4153;အခ&#4139; (သ&#4141;&#4143;႔မဟ&#4143;တ&#4153;) လ&#4144;တ&#4141;&#4143;႔&#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153; &#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မ&#4145;အ&#4140;က&#4153; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;ခ&#4156;&#4146;မ&#4232; (ဝ&#4139;) ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; &#4155;ပ&#4147;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4151;အခ&#4139; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ထ&#4143;အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; ဒ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;နမစ&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152; လ&#4232;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; ပ&#4154;&#4150;&#4239;&#4157;&#4150;႔ သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;&#4145;လ&#4151;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ထ&#4141;&#4143;လ&#4232;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152; မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; &#4145;&#4155;မထ&#4143;အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; ပ&#4154;&#4150;႕&#4239;&#4157;&#4150;႔သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;ပ&#4150;&#4143;က&#4141;&#4143; လ&#4156;ယ&#4153;က&#4144;စ&#4156;&#4140; တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရန&#4153;အတ&#4156;က&#4153; လ&#4141;&#4232;င&#4153;&#4152;အလ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; &#4175; ၂ ဆ&#4170; ၃ဆခန&#4153;႔ ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140; အက&#4156;&#4140;အ&#4145;ဝ&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; လ&#4232;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚ&#4145;စ&#4145;သ&#4140; ရင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;မစ&#4153; (source) မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143;ထ&#4140;&#4152;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4145;လ&#4151;ရ&#4157;&#4141;သည&#4153;&#4171; Elastic medium အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; လ&#4232;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;မ&#4232;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚလ&#4140;&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ထ&#4143;အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; အ&#4140;&#4152; (stress) &#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; အ&#4145;ရ&#4156;႕(Displacement) တ&#4141;&#4143;႔ &#4155;ဖန&#4153;႔ခ&#4156;&#4146; သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;ပ&#4150;&#4143;မ&#4157;&#4140; အ&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;အတန&#4153; ႐&#4232;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ထ&#4156;&#4152;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; လ&#4232;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4154;&#4150;႕&#4239;&#4157;&#4150;စဥ&#4153; (wave radiation) အတ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152; အ&#4140;&#4152; (stress)မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; သက&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;ပ&#4150;&#4143;မ&#4157;&#4140; လ&#4232;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;ပၚရ&#4140; ရင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;မစ&#4153;&#4175; အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;&#4152;အစ&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; ထ&#4141;&#4143;ရင&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;မစ&#4153;&#4175; ပတ&#4153;လည&#4153;ရ&#4157;&#4141; ထ&#4141;စပ&#4153;&#4145;န&#4145;သ&#4140; &#4145;&#4155;မသ&#4140;&#4152;ဂ&#4143;ဏ&#4153;သတ&#4209;&#4141; တ&#4141;&#4143;႔အ&#4145;ပၚ အဓ&#4141;က မ&#4144;တည&#4153;&#4145;နပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;</div>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_31.html'>ဘဂ&#4194;ဒက&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ကန&#4153;&#4145;ဒၚလ&#4140; ၃ ဘ&#4142;လ&#4142;ယ&#4150;တန&#4153; မ&#4142;ထ႐&#4141;&#4143; တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;မည&#4153;</a>
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8
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://www.blogger.com/post-create.g?blogID=1095469466403255308" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="176" src="http://thenonist.com/images/uploads/bagddmetro.full.jpg" width="200"></a></div><div style="text-align: justify;">အ&#4142;ရတ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;င&#4150;&#4170; ဘဂ&#4194;ဒက&#4153;ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; အ&#4145;မရ&#4141;ကန&#4153; &#4145;ဒၚလ&#4140; ၃ ဘ&#4142;လ&#4142;ယ&#4150;တန&#4153; မ&#4142;ထ႐&#4141;&#4143; စ&#4142;မ&#4150;က&#4141;န&#4153;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရန&#4153;အတ&#4156;က&#4153; &#4155;ပည&#4153;ပမ&#4157; &#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152; က&#4143;မၸဏ&#4142;ႀက&#4142;&#4152; ၈ ခ&#4143;က&#4141;&#4143; ဆန&#4153;က&#4140;တင&#4153;စ&#4140;ရင&#4153;&#4152; တင&#4153;သ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;ထ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152; သ&#4141;ရသည&#4153;&#4171; &#4174;စ&#4142;မ&#4150;က&#4141;န&#4153;&#4152;သည&#4153; စစ&#4153;ဒဏ&#4153;က&#4141;&#4143; ဆယ&#4153;စ&#4143;&#4239;&#4157;စ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4140; ခ&#4150;စ&#4140;&#4152;ခ&#4146;&#4151;ရၿပ&#4142;&#4152; ရင&#4153;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;&#4142;&#4152;&#4155;မ&#4157;&#4147;ပ&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;&#4150;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; မရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;သ&#4140;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; ပ&#4154;က&#4153;စ&#4142;&#4152;&#4145;နသည&#4151;&#4153; ဘဂ&#4194;ဒက&#4153;ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;&#4175; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခခ&#4150; အ&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;အအ&#4150;&#4143;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4141;&#4143; &#4155;ပန&#4153;လည&#4153;တည&#4153;&#4145;ဆ&#4140;က&#4153;ရန&#4153; ႀက&#4141;&#4147;&#4152;ပမ&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232; တစ&#4153;ရပ&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;</div>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/trans-asian-railways-tar.html'>ဥ&#4145;ရ&#4140;ပ - အ&#4140;ရ&#4157; ရထ&#4140;&#4152;လမ&#4153;&#4152;က&#4156;န&#4153;ယက&#4153; (Trans-Asian Railways - TAR)</a>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Notes' rel='tag'>Notes</a>,
