OK
https://wikihow.com/
Zimbabwe
Country
AS37204
Network
August 04, 2021, 05:56 PM UTC
Date & Time
Websites
Websites
Runtime: 4.1s
On August 04, 2021, 05:56 PM UTC, https://wikihow.com/ was accessible when tested on AS37204 in Zimbabwe.

Failures

HTTP Experiment
null
DNS Experiment
null
Control
null

DNS Queries

Resolver:
197.221.248.249
Query:
IN A wikihow.com
Engine:
system
Name
Class
TTL
Type
DATA
@
IN
A
151.101.2.137
@
IN
A
151.101.194.137
@
IN
A
151.101.130.137
@
IN
A
151.101.66.137
Query:
IN AAAA wikihow.com
Engine:
system
Name
Class
TTL
Type
DATA
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:800::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:e00::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:400::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:600::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:a00::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:200::649
@
IN
AAAA
2a04:4e42:c00::649

TCP Connections

Connection to 151.101.130.137:443 succeeded.
Connection to 151.101.194.137:443 succeeded.
Connection to 151.101.2.137:443 succeeded.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:200::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:400::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:600::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:800::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:a00::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:c00::649:443 failed.
Connection to 2a04:4e42:e00::649:443 failed.
Connection to 151.101.66.137:443 succeeded.

HTTP Requests

URL
GET https://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page
Response Headers
Accept-Ranges:
bytes
Age:
55935
Cache-Control:
s-maxage=3600, must-revalidate, max-age=0
Content-Language:
en
Content-Length:
199917
Content-Type:
text/html; charset=UTF-8
Date:
Wed, 04 Aug 2021 18:06:46 GMT
Last-Modified:
Tue, 03 Aug 2021 03:12:41 GMT
Set-Cookie:
whv=zlBFfozHmxn5tcu4Od8l; expires=Sat, 02 Aug 2031 18:06:46 GMT; domain=.wikihow.com; path=/; secure
Strict-Transport-Security:
max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
Vary:
Cookie, Accept-Encoding
X-C:
cache-jnb7025-JNB,M cache-bwi5170-BWI,h,55935
X-Content-Type-Options:
nosniff
X-Frame-Options:
SAMEORIGIN
X-Timer:
S1628100407.520456,VS0,VE239
X-Xss-Protection:
1; mode=block
Response Body
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html class="client-nojs" lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8"/>
<title>wikiHow: How-to instructions you can trust.</title>
<script>document.documentElement.className = document.documentElement.className.replace( /(^|\s)client-nojs(\s|$)/, "$1client-js$2" );</script>
<script>(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgCanonicalNamespace":"","wgCanonicalSpecialPageName":false,"wgNamespaceNumber":0,"wgPageName":"Main-Page","wgTitle":"Main Page","wgCurRevisionId":16421456,"wgRevisionId":0,"wgArticleId":5,"wgIsArticle":false,"wgIsRedirect":false,"wgAction":"view","wgUserName":null,"wgUserGroups":["*"],"wgCategories":["WikiHow"],"wgBreakFrames":false,"wgPageContentLanguage":"en","wgPageContentModel":"wikitext","wgSeparatorTransformTable":["",""],"wgDigitTransformTable":["",""],"wgDefaultDateFormat":"dmy","wgMonthNames":["","January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December"],"wgMonthNamesShort":["","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec"],"wgRelevantPageName":"Main-Page","wgRelevantArticleId":5,"wgRequestId":"26890a9a3028e025b5fba5f4","wgCSPNonce":false,"wgIsProbablyEditable":false,"wgRelevantPageIsProbablyEditable":false,"wgRestrictionEdit":["sysop"],"wgRestrictionMove":["sysop"],"wgIsMainPage":true,"wgUserType":"anon","wgWikihowSiteRev":"xwNBT","wgFBAppId":"157545333433","wgGoogleAppId":"475770217963-cj49phca8tqki2ggs0ttcaerhs8339eh.apps.googleusercontent.com","wgCDNbase":"https://www.wikihow.com","wgProMembership":0,"wgHasEmail":0,"wgIsUserReviewEligible":"ineligible","wgNumReviews":"0","wgMFMode":"stable","wgMFLazyLoadImages":false,"wgMFLazyLoadReferences":false,"wgMFIsPageContentModelEditable":true,"wgMFEnableFontChanger":true,"wgMFDisplayWikibaseDescriptions":{"search":false,"nearby":false,"watchlist":false,"tagline":false},"wgMinervaFeatures":{"amc":false,"beta":false,"mobileOptionsLink":true,"categories":false,"backToTop":false,"shareButton":false,"toggling":true,"pageIssues":false,"talkAtTop":false},"wgMinervaDownloadNamespaces":[0],"wgMinervaMenuData":[]});mw.loader.state({"user.styles":"ready","user":"ready","user.options":"ready","user.tokens":"loading","zzz.mobile.wikihow.homepage.styles":"ready","skins.minerva.base.styles":"ready","skins.minerva.content.styles.images":"ready","mediawiki.hlist":"ready","mediawiki.ui.icon":"ready","mediawiki.ui.button":"ready","skins.minerva.icons.images":"ready","skins.minerva.mainPage.styles":"ready","ext.wikihow.save_article.styles":"ready","ext.wikihow.trusted_sources.styles":"ready","ext.wikihow.slider_styles":"ready","ext.wikihow.rcwidget_styles":"ready","ext.wikihow.expertadvicesection.styles":"ready","ext.wikihow.green_box":"ready","ext.wikihow.social_footer_styles":"ready"});mw.loader.implement("user.tokens@0tffind",function($,jQuery,require,module){/*@nomin*/mw.user.tokens.set({"editToken":"+\\","patrolToken":"+\\","watchToken":"+\\","csrfToken":"+\\"});
});RLPAGEMODULES=["zzz.mobile.wikihow.homepage.scripts","mediawiki.page.startup","skins.minerva.scripts","ext.wikihow.common_top","ext.wikihow.common_bottom","mobile.wikihow.mmf","ext.wikihow.article_courses_banner","ext.wikihow.save_article.scripts","ext.wikihow.trusted_sources.scripts","zzz.mobile.wikihow.styles_late_load","zzz.mobile.wikihow.scripts_late_load","mobile.wikihow.tabsonmobile","mobile.wikihow","mobile.wikihow.stable.styles","mobile.wikihow.socialproof","ext.wikihow.slider","ext.wikihow.rcwidget","mobile.wikihow.userreview","ext.wikihow.green_box.scripts","ext.wikihow.social_footer","ext.eventLogging","mobile.site","mobile.init"];mw.loader.load(RLPAGEMODULES);});</script>
<link rel="preload" href="/load.php?debug=false&lang=en&modules=ext.wikihow.expertadvicesection.styles%7Cext.wikihow.green_box%2Crcwidget_styles%2Cslider_styles%2Csocial_footer_styles%7Cext.wikihow.save_article.styles%7Cext.wikihow.trusted_sources.styles%7Cmediawiki.hlist%7Cmediawiki.ui.button%2Cicon%7Cskins.minerva.base.styles%7Cskins.minerva.content.styles.images%7Cskins.minerva.icons.images%7Cskins.minerva.mainPage.styles%7Czzz.mobile.wikihow.homepage.styles&only=styles&siterev=xwNBT&skin=wh" as="style" onload="this.onload=null;this.rel='stylesheet'"/><link rel="stylesheet" href="/load.php?debug=false&amp;lang=en&amp;modules=ext.wikihow.expertadvicesection.styles%7Cext.wikihow.green_box%2Crcwidget_styles%2Cslider_styles%2Csocial_footer_styles%7Cext.wikihow.save_article.styles%7Cext.wikihow.trusted_sources.styles%7Cmediawiki.hlist%7Cmediawiki.ui.button%2Cicon%7Cskins.minerva.base.styles%7Cskins.minerva.content.styles.images%7Cskins.minerva.icons.images%7Cskins.minerva.mainPage.styles%7Czzz.mobile.wikihow.homepage.styles&amp;only=styles&amp;siterev=xwNBT&amp;skin=wh"/>
<meta name="ResourceLoaderDynamicStyles" content=""/>
<meta name="generator" content="MediaWiki 1.33.0-alpha"/>
<meta name="robots" content="index,follow"/><!--default-->
<meta name="google-site-verification" content="Jb3uMWyKPQ3B9lzp5hZvJjITDKG8xI8mnEpWifGXUb0"/>
<meta name="description" content="Learn how to do anything with wikiHow, the world&#039;s most popular how-to website. Easy, well-researched, and trustworthy instructions for everything you want to know."/>
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge"/>
<meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes, minimum-scale=0.25, maximum-scale=5.0, width=device-width"/>
<meta name="theme-color" content="#eaecf0"/>
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="https://www.wikihow.com/skins/WikiHow/wH-initials_152x152.png"/>
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="/favicon.ico"/>
<link rel="search" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" href="/opensearch_desc.php" title="wikiHow (en)"/>
<link rel="EditURI" type="application/rsd+xml" href="https://www.wikihow.com/api.php?action=rsd"/>
<link rel="canonical" href="https://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page"/>
<script>window.WH=window.WH||{timeStart:+(new Date()),lang:{}};
if(/.+@.+/.test(window.location.hash)){window.location.hash='';}</script>
<script>window.WH.proMembership=0;</script>
<script>window.WH.jsFastRender=0;</script>
<script>retinaAvailable = false;</script>
<style>html,body,div,span,h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6,p,blockquote,pre,a,abbr,acronym,address,big,cite,del,ins,em,img,small,strike,strong,sub,sup,tt,b,u,i,center,dl,dt,dd,ol,ul,li,fieldset,form,label,legend,input,textarea,button,select,audio,video{margin:0;padding:0;border:0;font:inherit;font-size:100%;vertical-align:baseline}table,caption,tbody,tfoot,thead,tr,th,td{margin:0;padding:0;font:inherit;font-size:100%;vertical-align:baseline}button{border:none;background-color:transparent}body{line-height:1;-webkit-tap-highlight-color:transparent}input{line-height:normal}ol,ul{list-style:none}table{border-collapse:collapse}strong,b{font-weight:bold}i,em{font-style:italic}html,body{height:100%}body{background-color:#f3f3f3;color:#545454;font-family:"Helvetica","Nimbus Sans L","Arial","Liberation Sans",sans-serif;line-height:1.4;font-size:16px;-webkit-font-smoothing:antialiased;-moz-osx-font-smoothing:grayscale}h1,h2,h3,h4{color:#222}.hidden,a.hide,img[src=""],#mw-mf-page-left,.stable #ca-talk,.client-nojs #ca-watch.cta,.client-nojs #ca-edit,.client-nojs #ca-upload,#ca-talk.selected,.template_top,.section>.section_text>h3 .edit-page,#tips h3,h4.steps_text .edit-page,h5.steps_text .edit-page,h6.steps_text .edit-page,#article_rating_mobile,#uci_section,.trvote_box,.section.video,#hp_navigation,#mcta_root,#method_toc,.amazon_info,#servedtime,.tabbed_content,#sp_h2.tabbed_content,#social_proof_mobile.tabbed_content,#uci_section.tabbed_content,.tabbed_content .edit-page,.m-video-helpful-wrap,.m-video-wm,#gdpr_dismiss,#gdpr_close,#intro .green_box,.header #actions,#actionbar,.pswp,#mw-mf-last-modified,.page_stats,#end_options,#footer_newsletter{display:none}a,a:active,a:visited,a.new{color:#307530;text-decoration:none;word-wrap:break-word}a:active,a:hover{color:#439B05;text-decoration:underline}a.new{color:#B30000}a[title^='User']{color:#307530}a.external{background-image:none}.clearall{clear:both;height:0}#section_0.title_sm{font-size:1.3em}#section_0.title_md{font-size:1.5em}#section_0.title_lg{font-size:1.6em}#section_0 span.ja_how_to{color:#7b9965}#mw-mf-viewport{position:relative;height:100%}#mw-mf-page-center{padding:0;min-height:100%;width:100%;position:relative;z-index:3;background-color:#f3f3f3;transition:all 0.5s ease 0s}#mw-mf-page-center.footerad{padding:0 0 180px}.footerad #footer{bottom:110px}.header_container{background-color:#93B874;position:fixed;border:0;z-index:10;top:0;width:100%}#header_container_small{display:none}#wh-progress-bar{position:absolute;left:0;bottom:0;width:0px;height:2px;background-color:#475347;transition:width 1s linear;-webkit-transition:width 1s linear;-moz-transition:width 1s linear;-o-transition:width 1s linear}.header{height:40px;display:table;white-space:nowrap;margin:0 auto;width:100%;border-top:none}.header > *{width:3em;display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle}.header > h1,.header > form,.header > ul{width:auto}.header h1{text-align:center;font-weight:bold}.header #mw-mf-main-menu-button,.header #secondary-button{text-indent:-9999px;background-repeat:no-repeat}.header #mw-mf-main-menu-button{background-position:40% 40%}.header #secondary-button{background-position:60% 40%}.header #secondary-button.user-button{text-indent:0;text-align:center}.header #secondary-button.user-button:hover{text-decoration:none}.header #secondary-button.user-button span{display:inline-block;width:24px;height:24px;font-weight:bold;color:#fff;line-height:24px;background:#c91f2c;border-radius:2px}.header .search{border:none;padding:0;background-color:transparent}#hs,#hs_query{width:72px;position:static}#hs + a{padding-left:0 !important}.hs_active .search{padding-right:50px}#hs_query,#hs_close,#hs_submit{display:block;position:absolute;top:0;right:0;height:39px;margin:1px 0 0;padding:0;background-color:transparent;background-repeat:no-repeat;border:none}#hs_query{border:solid 5px #93B874;border-radius:10px;padding:0 5px;-webkit-appearance:none;background:#FFF url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/search_gray.svg) right 4px center / 20px no-repeat;box-sizing:border-box;color:transparent;font-size:16px;transition:width 100ms ease-in-out;outline:none}.hs_notif #hs_query{margin-right:40px}.hs_active.hs_notif #hs_query{margin-right:0}.hs_active #hs_query:valid{background-image:none}#hs_close{width:0;background:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/close.svg) center / 15px no-repeat}#hs_submit{display:none;position:absolute;background-size:20px;background-position:right 9px center;width:40px}@media only screen and (max-width:599px){#hs_query,#hs_submit{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/search_gray.svg)}.hs_active #hs_query{color:#545454;width:100%;padding-left:34px;padding-right:34px;background-position:left 6px bottom 50%}.hs_active #hs_query:valid ~ #hs_submit{display:block;right:auto;left:0}.hs_active #hs_close{width:40px}#hs_query::-webkit-input-placeholder{opacity:0}.hs_active #hs_query::-webkit-input-placeholder{opacity:1}}@media only screen and (min-width:600px){#hs_query{background-color:#B3CE9C;color:#fff;width:30%;padding-left:10px;padding-right:34px}#hs_query,#hs_submit{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/mag_white.png)}#hs_query:valid ~ #hs_submit{display:block}#hs_query::-webkit-input-placeholder{color:#E3F8D1}}.content{margin:0 5px;word-wrap:break-word}.full_width .content{margin:0}.content img{max-width:100%;width:100%;height:auto}.content video{max-width:100%;width:100%;height:auto}.content h1,.content h2,.content h3,.content h4,.content h5,.content h6{line-height:1.3;padding:0.5em 0}.content p{margin-bottom:.7em}.content .thumb{margin:15px 0;border:1px solid #ccc;border-radius:5px;background:#f9f9f9;text-align:center}.content ol ol,.content ul ol,.content ol ul,.content ul ul,dl{margin-left:1em}.pre-content h1,.content h1{font-size:1.8em}h2{font-size:1.5em}h3{font-size:1.2em;font-weight:bold}h4,dl dt{font-weight:bold}sup{vertical-align:super;line-height:normal}sub{vertical-align:sub}sub,sup{font-size:0.83em}pre{white-space:pre-wrap;overflow-wrap:break-word}#content_wrapper{padding-top:40px;background-color:#f3f3f3}.pre-content{background-color:#FFF;border-bottom:none;margin:0}.section-heading .indicator{display:none}#section_0{border-bottom:none;color:#222;font-size:26px;font-weight:bold;line-height:1.2em;padding:12px 15px 0}#section_0.special_title{font-size:18px;margin-bottom:.5em;padding:15px 20px}#section_0 a{color:#222;text-decoration:none}.ns-0.action-view #section_0{padding:0 15px}#intro{background-color:#FFF;margin:0 -5px; padding:7px 15px 3px}body.action-view #content>#intro{padding-top:7px}#intro p{line-height:20px}#intro .mwimg{margin:-7px -15px 5px -15px}#intro .mwimg img{border-radius:0}.section{margin-top:1em;position:relative}.section h2,.steps h3{background-color:#FFF;width:100%;border-radius:4px 4px 0 0;font-weight:bold;font-size:1em;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0;border-bottom:1px solid #f3f3f3}.section h2 span.mw-headline{display:inline-block;padding:.8em;color:#222}.steps.sample h3 span.mw-headline{color:#222;padding-top:1em}.steps h3 span.mw-headline{display:inline-block;padding:0 1em 1em}h4.steps_text{position:relative;padding-left:25px;border:1px solid #f3f3f3;border-width:1px 0}.section>.section_text>h3{background-position:3px center}.step_num{font-size:30px;color:#545454;padding:0 15px 0 0;float:left;font-weight:bold;line-height:39px}.stepanchor{display:block;position:relative;top:-110px;visibility:hidden}.steps_list_2 li{margin-bottom:1em;font-size:16px;line-height:normal;list-style:none;background-color:#FFF;border-radius:4px;padding:20px;clear:both}#content_wrapper{margin:0}.steps_list_2 li li{border:none;margin:0;list-style:disc;padding:0 }.steps_list_2 .mwimg.largeimage{margin:-20px -20px 10px}.mwimg{border-bottom:1px solid rgba(0,0,0,0.1);line-height:0;margin-bottom:1em;position:relative;text-align:center}#quick_summary_section .mwimg{margin-bottom:0}.mwimg a img{border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px}.steps_list_2 li:first-child .mwimg a img{border-radius:0}.steps_list_2 .mwimg.underwidth{margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto}.mwimg.techicon{display:inline;border:none}.mwimg.techicon img{width:auto;height:30px !important;position:relative;min-height:0;min-width:0}.mwimg.techicon .content-spacer{width:auto;height:30px !important;padding-top:0 !important;display:inline}.content img.whvgif{width:100%;max-width:760px !important}.caption{position:absolute;width:96%;bottom:0;left:0;background-color:#444;opacity:0.7;text-align:left;font-size:12px;line-height:normal;padding:5px 2%;color:#fff}.mwimg.tright{float:right}.steps_list_2 li li .mwimg.largeimage{margin:5px 0}.section_text,.steps_text{padding:15px;background-color:#FFF;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px;font-size:16px}.steps.sample .section_text{background-color:#FFF}.sample p{padding:.9em;margin:0}#quicksummary{padding-bottom:0;margin-bottom:-15px}#video.section_text{padding:0}#quick_summary_section.section_text{padding-bottom:0}#video .embedvideocontainer{width:100%}.content .steps_list_2 ul,.content .steps_list_2 ol{margin:8px 0 0 30px}.steps .section_text{background-color:inherit;padding:0;border:none}h3 .altblock{padding:1rem 1rem 0;font-weight:normal}#ingredients li,#thingsyoullneed li{clear:both;list-style:none;margin-bottom:1.1em;line-height:20px}#thingsyoullneed li > ul{margin-top:10px;margin-left:27px}.checkmark{border:1px solid #a3a3a3;width:.9em;height:.9em;border-radius:4px;float:left;margin-right:.5em}.section:not(.steps) h3{position:relative;color:#222;font-weight:normal;font-size:1rem}.section:not(.steps) h3 .altblock{position:absolute;margin-top:.1em;height:1em;width:1em;background-color:#93b874;padding:0}.section:not(.steps) h3 .mw-headline{display:inline-block;width:auto;padding-left:1.6em}.content ul{list-style:disc inside}.section h2.android,.section h3.android,.tool div.android{top:0}#ca-edit.enabled{background-size:10px 10px;width:20px;height:20px;margin-right:4px}#page-actions:not(.page-actions-menu__list){font-size:inherit;float:right;border:none;padding:10px 0 0 0;margin:0;width:auto}#page-actions li{cursor:pointer;vertical-align:top;height:30px;width:40px;text-indent:-9999px;background-position:50% 0;background-repeat:no-repeat}#page-actions li input{opacity:0}#page-actions li input,#page-actions li a{display:block;width:100%;height:100%;margin:0 0 8px}#page-actions li#ca-edit{width:27px;height:15px;margin-right:0;background-size:14px;background-position:top left}.content .edit-page{display:none}.stable .content p,.stable .content li,.stable .content dl{line-height:25px}.stable .content .stu_test_font p,.stable .content .stu_test_font li,.stable .content .stu_test_font dl{line-height:35px;font-size:18px}#header_logo{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle;background:center / 115px no-repeat url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/wikihow_logo_230.png);width:auto;height:38px;padding:0 14px}.header #mw-mf-main-menu-button{width:72px;border-right:none;background:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/main_menu_button.svg) left 15px bottom 50% / 18px no-repeat}.header #mw-mf-main-menu-button,.header #secondary-button{height:auto}.header #secondary-button.user-button{padding-top:.35em}.header > *:nth-child(3){border-left:none}.wh_search .cse_q{border:none}.breadcrumbs li{display:inline-block;padding-right:.3em}.breadcrumbs li:after{content:' \20\00BB'}.breadcrumbs li:last-child:after{content:''}#breadcrumb{font-size:.7em;padding:1em 0 .7em 15px;text-transform:uppercase}#breadcrumb li{display:none;line-height:1em;padding-right:.5em}#breadcrumb li:after{color:#307530;font-size:1.25em;white-space:pre}#breadcrumb li:nth-last-child(2),#breadcrumb li:last-child{display:inline-block;font-weight:bold} .button,button,.panel .button,.panel button,.buttonBar .button,.buttonBar button,.buttonBar input[type="submit"],.mw-ui-button,input[type="submit"]{border-radius:4px;text-align:center;color:#FFF;padding:8px 11px;font-size:1.1em;margin-right:10px;cursor:pointer;background-image:none;background-color:#97ba78;border:1px solid #97ba78;-webkit-appearance:none;-moz-appearance:none} #wh_ad_middle_related{float:left}#wh_ad_tips,#pagebottom{margin-top:12px}.al_method{text-align:center;font-size:12px;color:#999}#references_first ins{margin-top:10px}.method_ad{margin:17px 0 0 -16px;display:block}.wh_ad1_full{margin-left:-16px}.embedvideocontainer{position:relative;width:99%;height:0;padding-bottom:56.25%}.embedvideo{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%}body.action-view #fa_container p{width:100%;font-size:16px !important;line-height:16px !important}#ab_notice{margin-top:10px;display:none;background-color:#f1c4c8;color:black;padding:10px}#ab_notice_img{background:url(/skins/owl/images/face_sad_black.svg) center no-repeat;width:50px;height:50px;background-size:contain;display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle}#ab_notice_msg{padding-left:15px;display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle}.related_box p{width:100%;font-size:16px;line-height:16px}.content #intro ul,.content .section_text ul{list-style:disc outside;padding-left:24px}.content .section_text .steps_list_2 ul,.content .ingredients ul,.content .thingsyoullneed ul{padding-left:0}.content #intro li,.content .section_text ul li{margin-bottom:5px}.content .section_text.expert_advice_section ul li{margin-bottom:12px;font-size:14px;line-height:22px;list-style:none}.content .section_text.expert_advice_section ul{padding-left:16px}.content .expert_advice_section p{margin-bottom:10px;color:#5f5f5f;font-size:14px;line-height:23px}.content .section_text .steps_list_2 ul li,.content .ingredients ul li,.content .thingsyoullneed ul li{margin-bottom:0}.content .ingredients ul ul{margin:20px 0 0 26px}#social_proof_anchor{margin-top:-115px;display:block;position:absolute}.related-article{float:left;position:relative;width:100%;margin-bottom:2%}.related-image-link{display:block;vertical-align:top}.related-image-link img{border:none;width:100%}.related-image-link video{display:block;border:none;width:100%;height:auto}.related-title{background-color:rgba(50,50,50,.5);padding:2% 4%;width:92%;min-height:32px;position:absolute;bottom:0;cursor:pointer;color:#fff;font-weight:bold}#relatedwikihows .related-title-text p,#qa_related_box .related-title-text p{font-size:12px;line-height:15px;margin:0}.related-image-link{text-decoration:none}#relatedwikihows{padding:2%}.content-spacer{position:relative}.content-fill{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;right:0;width:1px;min-width:100%;height:1px;min-height:100%;color:#fff }.loader{position:absolute;display:block;height:10px;top:50%;left:50%;transform:translateX(-50%) translateY(-50%);transform-origin:50% 50%;white-space:nowrap}.loader-dot{animation:loader-dots 1s infinite}.loader-dot{position:relative;display:inline-block;height:10px;width:10px;margin:2px;border-radius:100%;background-color:rgba(137,172,108,1);will-change:transform}.loader-dot:nth-child(1){animation-delay:0s}.loader-dot:nth-child(2){animation-delay:.3s}.loader-dot:nth-child(3){animation-delay:.5s}@keyframes loader-dots{0%,100%{transform:scale(1);background-color:rgba(137,172,108,1)}50%{transform:scale(.7);background-color:rgba(137,172,108,0.9)}}#mobile_tab_container{position:relative;border:1px solid #E6EEE0;border-width:1px 0;clear:both;background:#f7faf6;margin:5px -15px 15px;box-shadow:0 6px 6px -6px rgba(84,84,84,.3)}#mobile_tab_container a,#mobile_tab_container a:visited{color:#707070}.mobile_tab{position:relative;margin:0 1em 0 1.3em;padding:.7em 0 .8em;font-weight:bold;font-size:.8em;display:inline-block}.mobile_tab.video{margin-left:0}.mobile_tab a{padding:.2em 0}.mobile_tab.video a{padding-right:1.9em;background:right 0 bottom 57% / 18px no-repeat; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15 15'%3E%3Cpath fill='%23fff' stroke='%23a3a3a3' d='M14.13 3a2.66 2.66 0 00-1.06-1.1 3.84 3.84 0 00-2.16-.4H4.1a3.88 3.88 0 00-2.17.4A2.69 2.69 0 00.88 3 4.47 4.47 0 00.5 5.34v4.32A4.5 4.5 0 00.88 12a2.69 2.69 0 001 1.14 3.88 3.88 0 002.17.4h6.81a3.84 3.84 0 002.16-.4A2.66 2.66 0 0014.13 12a4.53 4.53 0 00.37-2.3V5.34A4.51 4.51 0 0014.13 3z'/%3E%3Cpath fill='%23a3a3a3' d='M10.76 7.84a.78.78 0 01-.31.34l-4.74 2.53a.68.68 0 01-.93-.34.76.76 0 01-.08-.37V5a.73.73 0 01.7-.75.65.65 0 01.31.08l4.74 2.53a.78.78 0 01.31.98z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#mobile_tab_line{position:absolute;bottom:0;background-color:#6d9d6c;height:4px;width:90%;margin-left:5%;border-radius:4px 4px 0 0}.summarysection.mwimg,.summarysection .mwimg{margin:-16px -15px 0}.content .m-video{max-width:100%;width:100%;height:auto}.summary-video{position:relative;overflow:hidden}.video-poster-image{position:absolute;z-index:1}.video-poster-image img{object-fit:cover}.green_tips_box_inline{background-color:#fff5d9;color:#000;margin:0;width:75%;display:inline}.img-loading-hide{visibility:hidden}.img-loading-alt{color:#000}#gdpr{width:100%;margin:0 auto;position:fixed;bottom:0;max-height:70px;z-index:10000;text-align:center;background-color:#475347;color:#FFF;padding:9px 5px;display:none}.gdpr_button,button.gdpr_button{background-color:#b6e684;border:1px solid #b6e684;color:#000;display:inline-block;font-size:0.8em;font-weight:bold;padding:5px 10px 6px 10px;-moz-border-radius:4px;-webkit-border-radius:4px;border-radius:4px;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:super;margin-left:5px;margin-right:0}#gdpr_text{font-size:0.9em;display:inline-block;max-width:73%;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}#gdpr_text a{color:#EEE;text-decoration:underline}#gdpr_text_inner{padding-right:3px}#gdpr_accept_wrap{display:inline-block}#gdpr_cp_link{font-size:13px;color:#FFF;text-decoration:underline;display:inline-block}.mw-mf-display-toggle > a{color:#AFAFAF;font-size:1em}.mw-mf-display-toggle{bottom:0;margin:3em 0 10px 13px;color:#AFAFAF;font-size:.75em}.geo-group-eu .mw-mf-display-toggle{padding-left:0;background:none}.gdpr_only{visibility:hidden}.no_gdpr{visibility:visible}.geo-group-eu .gdpr_only{visibility:visible}.geo-group-eu .no_gdpr{visibility:hidden}#mw-mf-page-left{position:fixed !important;overflow-y:scroll;height:100%}body.navigation-enabled #mw-mf-page-left{display:block}a.related-title,a.related-title:active,a.related-title:visited{color:#FFF}.noarticletext div{border:none !important;padding:0;margin-bottom:0.75em}.references li{position:relative;list-style-position:outside}.references li span{margin-left:3px;word-break:break-word}.references li > a{float:left;margin-top:-2px}.sourcesandcitations{word-break:break-all}.sourcesandcitations .section_text{padding-left:30px} #aiinfo:target ~ .aidata,#social_proof_mobile:target ~ .aidata{display:block}.aidata,#aiinfo:target,#social_proof_mobile:target ~ #aiinfo{display:none}.section.articleinfo{margin-top:0;padding-top:0}.articleinfo #articleinfo{margin-top:-5px;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px;border-top:none;position:relative}#articleinfo #info_link{width:100%;display:block}#articleinfo #info_link,.collapse_link{ background:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/show_sources.svg) right .5em center / 20px no-repeat} #social_proof_mobile + .articleinfo #articleinfo,#summary_wrapper + .articleinfo #articleinfo{ padding:15px;border-top:1px solid #f3f3f3;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px;margin-top:-5px;position:relative;z-index:1}#summary_close{display:none}#references_second{padding-top:0;border-top:0;margin-top:-10px;border-top-left-radius:0;border-top-right-radius:0} .article_byline{color:#222;font-size:12px;overflow:auto}#intro .article_byline p{line-height:1rem;margin:0}#recipe_byline{line-height:24px; }#coauthor_byline{margin-bottom:.75rem}#byline_info{line-height:1rem}#coauthor_byline p,#coauthor_byline p a{color:#595959}#coauthor_byline p:last-child{padding-top:.1em}.coauthor_link{font-weight:bold;padding-right:.5em}.coauthor_checkstar{padding-right:1.2em;background:right center / .9em no-repeat; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 41.1 40.6'%3E%3Cpath fill='%23307530' d='M41.1 21.4c.1-1.6-1.5-3.1-3.9-4 2-1.7 2.9-3.7 2.3-5.2-.6-1.4-2.6-2.1-5-1.9.9-2.3.9-4.3-.2-5.4-1.2-1.1-3.3-.8-5.4.4-.1-2.5-1-4.4-2.5-4.8-1.6-.5-3.4.8-4.9 3C20.3 1.2 18.6-.2 17 .1c-1.6.3-2.7 2.1-3 4.6-2-1.5-4.1-1.9-5.4-1-1.4.9-1.6 2.9-.9 5.2-2.4-.4-4.4 0-5.2 1.4-.8 1.4 0 3.4 1.7 5.3-2.5.7-4.2 2-4.2 3.6-.1 1.6 1.5 3.2 3.9 4C2 25 1 27 1.7 28.5c.6 1.5 2.6 2.1 5 1.9-.9 2.3-.9 4.3.2 5.4 1.2 1 3.3.8 5.4-.4.1 2.5 1 4.3 2.5 4.8 1.6.5 3.4-.8 4.9-3 1.2 2.3 2.9 3.7 4.5 3.4 1.6-.3 2.7-2.1 3-4.6 2 1.5 4.1 1.9 5.4 1 1.3-.9 1.5-3 .8-5.3 2.4.4 4.4 0 5.2-1.4.8-1.4 0-3.4-1.7-5.3 2.5-.7 4.2-2 4.2-3.6z'/%3E%3Cpath fill='%23FFF' d='M30.2 16.5L19.1 27.6c-.2.2-.6.3-.9 0l-7.3-5.9c-.6-.6-.6-.9 0-1.5l2-2c.8-.8 1-.6 1.6 0l3.6 2.8c.2.2.6.2.8-.1l7.9-8.1c.6-.6.9-.7 1.5 0l2 2c.6.8.7.9-.1 1.7z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}.coauthor_avatar_badge{height:19px;width:19px;position:absolute;margin:37px 0 0 37px;z-index:1; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 41.1 40.6'%3E%3Cpath fill='%235b734c' d='M41.1 21.4c.1-1.6-1.5-3.1-3.9-4 2-1.7 2.9-3.7 2.3-5.2-.6-1.4-2.6-2.1-5-1.9.9-2.3.9-4.3-.2-5.4-1.2-1.1-3.3-.8-5.4.4-.1-2.5-1-4.4-2.5-4.8-1.6-.5-3.4.8-4.9 3C20.3 1.2 18.6-.2 17 .1c-1.6.3-2.7 2.1-3 4.6-2-1.5-4.1-1.9-5.4-1-1.4.9-1.6 2.9-.9 5.2-2.4-.4-4.4 0-5.2 1.4-.8 1.4 0 3.4 1.7 5.3-2.5.7-4.2 2-4.2 3.6-.1 1.6 1.5 3.2 3.9 4C2 25 1 27 1.7 28.5c.6 1.5 2.6 2.1 5 1.9-.9 2.3-.9 4.3.2 5.4 1.2 1 3.3.8 5.4-.4.1 2.5 1 4.3 2.5 4.8 1.6.5 3.4-.8 4.9-3 1.2 2.3 2.9 3.7 4.5 3.4 1.6-.3 2.7-2.1 3-4.6 2 1.5 4.1 1.9 5.4 1 1.3-.9 1.5-3 .8-5.3 2.4.4 4.4 0 5.2-1.4.8-1.4 0-3.4-1.7-5.3 2.5-.7 4.2-2 4.2-3.6z'/%3E%3Cpath fill='%23FFF' d='M30.2 16.5L19.1 27.6c-.2.2-.6.3-.9 0l-7.3-5.9c-.6-.6-.6-.9 0-1.5l2-2c.8-.8 1-.6 1.6 0l3.6 2.8c.2.2.6.2.8-.1l7.9-8.1c.6-.6.9-.7 1.5 0l2 2c.6.8.7.9-.1 1.7z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}.coauthor_circle_i{padding-left:1.2em;background:left 1px / .9em no-repeat; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg viewBox='0 0 100 100' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg'%3E%3Cg fill='none' fill-rule='evenodd'%3E%3Ccircle fill='%23307530' cx='50' cy='50' r='50'/%3E%3Crect fill='%23FFF' x='42' y='39' width='16' height='42' rx='4'/%3E%3Ccircle fill='%23FFF' cx='50' cy='26' r='9'/%3E%3C/g%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#coauthor_image{float:left;margin:3px 10px 0 0;border-radius:16%;width:50px;height:50px;max-width:50px;overflow:hidden}.article_byline .sp_star_section_upper{margin-bottom:-4px;min-width:115px}.byline_extra{white-space:nowrap}.byline_references{background:left center no-repeat; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 9.12 11.86'%3E%3Cg opacity='.8'%3E%3Cpath fill='%23595959' d='M8.66,2.74H1.82a.92.92,0,0,1,0-1.83H8.66A.46.46,0,0,0,9.12.46.46.46,0,0,0,8.66,0H1.82A1.83,1.83,0,0,0,0,1.82V10a1.84,1.84,0,0,0,1.82,1.83H8.66a.47.47,0,0,0,.46-.46h0V3.19a.46.46,0,0,0-.46-.45Zm-6.84,8.2A.91.91,0,0,1,.91,10V3.39a1.74,1.74,0,0,0,.91.26H8.21V11Zm7.3-9.12a.45.45,0,0,1-.45.46H1.82a.46.46,0,0,1,0-.91H8.66a.46.46,0,0,1,.46.45Z'/%3E%3C/g%3E%3C/svg%3E");padding-left:1.2em}#coauthor_byline p > *{margin-right:.5em}.success_stories{padding-right:.3em}.ss_pipe{color:#e9e7e3}.byline_success{white-space:nowrap;background:left center / 1em no-repeat; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 16.276 15.081'%3E%3Cg transform='translate(-44.1 -201.134)'%3E%3Cpath d='M57.213 209.537v6.107a.572.572 0 01-.571.571h-8.858a.572.572 0 01-.571-.571v-6.107a.572.572 0 01.571-.571.585.585 0 01.14.023.508.508 0 01.315.2.6.6 0 01.117.35v3.508h6.119a.571.571 0 110 1.142h-6.12v.886h7.716v-5.536a.571.571 0 011.142 0z' fill='%2397ba78'/%3E%3Cpath d='M52.213 201.134l-.606 1.224a2.5 2.5 0 00-1.876 2.471.541.541 0 01-.07.268.563.563 0 01-.769.233 2.322 2.322 0 00-1.177-.291H47.7a2.5 2.5 0 00-2.459 2.552 2.538 2.538 0 001.97 2.517l.711-1.119a.508.508 0 01.315.2l-1.026 2.075a3.708 3.708 0 01.5-7.366 4.032 4.032 0 01.979.128 3.617 3.617 0 013.523-2.892z' fill='%2397ba78'/%3E%3Cpath d='M52.259 201.134l.606 1.224a2.5 2.5 0 011.876 2.471.541.541 0 00.07.268.563.563 0 00.769.233 2.322 2.322 0 011.177-.291h.012a2.5 2.5 0 012.459 2.552 2.538 2.538 0 01-1.97 2.517l-.711-1.119a.509.509 0 00-.315.2l1.026 2.075a3.708 3.708 0 00-.5-7.366 4.032 4.032 0 00-.979.128 3.617 3.617 0 00-3.52-2.892z' fill='%2397ba78'/%3E%3Cpath d='M48.146 205.709a2.253 2.253 0 00-2.209 2.274.564.564 0 001.126 0 1.091 1.091 0 011.069-1.113h.014a.581.581 0 000-1.161z' fill='%2397ba78'/%3E%3Cpath d='M51.064 202.568a2.763 2.763 0 012.347 0l-1.042-1.434H52.1z' fill='%2397ba78'/%3E%3C/g%3E%3C/svg%3E");padding-left:1.2em}#coauthor_byline p a.eat_tag{font-weight:600;padding-left:1.3em;background:left center / 1em no-repeat; background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 7.154 7.154'%3E%3Cg transform='translate(-58.981 -26.634)' opacity='.8'%3E%3Cpath d='M64.456 29.509l-2.2 2.2a.125.125 0 01-.177 0l-1.446-1.169c-.119-.119-.119-.179 0-.3l.4-.4c.158-.159.2-.119.317 0l.713.554a.105.105 0 00.148-.006l.01-.013 1.565-1.6c.119-.119.178-.137.3 0l.4.4c.108.156.128.175-.03.334z' fill='%23595959'/%3E%3Crect width='6.554' height='6.554' rx='1.689' transform='translate(59.281 26.934)' fill='none' stroke='%23595959' stroke-miterlimit='10' stroke-width='.6'/%3E%3C/g%3E%3C/svg%3E")}.eat_tag:hover{text-decoration:none}.sp_expert_text{line-height:52px;text-align:left;margin-left:65px}.sp_expert_text > div{line-height:normal;display:inline-block;vertical-align:middle;margin:0 auto;color:#222}.sp_expert_name,.sp_expert_team{font-size:16px;font-weight:bold}.sp_expert_blurb{font-weight:normal}.sp_coauthor_label{font-size:.85em;font-weight:bold;color:#545454}.ar_avatar{width:50px;height:50px;overflow:hidden;position:absolute;border-radius:16%;margin-top:2px;box-sizing:border-box}.expert_initials{background:#97ba78;color:#475346;text-align:center;font-size:22px;font-weight:bold;line-height:50px}.sp_top_icon_bg{margin:0;position:absolute;width:50px;height:50px;background-color:#ADC996;border-radius:16%}.sp_top_icon_bg > div{background-repeat:no-repeat}#trust_banner{width:100%;position:relative;z-index:1;box-sizing:border-box;background-color:#e4ecdc;padding:.5em 15px;font-size:12px;line-height:1em;top:40px}#trust_banner > div{max-width:728px;margin:0 auto}#trust_banner a{color:#417505;padding-left:1.5em;font-weight:normal; background:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_expert_icon_white.svg) left center / 1.1em no-repeat}#trust_banner span{display:none}.sp_star_section_upper{display:inline-block}.sp_star_container{position:relative;width:21px;height:20px;float:left;border-right:2px solid transparent;background:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_helpful_icon_star_empty.optimized.svg) 0 0 / cover no-repeat}.sp_helpful_icon_star{width:100%;height:100%;position:absolute;background:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_helpful_icon_star.optimized.svg) 0 0 / cover no-repeat}.pretty_star,.sp_helpful_box .recipe_star{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 26.028 24.652'%3E%3Cpath fill='%2393B874' d='M13.014 0l4.022 8.115 8.992 1.301-6.507 6.316 1.536 8.919-8.043-4.211-8.043 4.211 1.536-8.919L0 9.416l8.992-1.301L13.014 0z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}.recipe_star{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 26.028 24.652'%3E%3Cpath fill='%23fecf4f' d='M13.014 0l4.022 8.115 8.992 1.301-6.507 6.316 1.536 8.919-8.043-4.211-8.043 4.211 1.536-8.919L0 9.416l8.992-1.301L13.014 0z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")} @media only screen and (min-width:500px) and (min-aspect-ratio:13/9){.content .sticking .edit-page{margin-right:50px}}@media only screen and (min-width:768px){.mwimg{border-bottom:none}.related-article{width:48%;margin-right:2%}}@media only screen and (max-width:320px){#gdpr_text{max-width:72%}#gdpr{padding:5px 0 6px;max-height:70px}.gdpr_button,button.gdpr_button{font-size:0.7em;max-width:45px}}@media only screen and (max-width:300px){#gdpr_text{font-size:0.8em;max-width:78%}.gdpr_button,button.gdpr_button{margin-left:3px;padding:4px 8px 5px}}@media only screen and (min-width:450px){#gdpr_text{max-width:80%}.gdpr_button,button.gdpr_button{margin-left:10px}}@media only screen and (min-width:600px){#gdpr{padding:13px 5px 14px}#gdpr_text{max-width:88%}.gdpr_button{margin-left:10px;padding:1px 6px}}@media only screen and (device-width:375px) and (device-height:812px) and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio:3){#gdpr{padding-bottom:15px}}.skin-minervawh .content .section-heading{margin-bottom:0}.content ol{list-style:decimal inside}.content .in-block.steps_text{display:block}.mw-mf-cleanup{display:block;padding:10px 15px 10px 44px;background:url(/extensions/wikihow/MobileFrontendWikihow/images/wikihow/icon-notification.svg) 10px center / 24px no-repeat;margin-bottom:4px}.overlay-issues .cleanup > li .issue-notice{padding-top:50px}  #sidebar #jpt_sidebox{padding:0;background-color:#f6f5f4}#jpt_header{padding:16px;font-weight:bold}.jpt_container{border-bottom:1px solid #ecebe8;padding:5px 16px;background-color:#fff;display:block;width:268px;height:61px}.jpt_container:last-child{border-bottom:none}.jpt_container:hover{text-decoration:none}.jpt_container img{vertical-align:middle;margin:5px 10px 5px 13px;width:50px;height:50px}.jpt_count{font-size:22px;color:#ecebe8;font-weight:bold;vertical-align:middle}.jpt_container:hover .jpt_count{color:#93b874}.jpt_title{font-size:14px;display:inline-block;width:182px;color:#686868;vertical-align:middle}#footer_ccpa,#footer_ccpa_optout{display:none}.reference.trusted{background:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_expert_icon_white.svg) no-repeat right 2px/12px;padding-right:14px;display:inline-block}.reference{position:relative} .bolded{font-weight:bold;font-size:14px}.steps_text.healthintro{margin-bottom:0;border-bottom-right-radius:0;border-bottom-left-radius:0}.healtharticle{margin-bottom:25px}#contribute_footer_inner{margin:0 auto;color:#545454;max-width:728px;padding:15px 20px;position:relative;font-size:14px;text-align:left}#contribute_close{position:absolute;right:10px;top:5px;z-index:1}#contribute_footer_inner a{color:#545454;font-weight:bold}#contribute_footer_inner a.button{color:#668051;border:1px solid #668051;background-color:#fff;border-radius:7px;text-align:center;display:inline-block;padding:5px 20px;font-weight:bold}a.pdf_link{color:#545454;border-radius:4px}.small_pdf_link{display:inline-flex;font-size:12px;margin:-5px 0 10px;padding:.35em;border:1px solid #e7e7e7;background-color:#f6f6f6}.pdf_link > img{width:15px;margin-right:5px}.large_pdf_link{display:none}.pdf_link.pdf_link_hidden{display:none !important}a.pdf_link.disabled{pointer-events:none;opacity:.2}a.pdf_link:hover,a.pdf_link:active{text-decoration:none}.pdf_link > div{display:inline-block;font-size:10px;color:#FFF;background:#FFCF5A;border-radius:2px;margin-left:.75em;padding:0 .5em;height:16px;line-height:17px}.test_list_article .steps .section_text{background-color:#FFF;border-radius:4px;padding-bottom:20px}.test_list_article .steps .section_text ul{margin:0 20px 0 20px}.test_list_article li b{font-weight:normal }.test_list_method .steps .altblock{background:#93b874;color:#FFF;text-align:center;padding:0;border-radius:4px 0 0 0;font-size:0;width:3.5rem;height:3.5rem;display:table;position:absolute}.test_list_method .steps .altblock > div{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle}.test_list_method .steps .altblock > div > span{font-size:21px;font-weight:bold}.test_list_method .steps h3 span.mw-headline{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle;padding:0 0 0 4.5rem;width:100%;height:3.45rem}.test_list_method .method_of_count,.test_list_method .step_num{display:none}.test_list_method .step,.test_list_method li{font-size:18px;line-height:26px}.test_list_method #mf-section-0 p{font-size:18px;line-height:26px} #sd_container{border:none}#sd_container{padding:15px;background-color:#FFF;-moz-border-radius:4px;-webkit-border-radius:4px;border-radius:4px;display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-justify-content:space-around;-ms-flex-pack:distribute;justify-content:space-around;-webkit-align-items:stretch;-ms-flex-align:stretch;align-items:stretch}.sd_content{width:125px;margin:auto}.sd_thumb{position:relative;text-align:center;width:100%;max-width:200px;margin:6px}.sd_thumb img{border:1px solid #BBB;width:100%;height:auto} .qa_user_hover{display:none} .qa_answers{position:relative}.qa_obscured_prompt{display:block;position:absolute;left:0;top:3.75em;right:0;bottom:0;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,0.5);z-index:2}.qa_unlocked .qa_obscured_prompt{display:none}.sd_obscured_link{position:absolute;left:0;top:0;bottom:0;right:0;cursor:pointer}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay,.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay{position:absolute;background-color:#F7FAF5;box-shadow:1px 1px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.41);border-radius:5px;padding:10px 15px;z-index:1;box-sizing:border-box;display:table}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay{left:1em;top:0.5em;text-shadow:none;color:initial;min-height:72px;max-width:85%}.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay{font-size:smaller}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay:hover,.sd_obscured_link:hover .sd_obscured_thumb_overlay{background-color:#F2F6EB}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay a,.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay a{font-weight:bold}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay a:hover,.sd_obscured_link:hover .sd_obscured_thumb_overlay a{text-decoration:none}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay_img,.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay_img{position:absolute;border:none !important}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay_img{width:37px !important}.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay_img{width:24px !important}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay p,.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay p{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0 0 52px;margin:0}#sd_container .sd_thumb .sd_obscured_thumb_overlay p{line-height:18px}.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay p{padding:0 0 0 32px}.qa_obscured_answer_overlay p strong,.sd_obscured_thumb_overlay p strong{color:#307530}.qa_answer.qa_obscured_answer{margin:1em 0 0 0;color:transparent;text-shadow:0 0 5px rgba(0,0,0,0.5)}.sd_obscured_prompt{padding-top:25%}.qa_obscured_cta{position:absolute;right:0;top:0;bottom:0;font-size:0.7em;font-weight:normal;text-align:right;background-color:#FDF5D1;padding:13px;border-top-right-radius:4px;max-width:62%}.qa_obscured_cta_pitch{display:block;font-weight:bold}.qa_obscured_cta_link{display:inline-block;font-weight:bold}@media only screen and (max-width:727px){.qa_obscured_cta{display:none}}#eu_cp_save{display:none}.menuitem.top_cat{padding-left:25px;font-size:14px;line-height:22px}#promopair_container{display:none}#housebottom_ad{display:none}.house-promo{display:none}#left_sidebox{display:none}@media only screen and (max-width:727px){.sample_initial_location{display:none}}#footer_links li{word-break:break-word}.m-video-intro-over{position:absolute;top:0;z-index:3;width:100%;visibility:hidden;background:rgba(0,0,0,.3);height:100%}.section.summary_with_video h2{background-color:#93b874;color:#fff;border-radius:4px 4px 0 0;border-bottom:0}.summary_with_video h2 span.mw-headline{color:#FFF}.m-video-play-count-triangle{width:0;height:0;border-top:11px solid rgba(145,182,115,1);border-bottom:11px solid rgba(145,182,115,1);border-left:20px solid #fff;display:inline-block;position:absolute;top:19px;left:20px;background-image:none}.m-video-intro-over .m-video-play{border:none;width:74px;height:60px;padding-left:47px;line-height:60px;color:#fff;font-size:18px;top:0;bottom:0;font-weight:bold;margin:auto;position:absolute;left:0;right:0;text-align:left;cursor:default;user-select:none}.m-video-intro-over .m-video-play-text{background-color:#91b673;border-radius:10px;padding-right:21px;padding-left:47px;margin-left:-47px;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap}.m-video::-webkit-media-controls-overlay-play-button{display:none}.m-video-controls{position:absolute;left:0;right:0;top:0;bottom:0}.m-video-intro-text:nth-child(1){font-size:2em}.m-video-intro-text.m-video-intro-text-long{font-size:1.5em}.m-video-intro-text.m-video-intro-text-very-long{font-size:1em}#m-video-intro-time-v2{bottom:-11px;font-size:1.2em;height:48px;width:43px;line-height:2.65em}.embedvideo_gdpr_message{font-size:12px;font-weight:normal;line-height:14px;padding-left:5px;display:none}.embedvideo_gdpr_label{background:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_icon_info.png); background:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_icon_info.svg);background-size:14px;background-repeat:no-repeat;height:14px;padding-left:8px;margin-bottom:2px;vertical-align:bottom;cursor:pointer;overflow:hidden;display:inline-block}#show_embedvideo_gdpr_block{display:none}#show_embedvideo_gdpr_block:checked ~ .embedvideo_gdpr_message{display:block}#show_embedvideo_gdpr_block:checked ~ .edit-page{background-position-y:calc(75% - 9px)}.geo-group-eu .gdpr_only{visibility:visible}.geo-group-eu .no_gdpr{visibility:hidden}.video .mw-headline{display:inline}.header .search{display:table-cell}.header .search .cse_q{width:25px;height:25px;padding-right:25px}.header .search .cse_q:focus{position:absolute;left:5px;top:5px;right:5px;width:auto}.header .search .cse_sa{background-color:transparent;background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/gray_mag.png); background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/mobile/images/gray_mag.svg);background-size:25px 25px;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position:center center;width:25px;height:25px;border:none;margin:0;padding:0;cursor:pointer;right:10px}#mw-mf-viewport{background-color:#E9E7E3}#mw-mf-viewport.menuopen{overflow:auto}#sidebar{display:none}.section.bss_share_container{margin-top:0;text-align:center}.bss_share_title.section-heading{border:0}.bss_share_container .section_text{padding-top:0px}.bss_share_button.button.secondary{display:inline-block;font-weight:bold;color:#97ba78;border:1px #97ba78 solid;background-color:#fff;margin-right:0}@media only screen and (min-width:768px){.sp_num_votes{margin-top:2px}.section .bss_share_button.button.secondary{width:75%}}</style>
<script>WH.mediumScreenMinWidth=728;WH.largeScreenMinWidth=975;WH.shared=function(){function p(a){null==q&&(q=new IntersectionObserver(function(a,d){a.forEach(function(a){a.isIntersecting&&(g[a.target.id].load(),q.unobserve(a.target))})},{rootMargin:z}));q.observe(a)}function A(a){u.push(a)}function B(a,b){var d=null,c=0,e=function(){c=0;d=null;a.apply()};return function(){var f=J(),g=b-(f-c);0>=g||g>b?(d&&(clearTimeout(d),d=null),c=f,a.apply()):d||(d=setTimeout(e,g))}}function v(){console.log("updateVisibility");var a=!1,b=window.innerHeight||document.documentElement.clientHeight,d;for(d in g){var c=g[d];if(!c.isLoaded){a=c;var e=a.element.getBoundingClientRect(),f={top:e.top,bottom:e.bottom};0==a.lastTop-e.top&&window.scrollY!=a.lastY&&(f.top-=window.scrollY,f.bottom-=window.scrollY);a.lastTop=e.top;a.lastY=window.scrollY;a=f;e=b;f=52;var h=2*e;f-=h;e+=h;(0==a.top&&0==a.bottom?0:a.top>=f&&a.top<=e||a.bottom>=f&&a.bottom<=e||a.top<=f&&a.bottom>=e)&&c.load();a=!0}}!a&&g.length&&(window.
removeEventListener("scroll",l),l=null)}function w(a){if(a&&a.element){var b=!0;a.element.className||(b=!1);-1==a.element.className.indexOf("content-fill")&&(b=!1);if(b&&document.addEventListener&&a.finishedLoadingEvent){a.loaderRemoved=!1;b=document.createElement("div");b.className="loader";for(var d=0;3>d;d++){var c=document.createElement("div");c.className="loader-dot";b.appendChild(c)}var e=document.createElement("div");e.className="loading-container";e.appendChild(b);a.element.parentElement.insertAdjacentElement("afterbegin",e);a.element.addEventListener(a.finishedLoadingEvent,function(){a.loadedCallback&&a.loadedCallback();0==a.loaderRemoved&&(this.parentElement.removeChild(e),a.loaderRemoved=!0,"undefined"!==typeof a.element.classList&&a.element.classList.remove("img-loading-hide"));a.alt&&(a.element.alt=a.alt,"undefined"!==typeof a.element.classList&&a.element.classList.remove("img-loading-alt"))});a.errorEvent&&a.element.addEventListener(a.errorEvent,function(){a.alt&&(a.
element.alt=a.alt)})}else a.alt&&(a.element.alt=a.alt),"undefined"!==typeof a.element.classList&&a.element.classList.remove("img-loading-hide")}}function x(a){if(!a)return"";if(!h)return a;var b=a.split(".").pop();"jpg"!==b&&"png"!==b||!a.match(/images(_[a-z]{2})?\/thumb\//)||a.match(/(\.[a-zA-Z]+){2}$/)||(a+=".webp");return a}function K(a){this.isLoaded=!1;this.element=a;k||(this.lastY=window.scrollY,this.lastTop=a.getBoundingClientRect().top);this.src=a.getAttribute("data-src");this.load=function(){this.element.setAttribute("src",this.src);this.isLoaded=!0}}function C(a){this.isLoaded=!1;this.element=a;k||m||(this.lastTop=a.getBoundingClientRect().top,this.lastY=window.scrollY);this.alt=a.alt;a.alt="";this.finishedLoadingEvent="load";this.errorEvent="error";if(n){var b=a.getAttribute("data-srclarge");null!=b&&(this.src=b)}this.src||(this.src=a.getAttribute("data-src"));this.src=x(this.src);a&&void 0!==a.classList&&a.classList.add("img-loading-hide");this.load=function(){this.element.
setAttribute("src",this.src);this.isLoaded=!0;w(this)}}function L(a){this.isLoaded=!1;this.element=a;k||(this.lastTop=a.getBoundingClientRect().top,this.lastY=window.scrollY);this.finishedLoadingEvent="loadeddata";this.isPlaying=!1;this.src="https://www.wikihow.com/video"+this.element.getAttribute("data-src");this.poster=this.element.getAttribute("data-poster");(this.poster=x(this.poster))&&"jpg"==this.poster.split(".").pop()&&h&&(this.poster+=".webp");this.noAutoplay=this.element.getAttribute("data-noautoplay");this.play=function(){this.element.play();this.isPlaying=!0};this.pause=function(){this.element.pause();this.isPlaying=!1};this.load=function(){this.element.setAttribute("poster",this.poster);!D||this.noAutoplay||!n&&!0!==window.wgIsMainPage?this.finishedLoadingEvent=null:(this.element.setAttribute("src",this.src),this.play());this.isLoaded=!0;this.noAutoplay||w(this)}}function r(a){var b=document.getElementById(a);if(b)if(h||E){a=!1;var d=null,c=b.nodeName.toLowerCase();if(
"img"===c)d=new C(b),m?(c=d,c.element.classList.remove("img-loading-hide"),c.element.classList.add("img-loading-alt"),c.element.setAttribute("loading","lazy"),c.load()):k?p(d.element):a=!0;else if("video"===c)d=new L(b),k?p(d.element):a=!0;else if("iframe"===c)d=new K(b),k?p(d.element):a=!0;else if("picture"===c)if(c=b.getElementsByTagName("img")[0],m){t?(c.width=c.dataset.width,c.height=c.dataset.height):(c.width=c.dataset.widthlarge,c.height=c.dataset.heightlarge);c.src=c.dataset.src;c=b.getElementsByTagName("source");for(var e=0;e<c.length;e++){var f=c[e];f.srcset=f.dataset.srcset}}else d=document.createElement("div"),d.className="content-spacer",b.appendChild(d),c.id="picture_"+M++,c.classList.add("content-fill"),d.appendChild(c),d=new C(c),useObserver?p(d.element):a=!0,b=c;else return;d&&(g[d.element.id]=d);c=b.getAttribute("data-width")||b.getAttribute("width");e=b.getAttribute("data-height")||b.getAttribute("height");0<c&&(b.parentElement.style.paddingTop=e/c*100+"%");F?d.load()
:a&&(v(),l=B(v,500),window.addEventListener("scroll",l))}else G.push(a)}var u=[],g={},G=[],l,F=!1,J=Date.now||function(){return(new Date).getTime()},h=!1,E=!1,y=window.innerWidth||document.documentElement.clientWidth,t=y<WH.mediumScreenMinWidth,H=!t&&y<WH.largeScreenMinWidth,I=!t&&!H,n=I,z="0px 0px 100% 0px",M=1,m="loading"in HTMLImageElement.prototype,k="IntersectionObserver"in window,q=null;(function(a){var b=new Image;b.onload=function(){a(0<b.width&&0<b.height)};b.onerror=function(){a(!1)};b.src="data:image/webp;base64,UklGRiIAAABXRUJQVlA4IBYAAAAwAQCdASoBAAEADsD+JaQAA3AAAAAA"})(function(a){h=a;E=!0;G.forEach(function(a){r(a)})});1==WH.jsFastRender&&(m=!1,z="0px 0px 0px 0px");window.onresize=function(){u.forEach&&u.forEach(function(a){a()})};A(v);var D=function(){var a=window.document.createElement("video");a.setAttribute("muted","");a.setAttribute("playsinline","");a.setAttribute("webkit-playsinline","");a.muted=!0;a.playsinline=!0;a.webkitPlaysinline=!0;a.setAttribute("height","0"
);a.setAttribute("width","0");a.style.position="fixed";a.style.top=0;a.style.width=0;a.style.height=0;a.style.opacity=0;try{var b=a.play();b&&b.catch&&b.then(function(){}).catch(function(){})}catch(d){}return!a.paused}();window.addEventListener?window.addEventListener("scroll",l):F=!0;return{isDesktopSize:n,isSmallSize:t,isMedSize:H,isLargeSize:I,viewportWidth:y,getScreenSize:function(){var a=document;var b=a.documentElement,d=a.body,c=d&&d.clientWidth,e=0;!b||!b.clientWidth||"CSS1Compat"!==a.compatMode&&c?c&&(e=d.clientWidth):e=b.clientWidth;a=e;return 0==a||a>=WH.largeScreenMinWidth?"large":a>=WH.mediumScreenMinWidth?"medium":"small"},throttle:B,TOP_MENU_HEIGHT:52,autoPlayVideo:D,webpSupport:h,addScrollLoadItem:r,addLazyImage:function(a){var b=document.getElementById(a);if(!n&&h&&m)d=b.getAttribute("data-src-large"),n&&d||(d=b.getAttribute("data-src")),b.setAttribute("src",d);else{var d=b.getAttribute("data-src-nowebp");b.setAttribute("data-src",d);b.setAttribute("class",
"content-fill");r(a)}},addScrollLoadItemByElement:function(a){var b=a.id;b||(b="id-"+Math.random().toString(36).substr(2,16));a.id=b;r(b)},videoRoot:"https://www.wikihow.com/video",setupLoader:w,addResizeFunction:A,loadAllImages:function(){for(var a in g){var b=g[a];b.isLoaded||b.load()}},loadAllEmbed:function(){for(var a in g){var b=g[a];b.isLoaded||"iframe"==b.element.nodeName.toLowerCase()&&b.load()}},addLoadedCallback:function(a,b){g[a].loadedCallback=b},showVideoPlay:function(a){a=a.element.parentElement.getElementsByClassName("m-video-intro-over");"undefined"!==typeof a&&(a=a[0]);a&&(a.style.visibility="visible")},getCompressedImageSrc:x}}();</script>
<script>WH.gdpr=(function(){var acceptCookieName='gdpr_accept';function hasAcceptCookie(){var hasCookie=document.cookie.indexOf('gdpr_accept=');if(hasCookie>=0){return true;}return false;}function hasCookiePolicyPageOptOut(){var hasCookie=document.cookie.indexOf('gdpr_cpp_opt_out=1');if(hasCookie>=0){return true;}return false;}function hasEUQueryParam(){var url=window.location.href;if(url.indexOf('?EUtest=')!=-1){return true;}else if(url.indexOf('&EUtest=')!=-1){return true;}return false;}function isEULocation(){var value="; "+document.cookie;var parts=value.split("; vi=");var res=null;if(parts.length==2){res=parts.pop().split(";").shift();}if(hasEUQueryParam()){res="EU";}if(res=="EU"){return true;}return false;}function popupClosed(){createCookie("gdpr_accept",1,365);createCookie("gdpr_decline","",-1);gdpr.style.display="none";}function createCookie(name,value,days){var expires="; expires="+new Date(2147483647*1000).toUTCString();if(days){var date=new Date();date.setTime(date.getTime()+(days*
24*60*60*1000));expires="; expires="+date.toGMTString();}document.cookie=name+"="+value+expires+"; path=/";}function declinePage(){var decline=document.getElementById('gdpr_decline');if(decline){decline.style.display="block";decline.addEventListener("click",function(){var cookies=document.cookie.split(";");for(var i=0;i<cookies.length;i++){createCookie(cookies[i].split("=")[0],"",-1);}createCookie("gdpr_decline",1,1);var declineConfirm=document.getElementById('gdpr_decline_confirm');if(declineConfirm){declineConfirm.style.display='block';}});}var declineOk=document.getElementById('gdpr_decline_confirm_dismiss');if(declineOk){declineOk.addEventListener("click",function(){var declineConfirm=document.getElementById('gdpr_decline_confirm');if(declineConfirm){declineConfirm.style.display='none';}});}}function cookiePage(){var cookie_policy=document.getElementById('eu_cookie_policy');if(!cookie_policy){return;}var eu_cp_save=document.getElementById('eu_cp_save');var checkbox=document.