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Technical%20views' rel='tag'>Technical views</a>
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<a class='comment-link' href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/trans-asian-railways-tar.html#comment-form' onclick=''>
0
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div style="text-align: justify;"><a href="http://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=1095469466403255308&amp;postID=1189047209444983671" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; float: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: 1em;"><img border="0" height="150" src="http://indolinkenglish.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/trans-asian-railway.jpg" width="200"></a><span class="dropcaps">ဥ</span>&#4145;ရ&#4140;ပ - အ&#4140;ရ&#4157;&#4155;ဖတ&#4153;&#4145;က&#4154;&#4140;&#4153; ရထ&#4140;&#4152;က&#4156;န&#4153;ယက&#4153; (Trans-Asian Railways - TAR) သည&#4153;ဥ&#4145;ရ&#4140;ပ&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; အ&#4140;ရ&#4157;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;င&#4150;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;အၾက&#4140;&#4152; က&#4143;န&#4153;စည&#4153;အ&#4155;ပန&#4153;အလ&#4157;န&#4153; စ&#4142;&#4152;ဆင&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4232;ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;စရန&#4153; စ&#4142;မ&#4150;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;မည&#4153;&#4151; ရထ&#4140;&#4152;လမ&#4153;&#4152;က&#4156;န&#4153;ယက&#4153; စ&#4142;မ&#4150;က&#4141;န&#4153;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171; အ&#4140;ရ&#4157;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; ပစ&#4141;ဖ&#4141;တ&#4153; &#4145;ဒသဆ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရ&#4140; စ&#4142;&#4152;ပ&#4156;&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;ရ&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; လ&#4144;မ&#4232;&#4145;ရ&#4152;လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ငန&#4153;&#4152; &#4145;က&#4140;&#4153;မရ&#4157;င&#4153; - (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific - UNESCAP )&#4175; စ&#4142;မ&#4150;က&#4141;န&#4153;&#4152;တခ&#4143;လည&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;</div>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/trans-asian-railways-tar.html#more'>အ&#4155;ပည&#4153;&#4151;အစ&#4150;&#4143;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔</a>
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<h2>
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/railway-signaling-system.html'>Railway signaling system  အ&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152; &#4145;လ&#4151;လ&#4140;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;</a>
</h2>
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စ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4144; &#169;
<strong>leostar</strong> | 
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Electric%20Traction' rel='tag'>Electric Traction</a>,
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Radio-Electronic' rel='tag'>Radio-Electronic</a>
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<a class='comment-link' href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/railway-signaling-system.html#comment-form' onclick=''>
3
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div style="text-align: justify;"><span class="dropcaps">ရ</span>ထ&#4140;&#4152;ဘ&#4144;တ&#4140;ရ&#4150;&#4143;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; လမ&#4153;&#4152;ပ&#4143;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;ရထ&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; အ&#4239;&#4209;ရ&#4140;ယ&#4153;ကင&#4153;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4140; &#4145;မ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရန&#4153; အတ&#4156;က&#4153; railway signaling system &#4239;&#4157;င&#4151;&#4153; automatic control system တ&#4143;&#4141;႔သည&#4153; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; အခန&#4153;&#4152;က႑မ&#4157; ပ&#4139;ဝင&#4153;လ&#4154;က&#4153;ရ&#4141;&#4157;သည&#4153;&#4171; ရထ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4143;&#4141;႔&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4145;ရ&#4152; လ&#4143;ပ&#4153;ငန&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4175; signaling system အတ&#4156;က&#4153; အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4145;သ&#4140; equipments မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4143;&#4141; equipments for signaling, centralization and blocking systems ဟ&#4143;&#4145;ခၚဆ&#4143;&#4141;&#4145;လ႔ရ&#4157;&#4141;သည&#4153;&#4171; စနစ&#4153;တစ&#4153;ခ&#4143;လ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;က&#4143;&#4141; မ&#4145;လ႔လ&#4140;မ&#4142; အ&#4145;ရ&#4152;ႀက&#4142;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; အ&#4145;ခၚအ&#4145;ဝၚမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4151; signal&#4170; signaling&#4170; centralization&#4170; blocking စသည&#4153;တ&#4143;&#4141;႔က&#4143;&#4141; စတင&#4153; မ&#4141;တ&#4153;ဆက&#4153;လ&#4143;&#4141;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;<br></div>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/railway-signaling-system.html#more'>အ&#4155;ပည&#4153;&#4151;အစ&#4150;&#4143;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔</a>
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<h2>
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post.html'>လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;အ&#4239;&#4209;ရ&#4140;ယ&#4153;အ&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;သ&#4141;&#4145;က&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;စရ&#4140;</a>
</h2>
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စ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4144; &#169;
<strong>leostar</strong> | 
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Electric%20Traction' rel='tag'>Electric Traction</a>
<div id='koment'>
<a class='comment-link' href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post.html#comment-form' onclick=''>
3