getElementById('eu_cookie_message_check');checkbox.addEventListener("click",function(){if(hasCookiePolicyPageOptOut()){if(this.checked==true){eu_cp_save.className='';}else{eu_cp_save.className='active';}}else{if(this.checked==true){eu_cp_save.className='active';}else{eu_cp_save.className='';}}});if(hasCookiePolicyPageOptOut()){checkbox.checked=!0;}else{checkbox.checked=!1;}cookie_policy.style.display="block";eu_cp_save.addEventListener("click",function(){var checkbox=document.getElementById('eu_cookie_message_check');if(checkbox.checked==true){createCookie('gdpr_cpp_opt_out',1,1);WH.event('gdpr_cookie_page_opt_out',{});}else{createCookie('gdpr_cpp_opt_out',0,1);WH.event('gdpr_cookie_page_opt_in',{});}eu_cp_save.className='';});WH.eventView('gdpr_cookie_page_opt_out');WH.eventView('gdpr_cookie_page_opt_in');}function pageLoaded(){if(!isEULocation()){return;}if(hasEUQueryParam()){var viValue='EU';createCookie('vi',viValue,1);}declinePage();document.body.className+=' '+'geo-group-eu'
;var sidebarShare=document.getElementById('sidebar_share');if(sidebarShare){sidebarShare.remove();}cookiePage();}function initialize(){var isEU=isEULocation();var gdpr=document.getElementById('gdpr');if(gdpr&&isEU&&!hasAcceptCookie()){gdpr.style.display="block";}else if(gdpr){gdpr.parentNode.removeChild(gdpr);}var accept=document.getElementById('gdpr_accept');if(accept){WH.eventView('gdpr_banner_ok_click',{},'#gdpr_accept','click');WH.eventView('gdpr_banner_policy_click',{},'#gdpr_cp_link','click');WH.eventView('gdpr_banner_settings_click',{},'#gdpr_text_inner a','click');accept.addEventListener("click",function(){popupClosed()},true);}var close=document.getElementById('gdpr_close');if(close){close.addEventListener("click",function(){popupClosed()},true);}return;}return{'initialize':initialize,'pageLoaded':pageLoaded,'hasAcceptCookie':hasAcceptCookie,'hasCookiePolicyPageOptOut':hasCookiePolicyPageOptOut,'isEULocation':isEULocation};})();document.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded',
function(){WH.gdpr.pageLoaded();},false);</script>
<style>div.articleShareIcons{display:none}div.articleShareIcons a{padding:2px}#pinterestShareRound{text-decoration:none}#pinterestShareRound > img{cursor:pointer}#rewardedweb{display:none}.related-title:hover,.related-title:visited:hover,.related-title:active:hover{background-color:white;color:#2483ef;text-decoration:none}#relatedwikihows.section_text .related-image-link{max-height:183px;overflow:hidden}.w_label:before{display:none}#intro .wh_ad_inner{line-height:0}.steps .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:20px}#intro_ad_1.full-width{margin-left:-15px}.dfp_small{margin:auto;max-height:250px;max-width:300px;height:250px;width:300px;margin-bottom:12px}.dfp_small_inner{text-align:center;max-height:250px;max-width:300px;height:250px;width:300px;overflow:auto}#tips > .wh_ad_inner > div > ins{margin-top:22px}.oo-ui-buttonElement-button:hover{text-decoration:none}.ur_author{margin-top:5px;color:#c3c3c3;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal;display:inline-block;height:36px;vertical-align:bottom}.ur_rating{margin-top:5px}.section.sample h3 span.mw-headline{padding-top:1em}#sample_loading{display:none}.sd_thumb{text-align:center;width:200px;margin:6px}.sd_content .sd_thumb img{border:1px solid #BBB;width:100%;height:auto}#sd_container{padding:15px;background-color:#FFF;-moz-border-radius:4px;-webkit-border-radius:4px;border-radius:4px;display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-justify-content:space-around;-ms-flex-pack:distribute;justify-content:space-around;-webkit-align-items:stretch;-ms-flex-align:stretch;align-items:stretch}.noscroll{overflow:hidden}.oo-ui-processDialog-content .oo-ui-window-head{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/MobileFrontendWikihow/images/dialog-header.svg);background-size:cover}#footer_newsletter{display:block;grid-column:3 / 3;grid-row:2 / span 4;min-height:166px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_icon{display:inline-block;width:25px;height:25px; background:url(/skins/owl/images/newsletter_footer.svg) no-repeat;position:relative;top:2px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_title{display:inline-block;font-weight:bold;font-size:18px;color:#444f45}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_confirm_text{display:none;margin:5px 0 10px 0;font-weight:bold;font-size:14px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_text{margin:5px 0 10px 0;font-weight:bold;font-size:12px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_email{box-sizing:border-box;background:white;margin-bottom:10px;padding:5px 10px;border-radius:5px;border:1px solid #ffffff;font-size:16px;width:180px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_email.error{border:1px red solid}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_notice{margin:4px auto;font-size:12px;width:180px;line-height:13px}#footer_newsletter a#footer_subscribe_button{display:block;background:#444f45;font-weight:bold;color:#FFF;margin:0 auto;padding:2px .7em;box-sizing:border-box;border-radius:5px;width:182px;border:none}.related-wh{display:block;margin-bottom:2%;overflow:hidden}.related-wh-title{background-color:rgba(50,50,50,0.5);padding:2% 4%;width:92%;min-height:32px;position:absolute;bottom:0;cursor:pointer;color:#fff;font-weight:bold}.related-wh-howto{font-size:12px}.medium_a{display:none} #watchtheserelatedvideos{display:grid;grid-template-columns:1fr;grid-gap:10px}#watchtheserelatedvideos a{display:block;position:relative;color:#444f45;border:1px solid #dfdfdf;border-radius:7px;text-decoration:none}#watchtheserelatedvideos .play_button{position:absolute;width:64px;left:50%;top:50%;transform:translate(-50%,-50%);z-index:1}#watchtheserelatedvideos img{display:block}#watchtheserelatedvideos img:not(.play_button){border-top-left-radius:7px;border-top-right-radius:7px}#watchtheserelatedvideos .related-expert-title{left:0;z-index:2;padding:5px;font-size:16px;font-weight:bold}#watchtheserelatedvideos .related-expert-title .related-wh-howto{font-weight:normal}@media only screen and (min-width:728px){.medium_a{display:block}.related-wh{float:left;width:48%;margin-right:2%}.sd_thumb{width:200px}div.articleShareIcons{display:block;position:relative;float:right;top:0px}.gdpr_button,button.gdpr_button{vertical-align:baseline;margin-bottom:0;margin:0 auto}#gdpr_text{position:relative}#gdpr_cp_link{position:absolute;width:155px;right:-230px;top:2px}#gdpr_text_inner{padding-right:0}#gdpr_accept_wrap{width:70px}#housebottom_ad_1{display:block;padding-top:25px}.house-promo{display:block}#hausead-img-wrap{display:block;position:relative}#intro_ad_1.full-width{margin-left:0}.test_list_article .steps .section_text ul{margin:0 26px 0 26px}.test_list_article .section_text{background-color:#FFF;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px;font-size:16px}.test_list_method .steps .altblock{height:60px}.test_list_method .steps h3 span.mw-headline{height:58px}.test_list_method .steps .wh_ad_inner.al_grey{display:block}.menu{font-size:1rem;position:absolute;border:1px solid #91af79;margin:0;padding:10px 0;top:71px;z-index:1000;background-color:#f9f9f9;display:none;right:0}.menu a{display:block;padding:0 20px 0 15px;line-height:26px;color:#669933}#AdminOptions.menu a{color:#363}.menu a:hover{color:white;background-color:#91af79;text-decoration:none}#AdminOptions.menu a:hover{color:white}.admin_arrow{width:0;height:0;border-left:3px solid transparent;border-right:3px solid transparent;border-top:5px solid #AAAAAA;display:inline-block;margin-left:3px;margin-bottom:1px}.menu a.admin_tab_hide{display:none} #actionbar{position:relative;height:35px;margin-top:-10px;z-index:2} .is-authenticated #actionbar{display:block}ul#tabs{position:absolute;top:0px;left:2px;margin:0px;padding:0px}ul#tabs li{float:left;list-style:none;padding:0px;margin:0px;padding-right:15px;line-height:2em}ul#tabs li a{font-size:13px;font-weight:500}ul#tabs li a.on{color:#454545;font-weight:bold}.mobile_tab:first-child{margin-left:2.3em}#AdminOptions{position:absolute;top:30px;font-size:1em;border:1px solid #91af79;color:#363;margin:0;background-color:#f9f9f9;width:100%;width:-moz-max-content;width:-webkit-max-content;width:-o-max-content}ul#AdminOptions li{padding-left:0px}#content_wrapper{margin:1em auto;max-width:1050px;padding:40px 1em 1em}#content_inner{width:100%;max-width:728px;margin:0 auto;position:relative}.full_width #content_wrapper,.full_width #content_inner{max-width:initial;padding-left:0;padding-right:0}.stable .content p,.stable .content li,.stable .content dl{line-height:25px}.stable .content .steps_list_2 ul,.stable .content .steps_list_2 ol{margin-left:55px;margin-top:5px;padding:0}#trust_banner{border-radius:4px 4px 0 0;font-size:14px}#trust_banner span{display:inline}#breadcrumb{padding:1.1em 0 0.8em 26px;color:#307530}div.articleShareIcons{margin-right:10px;margin-top:-25px}.article_byline{color:#545454;font-size:.85em}.article_byline#recipe_byline{padding-top:0}.article_byline p{font-size:.9em;line-height:1.2rem}.coauthor_checkstar{background-position:right 1px}#byline_info{line-height:1.2rem}.byline_success{background-position:left 40%}#mobile_tab_container{display:none}#section_0{padding:26px 26px 0;line-height:normal}#section_0.special_title{font-size:35px}.ns-0.action-view #section_0{padding:0 26px}#intro{font-size:1em;margin:0;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px;padding:7px 26px}#intro p{line-height:25px}#intro .mwimg{margin:10px 0px}#intro .mwimg img{border-radius:3px}.mw-mf-cleanup{display:none}#method_toc{display:block;position:static;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;line-height:1.65em;color:#222222;float:right;background-color:#f6f8f7;border-radius:6px;width:260px;padding:8px 15px 15px 15px;margin:2px 0 10px 10px;clear:right}#method_toc .hidden,#method_toc a.hidden,#method_toc #toc_showless{display:none}#method_toc span{margin-right:.75em}#method_toc .sp_method_toc{margin:3px -26px;border:0 26px;padding:10px 26px;border:0;color:#222222;background-color:#f6f8f7;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;line-height:1.65em}#method_toc .header_toc{width:100%;padding-bottom:5px;color:#444;line-height:normal}#method_toc.en_toc .method_toc_item a{background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:17px}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_method a > span{background-color:#94b778;width:15px;height:15px;display:inline-block;text-align:center;line-height:15px;border-radius:5px;color:#fff;margin-right:5px;font-size:11px;position:absolute;left:0;top:1px}#method_toc.en_toc a{display:block;font-weight:bold;font-size:12.4px;color:#307530;line-height:18px;margin:3px 0;background-image:none;padding-left:20px;position:relative}#method_toc.en_toc .header_toc{font-size:14px;display:none}#method_toc.en_toc #qa_toc{background-image:none}#method_toc.en_toc #qa_toc a{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15 15'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%238effff;opacity:0%7D.cls-2%7Bfill:%23fff%7D.cls-3,.cls-4%7Bfill:none;stroke:%23a3a3a3%7D.cls-4%7Bfill:%23a3a3a3;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:.25px%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Cpath class='cls-1' d='M0 