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #cc0000; font-weight: bold;">န&#4141;ဒ&#4139;န&#4153;&#4152;</span></div><div style="text-align: justify;">ယ&#4145;န႔&#4145;ခတ&#4153; လ&#4144;&#4145;နမ&#4232; အဆင&#4153;&#4151;အတန&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;မင&#4153;&#4151;မ&#4140;&#4152;လ&#4140;သည&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151;အမ&#4157;&#4154; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;ဓ&#4140;တ&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152; သ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4146;မ&#4232;သည&#4153;လည&#4153;&#4152; တစ&#4153;&#4145;န႔ထက&#4153;တစ&#4153;&#4145;န&#4151; ပ&#4143;&#4141;မ&#4141;&#4143;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4140;&#4152;လ&#4140;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;ဓ&#4140;တ&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152;သ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;စ&#4156;&#4146;မ&#4232; မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4140;&#4152;လ&#4140;သည&#4151;&#4153;အ&#4145;လ&#4154;&#4140;က&#4153; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151;ပတ&#4153;သက&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; မ&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;တဆ ထ&#4141;ခ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;မ&#4232;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;အ&#4239;&#4209;ရ&#4140;ယ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4143;&#4141;လည&#4153;&#4152; &#4145;တ&#4156;႔ႀက&#4150;&#4147;လ&#4140;ၾကရပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ထ&#4143;&#4141;႔&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;အ&#4239;&#4209;ရ&#4140;ယ&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; ပတ&#4153;သက&#4153;သည&#4151;&#4153; အ&#4145;&#4155;ခခ&#4150;ဗဟ&#4143;သ&#4143;တမ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;က&#4143;&#4141; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;ပစၥည&#4153;&#4152; က&#4141;ရ&#4141;ယ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; ထ&#4141;&#4145;တ&#4156;႔အသ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4147;&#4145;နသ&#4144;တ&#4143;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152; သ&#4141;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ထ&#4140;&#4152;သင&#4153;&#4151;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171; ဤ&#4145;ဆ&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;ပ&#4139;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153;  စ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4144; ယခ&#4143;&#4155;ပ&#4147;စ&#4143;&#4145;နသည&#4151;&#4153; စ&#4140;တမ&#4153;&#4152;&#4175; တစ&#4141;တ&#4153;တပ&#4143;&#4141;င&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;ဓ&#4140;တ&#4153;လ&#4143;&#4141;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; ပတ&#4153;သက&#4153;သည&#4151;&#4153; သ&#4141;&#4145;က&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;စရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4157;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မ&#4145;အ&#4140;က&#4153;ရထ&#4140;&#4152; ဘ&#4144;တ&#4140;ရ&#4150;&#4143;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; &#4145;&#4155;မ&#4145;အ&#4140;က&#4153;ဥမင&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;ရ&#4157;&#4141; လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;ဓ&#4140;တ&#4153;အ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;ပ&#4152;သည&#4151;&#4153; စနစ&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153;  လ&#4157;&#4154;ပ&#4153;စစ&#4153;အ&#4239;&#4209;ရ&#4140;ယ&#4153; က&#4154;&#4145;ရ&#4140;က&#4153;လ&#4140;ပ&#4139;က က&#4140;က&#4156;ယ&#4153;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;ရန&#4153; ပစၥည&#4153;&#4152;က&#4141;ရ&#4141;ယ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; တပ&#4153;ဆင&#4153;ထ&#4140;&#4152;ရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152; အပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4157;  အခ&#4154;&#4141;&#4147;႕က&#4143;&#4141; မ&#4141;တ&#4153;ဆက&#4153; &#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4140;&#4152;ထ&#4140;&#4152;ပ&#4139;သည&#4153;&#4171;<br>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post.html#more'>အ&#4155;ပည&#4153;&#4151;အစ&#4150;&#4143;သ&#4141;&#4143;႔</a>
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/03/blog-post_29.html'>&#4145;မ&#4140;&#4153;စက&#4141;&#4143; မ&#4142;ထ႐&#4141;&#4143; ဗ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;ပ&#4139;က&#4153;က&#4156;&#4146;</a>
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စ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4144; &#169;
<strong>MyMetro</strong> | 
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/News' rel='tag'>News</a>
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<a class='comment-link' href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/03/blog-post_29.html#comment-form' onclick=''> 1 ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><div style="text-align: justify;"><span class="dropcaps">႐&#4143;</span>ရ&#4157;&#4140;&#4152;&#4239;&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;င&#4150;&#4170; &#4145;မ&#4140;&#4153;စက&#4141;&#4143;ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕ မ&#4142;ထ႐&#4141;&#4143;တ&#4156;င&#4153;&#4152;&#4172; ယ&#4145;န႔န&#4150;နက&#4153;ပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ဗ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;ပ&#4139;က&#4153;က&#4156;&#4146;မ&#4232; ၂ ခ&#4143; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4156;&#4140;&#4152;ရ&#4140; လ&#4144; ၃၅ ဥ&#4142;&#4152;&#4145;သဆ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; ၆၀ &#4145;က&#4154;&#4140;&#4153; ဒဏ&#4153;ရ&#4140; ရရ&#4157;&#4141;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152; သတင&#4153;&#4152;ရရ&#4157;&#4141;သည&#4153;&#4171; အမ&#4154;&#4147;&#4141;သမ&#4142;&#4152; အ&#4145;သခ&#4150;ဗ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;ခ&#4156;&#4146;သ&#4144; ၂ ဥ&#4142;&#4152;က ခရ&#4142;&#4152;သည&#4153; အသ&#4156;&#4140;&#4152;အလ&#4140; ထ&#4144;ထပ&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ပ&#4140;&#4152;&#4145;သ&#4140; တနလ&#4196;&#4140;&#4145;န႔ မနက&#4153;ပ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;&#4152;အခ&#4154;&#4141;န&#4153;တ&#4156;င&#4153; ဗ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;ခ&#4156;&#4146; တ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;ခ&#4141;&#4143;က&#4153;ခ&#4146;&#4151;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171; ဗ&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;&#4145;ပ&#4139;က&#4153;က&#4156;&#4146;မ&#4232; &#4155;ဖစ&#4153;ပ&#4156;&#4140;&#4152;ရ&#4140; &#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;သည&#4153; &#4145;မ&#4140;&#4153;စက&#4141;&#4143; ၿမ&#4141;&#4147;႕လယ&#4153;&#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;&#4145;သ&#4140; ဒ&#4144;&#4152;မ&#4140;&#4152;လ&#4234;တ&#4153;&#4145;တ&#4140;&#4153;&#4170; &#4145;မ&#4140;&#4153;စက&#4141;&#4143; ရင&#4153;&#4155;ပင&#4153;န&#4142; စသည&#4151;&#4153;အထင&#4153;ကရ &#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;မ&#4157; က&#4142;လ&#4143;&#4141;မ&#4142;တ&#4140; အနည&#4153;&#4152;ငယ&#4153;မ&#4157;&#4154;သ&#4140; က&#4156;&#4140;&#4145;ဝ&#4152;က&#4140; ႐&#4150;&#4143;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; &#4145;စ&#4154;&#4152;ဆ&#4141;&#4143;င&#4153;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4170; &#4145;က&#4154;&#4140;င&#4153;&#4152;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152; တည&#4153;ရ&#4157;&#4141;ၿပ&#4142;&#4152; အသ&#4156;&#4140;&#4152;အလ&#4140; ရ&#4232;ပ&#4153;&#4145;ထ&#4156;&#4152;သည&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;နရ&#4140;မ&#4154;&#4140;&#4152;&#4155;ဖစ&#4153;သည&#4153;&#4171;<br>
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<h2>
<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/03/blog-post.html'>ဥမင&#4153;တ&#4144;&#4152;&#4145;ဖ&#4140;&#4153;မ&#4232;&#4145;ၾက&#4140;င&#4153;&#4151; &#4145;&#4155;မမ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4239;&#4157;&#4140;&#4155;ပင&#4153; န&#4141;မ&#4151;&#4153;က&#4154;မ&#4232;က&#4141;&#4143; ခန&#4153;႔မ&#4157;န&#4153;&#4152;တ&#4156;က&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4155;ခင&#4153;&#4152;</a>
</h2>
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စ&#4140;&#4145;ရ&#4152;သ&#4144; &#169;
<strong>MyMetro</strong> | 
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<a href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/search/label/Technical%20section' rel='tag'>Technical section</a>
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<a class='comment-link' href='http://mymetroworld.blogspot.com/2010/03/blog-post.html#comment-form' onclick=''>
4
ထင&#4153;&#4155;မင&#4153;ခ&#4154;က&#4153;&#4170;
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<p><span class="dropcaps">ယ</span><br>
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<h2 class='title'>CITY DIRECTORY FROM METRO BITS</h2>
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<a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Adana"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Adana</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Amsterdam"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Amsterdam</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Ankara"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Ankara</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Antwerp"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Antwerp</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Athens"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334466;">Athens</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Atlanta"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Atlanta</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Baku"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#334477;">Baku</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Baltimore"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Baltimore</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bangkok"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Bangkok</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Barcelona"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#112233;">Barcelona</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Beijing"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Beijing</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Belo+Horizonte"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Belo Horizonte</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Berlin"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#001111;">Berlin</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bielefeld"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Bielefeld</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bilbao"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Bilbao</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bochum"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Bochum</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bonn"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Bonn</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Boston"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#001100;">Boston</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Brasilia"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">Brasilia</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Brussels"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Brussels</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bucharest"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Bucharest</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Budapest"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#001100;">Budapest</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Buenos+Aires"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#112222;">Buenos