0h15v15H0z'/%3E%3Ccircle class='cls-2' cx='7.5' cy='7.5' r='7'/%3E%3Ccircle class='cls-3' cx='7.5' cy='7.5' r='6.56'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-4' d='M5.66 3.42A3.16 3.16 0 0 1 7.39 3a3.76 3.76 0 0 1 2.25.64 2.24 2.24 0 0 1 .89 1.92 2.16 2.16 0 0 1-.39 1.31 4.42 4.42 0 0 1-.87.82L8.85 8a1.32 1.32 0 0 0-.46.63 2.82 2.82 0 0 0-.08.71H6.69a5.07 5.07 0 0 1 .19-1.4 2.55 2.55 0 0 1 .8-.94l.44-.34a1.4 1.4 0 0 0 .34-.35 1.21 1.21 0 0 0 .24-.73 1.43 1.43 0 0 0-.26-.82 1.12 1.12 0 0 0-1-.38 1.11 1.11 0 0 0-1 .46 1.81 1.81 0 0 0-.28 1H4.47a2.79 2.79 0 0 1 1.19-2.42z'/%3E%3Crect class='cls-4' x='6.65' y='10.15' width='1.79' height='1.73' rx='.44'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#method_toc.en_toc #rwh_toc a{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15 15'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%238effff;opacity:0%7D.cls-2,.cls-3%7Bfill:%23fff%7D.cls-2,.cls-3,.cls-4,.cls-5%7Bstroke:%23a3a3a3%7D.cls-2,.cls-5%7Bstroke-width:.75px%7D.cls-4,.cls-5%7Bfill:none%7D.cls-5%7Bstroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Cpath class='cls-1' d='M0 0h15v15H0z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-2' d='M13.49 3.66v9.1a1.87 1.87 0 0 1-2 1.74H5.38a1.87 1.87 0 0 1-2-1.74V2.44a1.87 1.87 0 0 1 2-1.74H10z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M11.59 3.45v8.11a1.87 1.87 0 0 1-2 1.74H3.48a1.87 1.87 0 0 1-2-1.74V2.24a1.87 1.87 0 0 1 2-1.74H8z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-4' d='M11.59 3.45H8.66A.58.58 0 0 1 8 2.91V.5'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-5' d='M3.41 3.45h2.91M3.41 5.43h6.28M3.41 7.42h6.28M3.41 9.4h6.28M3.41 11.38h6.28'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#method_toc.en_toc #toc_ref a{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15 15'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%238effff;opacity:0%7D.cls-2%7Bfill:none;stroke:%23a3a3a3;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round%7D.cls-3%7Bfill:%23fff%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Cpath class='cls-1' d='M0 0h15v15H0z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-2' d='M4.19 2.82h8.15'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M12.34 4.23V14H4.46a1.8 1.8 0 0 1-1.8-1.8V2.61a1.56 1.56 0 0 0 1.49 1.62z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-2' d='M12.34 4.23V14H4.46a1.8 1.8 0 0 1-1.8-1.8V2.61a1.56 1.56 0 0 0 1.49 1.62zM2.66 2.61A1.55 1.55 0 0 1 4.15 1h8.19'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#method_toc.en_toc #summary_toc a{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15 15'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%238effff;opacity:0%7D.cls-2,.cls-4%7Bfill:none;stroke:%2393b874;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round%7D.cls-3%7Bfill:%23fff%7D.cls-4%7Bstroke-width:.75px%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Cpath class='cls-1' d='M0 0h15v15H0z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-2' d='M3.06 2.82H14'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M14 4.23V14H3.42C2.09 14 1 13.2 1 12.2V2.61a1.84 1.84 0 0 0 2 1.62z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-2' d='M14 4.23V14H3.42C2.09 14 1 13.2 1 12.2V2.61a1.84 1.84 0 0 0 2 1.62zM1 2.61A1.84 1.84 0 0 1 3 1h11'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-4' d='M3.06 7.03h7.48M3.06 9.03h7.48M3.06 11.03h7.48'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#method_toc.en_toc #tips_toc a{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15 15'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%238effff;opacity:0%7D.cls-2%7Bfill:%23fff%7D.cls-3%7Bfill:none;stroke:%23a3a3a3%7D.cls-4%7Bfill:%23a3a3a3%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Cpath class='cls-1' d='M0 0h15v15H0z'/%3E%3Cg id='Ellipse_443-3' data-name='Ellipse 443-3'%3E%3Ccircle class='cls-2' cx='7.5' cy='7.5' r='7'/%3E%3Ccircle class='cls-3' cx='7.5' cy='7.5' r='6.56'/%3E%3C/g%3E%3Cpath class='cls-4' d='M7.56 2.63a1 1 0 0 1 1 1v1.53l-.5 4.48h-1l-.53-4.48V3.67a1 1 0 0 1 1.03-1.04z'/%3E%3Crect class='cls-4' x='6.57' y='10.13' width='1.97' height='1.91' rx='.95'/%3E%3C/svg%3E")}#method_toc.en_toc #summaryvideo_toc a{ background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 15.5 15'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%23fff;%7D.cls-1,.cls-4%7Bstroke:%2393b875;%7D.cls-2,.cls-4%7Bfill:none;%7D.cls-2%7Bopacity:0.61;%7D.cls-3%7Bfill:%2393b874;%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Cg id='Layer_2' data-name='Layer 2'%3E%3Cg id='TOC'%3E%3Cpath class='cls-1' d='M.54,5.25H13.89A1.11,1.11,0,0,1,15,6.36v7a1.11,1.11,0,0,1-1.11,1.11H1.65A1.11,1.11,0,0,1,.54,13.39V5.25A0,0,0,0,1,.54,5.25Z'/%3E%3Crect class='cls-2' width='15' height='15'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M2.13,7.44H.75c-.29,0-.53-.17-.53-.37V5.2h3Z'/%3E%3Cpolygon class='cls-3' points='5.82 5.2 4.77 7.44 3.25 7.44 4.3 5.2 5.82 5.2'/%3E%3Cpolygon class='cls-3' points='8.99 5.2 7.93 7.44 5.88 7.44 6.94 5.2 8.99 5.2'/%3E%3Cpolygon class='cls-3' points='11.63 5.2 10.57 7.44 9.05 7.44 10.1 5.2 11.63 5.2'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M14.47,7.44H11.69L12.75,5.2H15V7.07C15,7.27,14.76,7.44,14.47,7.44Z'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M3.16,4.69.05,5,0,3.36c0-.2.19-.41.48-.46l1.37-.24Z'/%3E%3Cpolygon class='cls-3' points='4.26 4.5 2.96 2.47 4.46 2.21 5.78 4.23 4.26 4.5'/%3E%3Cpolygon class='cls-3' points='6.88 4.04 5.57 2.01 7.6 1.65 8.92 3.68 6.88 4.04'/%3E%3Cpolygon class='cls-3' points='10.02 3.49 8.71 1.46 10.22 1.2 11.53 3.22 10.02 3.49'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-3' d='M14.65.79l.23,1.84L12.64,3,11.33,1,14.09.52C14.38.47,14.63.59,14.65.79Z'/%3E%3Cline class='cls-4' x1='0.66' y1='7.74' x2='14.63' y2='7.74'/%3E%3C/g%3E%3C/g%3E%3C/svg%3E");color:#307431}#method_toc.en_toc #summaryvideo_toc a span{font-size:7px;color:#307431;background-color:#bbd1ab;padding:1px 4px 0 4px;border-radius:6px;display:inline-block;margin-top:1px;vertical-align:text-top;line-height:14px;margin-left:4px}#method_toc.en_toc #othervideo_toc a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_video.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc #need_toc a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_need.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc #ea_toc a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_expert.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc #ingredients_toc a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_ingredients.svg);background-position:0px 4px;background-size:15px}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_sample a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_sample_new.svg);padding-left:21px}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_questionmethod a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_video.svg);padding-left:21px}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_method.toc_tech a span{display:none}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_android a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_android.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_desktop a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_desktop.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_iphone a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_iphone.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_mac a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_mac.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_mobile a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_mobile.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc .toc_windows a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_windows.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc #final_toc a{background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowtoc/images/toc_final.svg)}#method_toc.en_toc #steps_toc a{background-image:url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' viewBox='0 0 17 17'%3E%3Cdefs%3E%3Cstyle%3E.cls-1%7Bfill:%2394b778%7D.cls-2%7Bfill:%23fff%7D%3C/style%3E%3C/defs%3E%3Crect id='Rectangle_1284' data-name='Rectangle 1284' class='cls-1' width='17' height='17' rx='5'/%3E%3Crect id='Rectangle_1284-2' data-name='Rectangle 1284' class='cls-2' x='3.2' y='9.99' width='3.5' height='3.5' rx='1.03'/%3E%3Crect id='Rectangle_1284-3' data-name='Rectangle 1284' class='cls-2' x='3.2' y='3.51' width='3.5' height='3.5' rx='1.03'/%3E%3Cpath class='cls-2' d='M7.95 4.71h5.85v1.75H7.95zM7.95 11.19h5.85v1.75H7.95z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E");background-size:14px}#method_toc .toc_hidden,#method_toc .toc_ignore{display:none}#method_toc.intl_toc{margin:3px -26px 12px;padding:10px 26px;border-radius:0;width:100%;float:none}#method_toc.intl_toc a,#method_toc.intl_toc .toc_method,#method_toc.intl_toc #toc_showless,#method_toc.intl_toc #toc_showmore,#method_toc.intl_toc .toc_pre{ background-image:url(data:image/gif;base64,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);background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position-x:left}#method_toc.intl_toc a{ background-position:0 3px;padding-left:15px;display:inline-block;font-size:12px;margin:0 5px 0 0}#method_toc.intl_toc .method_toc_item{display:inline;background:none;padding-left:0}#method_toc.intl_toc .method_toc_item a{line-height:17px}#method_toc.intl_toc .header_toc{margin-right:.75em;border-bottom:none;display:inline;font-size:12px}#method_toc.intl_toc .toc_nav{display:none}#method_toc.intl_toc span.summaryvideo_icon{background:url(/skins/owl/images/video_play_icon.png) 0 0 contain no-repeat; background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/video_play_icon.svg);width:14px;height:12px;margin:0 0 -1px 2px;display:inline-block}.toc_header{color:#444;border-bottom:1px solid #d8d8d4;font-size:12px;text-transform:uppercase}#section_0.title_lg,#section_0.title_md,#section_0.title_sm{font-size:35px}h2 .altblock,h3 .altblock{position:absolute;background-color:#93b874;top:0;left:0;height:60px;width:60px;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;line-height:1em;text-align:center;padding:0;color:#fff;border-radius:4px 0 0 0;box-sizing:border-box;display:table}h2 .altblock > div,h3 .altblock > div{width:100%;height:auto;display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle;padding-top:.2em}div.section.steps h3 .altblock span{font-size:21px;padding-top:2.5px;display:block;line-height:20px}div.section.steps h3 .altblock span.method_of_count{display:none}.section{margin-top:2.2em; }.section.stuck{padding-top:58px}.section h2,.section h3{font-size:1.25em;position:relative}.section h2 span.mw-headline,.section h3 span.mw-headline{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle;height:58px;padding-top:0;padding-bottom:0;line-height:1.125em}.section h2 .altblock ~ span.mw-headline,.section h3 .altblock ~ span.mw-headline{padding-left:75px}.section.sample h3 span.mw-headline{padding-top:0}.section.tips h2 .altblock{ background:#93b874 url(/skins/owl/images/tips_icon.svg) center / 32px no-repeat}.section.warnings h2 .altblock{ background:#93b874 url(/skins/owl/images/warnings_icon.svg) center / 32px no-repeat}.section #ingredients .checkmark,.section #thingsyoullneed .checkmark{width:1em;height:1em}.section:not(.steps) h3{font-size:1.25em;font-weight:bold;color:#222222}.section:not(.steps) h3 .altblock{border-radius:0;margin-top:.3em;top:auto;height:1.5em;width:1.5em}.section:not(.steps) h3 span.mw-headline{padding:0 0 0 1.3em}.section h2.sticking,.section h3.sticking,.section .tool div.sticking{position:fixed;top:39px;width:728px;z-index:5;border-radius:0}.section h2.sticking .altblock,.section h3.sticking .altblock,.section .tool div.sticking .altblock{border-radius:4px;margin:7px 16px 7px 7px;width:52px;height:44px}@supports (position:sticky){.section.sticky > h2,.section.sticky > h3{top:37px;z-index:5;position:sticky}.sticky-sentinel{position:absolute;left:0;right:0;visibility:hidden}.sticky-sentinel-top{height:20px;top:-59px}.sticky-sentinel-introa{height:20px;top:-59px;position:absolute;left:0;right:0;visibility:hidden}.section h2.sticking,.section h3.sticking,.section .tool div.sticking{position:sticky}}h4.steps_text{font-size:1.1em}.section_text,.steps_text{border:none}.steps_list_2 > li{border:none;margin-bottom:1.5em;position:relative}.content{margin:0 0 1.5em}.content .edit-page{display:block;position:absolute;top:1.7em;right:1.7em;background:none;font-size:.8rem;font-weight:normal;color:#307530}.content .sticking .edit-page{margin-right:10px}.pre-content{border-radius:4px 4px 0 0}.method_ad{margin-left:-19px}#intro.hasad{padding-bottom:0;border-bottom:0}#intro_ad_1{height:120px}#intro_ad_1.gam{height:90px}#intro_ad_1 > ins{background-color:#F3F3F3}.sticky-ia #intro_ad_1 > ins{background-color:#FFF}.steps .