Aires</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Buffalo"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Buffalo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Bursa"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Bursa</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Busan"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445599;">Busan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Cairo"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445599;">Cairo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Caracas"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445599;">Caracas</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Catania"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Catania</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Changchun"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Changchun</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Charleroi"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Charleroi</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Chennai"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Chennai</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Chiba"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Chiba</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Chicago"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#001100;">Chicago</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Chongqing"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Chongqing</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Cleveland"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#334466;">Cleveland</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Cologne"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#334477;">Cologne</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Copenhagen"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Copenhagen</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Daegu"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566aa;">Daegu</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Daejeon"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Daejeon</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Dalian"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">Dalian</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Delhi"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566bb;">Delhi</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Detroit"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Detroit</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Dnepropetrovsk"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Dnepropetrovsk</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Dortmund"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Dortmund</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Dubai"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">Dubai</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Duesseldorf"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Duesseldorf</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Duisburg"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Duisburg</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Edmonton"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Edmonton</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Essen"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#334477;">Essen</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Frankfurt"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Frankfurt</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Fukuoka"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Fukuoka</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Gelsenkirchen"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Gelsenkirchen</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Genoa"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Genoa</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Glasgow"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#001100;">Glasgow</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Guadalajara"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Guadalajara</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Guangzhou"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566aa;">Guangzhou</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Gwangju"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Gwangju</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Haifa"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#334466;">Haifa</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Hamburg"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#112222;">Hamburg</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Hanover"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Hanover</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Helsinki"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Helsinki</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Hiroshima"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Hiroshima</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Hong+Kong"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Hong Kong</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Incheon"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Incheon</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Istanbul"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Istanbul</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Izmir"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Izmir</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Jacksonville"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Jacksonville</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kamakura"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Kamakura</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kaohsiung"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">Kaohsiung</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kazan"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Kazan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kharkov"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Kharkov</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kiev"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Kiev</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kitakyushu"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Kitakyushu</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kobe"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Kobe</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kolkata"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Kolkata</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kryvyi+Rih"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Kryvyi Rih</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kuala+Lumpur"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566aa;">Kuala Lumpur</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Kyoto"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Kyoto</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Las+Vegas"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Las Vegas</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Lausanne"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Lausanne</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Lille"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Lille</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Lima"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Lima</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Lisbon"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#334466;">Lisbon</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=London"><span style="font-size:+2;color:#001100;">London</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Los+Angeles"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Los Angeles</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Ludwigshafen"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#334477;">Ludwigshafen</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Lyon"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Lyon</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Madrid"><span style="font-size:+2;color:#001111;">Madrid</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Manila"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Manila</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Maracaibo"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Maracaibo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Marseille"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Marseille</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Medellin"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Medellin</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Mexico+City"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#334477;">Mexico City</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Miami"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Miami</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Milan"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Milan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Minsk"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Minsk</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Monterrey"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Monterrey</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Montreal"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Montreal</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Moscow"><span style="font-size:+2;color:#223344;">Moscow</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Mulheim"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Mulheim</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Mumbai"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#001100;">Mumbai</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Munich"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Munich</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Nagoya"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334466;">Nagoya</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Naha"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Naha</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Nanjing"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Nanjing</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Naples"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Naples</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=New+York"><span style="font-size:+2;color:#001111;">New York</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Newark"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#223344;">Newark</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Newcastle"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445599;">Newcastle</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Nizhny+Novgorod"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Nizhny Novgorod</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Novosibirsk"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Novosibirsk</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Nuremberg"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Nuremberg</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Oporto"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Oporto</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Osaka"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#223344;">Osaka</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Oslo"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Oslo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Palma+de+Mallorca"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Palma de Mallorca</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Paris"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#001111;">Paris</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Perugia"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Perugia</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Philadelphia"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#001111;">Philadelphia</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Pittsburgh"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Pittsburgh</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Porto+Alegre"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Porto Alegre</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Poznan"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Poznan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Prague"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Prague</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Pyongyang"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445588;">Pyongyang</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Recife"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Recife</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Rennes"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Rennes</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Rio+de+Janeiro"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Rio de Janeiro</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Rome"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#334466;">Rome</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Rotterdam"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334477;">Rotterdam</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Rouen"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Rouen</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Saint+Louis"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566aa;">Saint Louis</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Saint+Petersburg"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334466;">Saint Petersburg</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Samara"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Samara</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=San+Francisco"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#445588;">San Francisco</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=San+Juan"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">San Juan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Santiago"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Santiago</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Santo+Domingo"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Santo Domingo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Sao+Paulo"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Sao Paulo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Sapporo"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Sapporo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Seattle"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Seattle</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Sendai"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Sendai</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Seoul"><span style="font-size:+2;color:#445588;">Seoul</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Seville"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Seville</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Shanghai"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#5566aa;">Shanghai</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Shenzhen"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Shenzhen</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Singapore"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445599;">Singapore</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Sofia"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Sofia</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Stockholm"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334466;">Stockholm</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Stuttgart"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#334477;">Stuttgart</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Sydney"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#112233;">Sydney</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Taipei"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566aa;">Taipei</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Tama"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Tama</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Tashkent"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Tashkent</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Tbilisi"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#334477;">Tbilisi</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Tehran"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">Tehran</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=The+Hague"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">The Hague</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Tianjin"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#5566bb;">Tianjin</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Tokyo"><span style="font-size:+2;color:#112233;">Tokyo</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Toronto"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#334466;">Toronto</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Toulouse"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566aa;">Toulouse</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Turin"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Turin</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Valencia%2CSpain"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445599;">Valencia</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Valencia%2CVenezuela"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Valencia</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Valparaiso"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#5566bb;">Valparaiso</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Vancouver"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445599;">Vancouver</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Vienna"><span style="font-size:+0;color:#445588;">Vienna</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Volgograd"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Volgograd</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Warsaw"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Warsaw</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Washington"><span style="font-size:+1;color:#445588;">Washington</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Wuhan"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566bb;">Wuhan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Wuppertal"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#001111;">Wuppertal</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Yekaterinburg"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#5566aa;">Yekaterinburg</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Yerevan"><span style="font-size:-2;color:#445599;">Yerevan</span></a> <a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Yokohama"><span style="font-size:-1;color:#445588;">Yokohama</span></a><a href="http://mic-ro.com/metro/metrocity.html?city=Yokohama"><span style="color: rgb(68, 85, 136);"></span></a></div>Currently, there are 175 metros all over the world.
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Report ID
20210304T121902Z_webconnectivity_MM_58952_n1_3OoerSGIb6Iu9rsN
Platform
linux
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ooniprobe-cli (3.5.2)
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ooniprobe-engine (3.5.2)

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