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:25px;margin-left:-20px;margin-bottom:-21px;line-height:0}.steps .wh_ad_inner.al_grey{margin-top:35px}.steps .wh_ad_inner.wh_ad_spacing{margin-top:40px;width:728px;min-height:0 !important}#qa .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:40px;margin-left:-15px;margin-bottom:-15px;line-height:0}#qa .wh_ad_inner.wh_ad_spacing{margin-top:40px}#ingredients .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:40px;margin-left:-26px;margin-bottom:-26px;line-height:0}#tips .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-15px;margin-bottom:-15px}#tips_ad_1{margin-left:-15px;margin-bottom:-21px}#relatedwikihows{padding-left:15px}#relatedwikihows .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:40px;margin-left:-15px;margin-bottom:-16px;line-height:0}#relatedwikihows .wh_ad_inner.wh_ad_spacing{margin-top:40px}#intro .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:24px;margin-left:-26px}#intro .wh_ad_inner.al_grey{margin-top:40px}.qz_container .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:0;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:5px}#mw-mf-page-center .qz_container{margin:26px auto}.w_label{margin-top:13px;background:#fff}.promopair.w_label{margin-top:0}#rightrail1_ad_1.blockthrough.w_label:before{display:none}.rr_container .w_label{background-color:#f3f3f3}#intro .w_label{display:block}.al_dollar{position:relative}.al_dollar:after{content:'$';font-size:9px;font-weight:bold;position:absolute;left:5px;top:-10px;color:#ecebe8}.al_dollar.w_label:before{margin-top:-18px;left:0px;padding-left:16px;padding-right:4px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-radius:2px;-moz-border-radius:2px;-webkit-border-radius:2px;background:-webkit-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ecebe8 0%);background:-moz-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ecebe8 0%);background:-o-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ecebe8 0%);background:-ms-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ecebe8 0%);background:linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ecebe8 0%);border:1px solid #444;font-weight:normal}#intro .al_dollar.w_label:before{background:-webkit-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ffffff 0%);background:-moz-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ffffff 0%);background:-o-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ffffff 0%);background:-ms-linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ffffff 0%);background:linear-gradient(90deg,#888888 13px,#ffffff 0%)}.w_label:before{font-size:9px;line-height:normal;color:#444;position:absolute;left:6px;margin-top:-13px;display:block}.al_grey.w_label:before{color:#bababa}.m-video-wm{display:block;position:absolute;bottom:0;right:0;background-color:#93b874;color:#FFF;font-weight:bold;font-size:13.5px;line-height:13px;opacity:0.6 !important;padding-top:5px;padding-bottom:4px;padding-right:5px;padding-left:0px;text-decoration:none;pointer-events:none}.m-video-wm canvas{height:13px;vertical-align:bottom}.m-video-wm:before{right:100%;bottom:0;content:" ";height:100%;width:0;position:absolute;pointer-events:none;border-bottom:22px solid #93b874;border-left:18px solid transparent}#preload-wm-img{background:url(/skins/WikiHow/images/WH_logo.svg) no-repeat -9999px -9999px}.content .m-video-wm-img{width:auto !important;height:11px !important;padding-right:5px;display:block;float:left}.sourcesandcitations .section_text{padding-left:42px}.content .tips .section_text ul li,.content .warnings .section_text ul li{margin-bottom:0.8em}.content .tips .section_text ul li div.wh_vote_container,.content .warnings .section_text ul li div.wh_vote_container{display:none}#end_options{display:block}#end_options li{display:inline-block}#end_options li:before{content:'|';color:#e7e7e7;margin:0 1em}#end_options li:first-child:before{display:none}#article_rating_mobile{margin-top:1.5rem}#article_rating_mobile .mw-headline{font-weight:bold}#footer{text-align:left}#footer_inner{display:grid;grid-template-columns:1fr 1px 1fr;grid-template-rows:auto auto 30px auto auto auto;align-items:initial}.footer_divider,#footer_logo,#footer_crumbs{grid-column:1 / span 3}#footer_logo{grid-row:1}#footer_crumbs{grid-row:2}#footer_top_divider{display:none}#search_footer{grid-column:1;grid-row:4;width:85%}#footer_links{grid-column:1;grid-row:5;text-align:initial;padding-left:initial;margin-top:10px}#footer_links ul{column-gap:7.5em}#footer_vertical_divider{grid-column:2;grid-row:4 / span 3;border-left:1px solid #77a555}#contribute_footer_inner{max-width:688px}#byline_hover{z-index:6;position:absolute;top:28px;width:375px;max-width:375px;font-size:13px;line-height:1.5em;border:4px solid #7fa065;border-radius:6px;background-color:#FFF}#aboutthisarticle #summary_wrapper{width:100%;height:100%;position:fixed;overflow-y:scroll;top:0;left:0;z-index:100;display:none;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.2)}#aboutthisarticle #summary_wrapper .collapse_link{display:block;top:25%;position:relative;left:25%;width:50%;background-color:#93b874;color:#fff;padding:12px 18px;font-size:20px;font-weight:bold}#aboutthisarticle #summary_wrapper .collapse_link.open{margin-bottom:0}#aboutthisarticle #summary_wrapper .collapse_link:after{border:none}#aboutthisarticle #summary_text{position:relative;width:50%;top:25%;border:1px solid #93b874;background-color:#fff;padding:15px 20px 15px 15px;line-height:25px;left:25%;right:25%;display:block}#aboutthisarticle #summary_text h2{background-color:#93b874;color:#fff;margin:-15px -20px 10px -15px;padding:15px}#aboutthisarticle .text_summary_wrapper{overflow-y:auto}#aboutthisarticle #summary_last_sentence{display:inline}#aboutthisarticle #summary_close{position:absolute;top:11px;right:10px;width:30px;height:30px;color:#fff;border:1px solid #fff;border-radius:15px;text-align:center;line-height:30px;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-size:16px;display:block;background:#93b874}#aboutthisarticle .page_stats{display:block;text-align:center;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px;font-weight:bold}#aboutthisarticle #other_languages .collapse_link{background:none}#aboutthisarticle #other_languages .collapse_link::after{content:':'}#aboutthisarticle #language_links{display:block;margin-top:.5em;-webkit-columns:2;-moz-columns:2;columns:2}.al_method{display:none}#expertadvice > ul{padding-top:10px}.content .section_text.expert_advice_section p{font-size:16px;margin-bottom:0}.content .section_text.expert_advice_section ul li{font-size:16px}.healtharticle .altblock{background:#93b874 url(/extensions/wikihow/wikihowhealth/icon_wikihow_health.svg) center / 32px no-repeat}.healtharticle{margin-bottom:45px}.small_pdf_link{display:none}a.large_pdf_link{display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-webkit-align-items:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;float:right;font-weight:bold;margin:-5px 130px 5px 0;font-size:12.5px;color:#333333;background-color:#F6F8F7;padding:.45em 1.1rem;border-radius:8px}a.large_pdf_link:hover{text-decoration:none}a.large_pdf_link.pdf_link_steps{margin:10px 10px 0 0;min-width:135px;white-space:nowrap}a.large_pdf_link.intl{margin-right:0}a.large_pdf_link img{width:18px;margin-right:.3rem}a.large_pdf_link > div{margin-left:.4rem}#footer_newsletter{display:block;grid-column:3;grid-row:4 / span 2;width:210px;margin:0 auto;text-align:center}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_title{font-size:19px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_email{font-size:12px;width:100%;padding:5px 10px;border-radius:10px}#footer_newsletter a#footer_subscribe_button{font-size:14px;width:initial;border-radius:8px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_notice{font-size:11px}#footer_newsletter_divider{display:none}#intro .wh_ad_inner.al_grey{margin-top:40px}#watchtheserelatedvideos{grid-template-columns:1fr 1fr}.al_grey{text-transform:uppercase;letter-spacing:1px}}@media only screen and (min-width:975px){.w_label{display:inline-block}.wh_ad_inner.al_grey{margin-top:25px;display:block}.promopair.wh_ad_inner.al_grey{margin-top:0px}@supports (position:sticky){#sticky-iaw:not(.no-sticky-ia){position:absolute;height:685px;top:110px;width:100%;left:0}#mw-mf-viewport #content_wrapper.sticky-iac:not(.no-sticky-ia){padding-top:200px}.w_label.sticky-ia{margin-top:-11px;padding-top:22px;padding-bottom:20px}#sticky-iaw #intro_ad_1.full-width:not(.no-sticky-ia){margin:0 auto}.al_grey.sticky-ia:before{margin:0 auto;left:0;right:0;top:10px}.sticky-ia{top:39px;z-index:7;position:sticky;width:100%;text-align:center}}#rightrail0_ad_1{position:sticky;top:65px}#rightrail0_ad_1.rr_sticky_ia{position:sticky;top:195px}#leftrail0_ad_1{position:sticky;top:65px}#rightrail1_ad_1{position:sticky;top:65px}#rightrail2_ad_1{position:sticky;top:65px}.article-promo{display:block;position:relative}#promopair_container{display:block;position:relative;height:224px;margin-top:18px}#promopair_container.wh_ad_spacing{height:250px;background-color:#FFF;margin-top:0px}#promopair_container.tip_submit{padding-top:15px}#tips #promopair_container .wh_ad_inner{position:absolute;left:0;width:300px;height:250px}#promopair-img-wrap{position:absolute;right:-26px;width:420px}.wh_ad_spacing #promopair-img-wrap{right:0}#promopair_container img{min-width:auto;min-height:auto}.menu_login,.menu_messages{position:absolute;border:1px solid #91af79;margin:0;padding:10px 0;top:71px;z-index:1000;background-color:#f9f9f9;display:none;right:0}.menu_login{padding:15px 25px} #actionbar{display:block}#mw-mf-viewport{min-width:1070px}.header{height:72px;position:relative;border-top:none;max-width:1050px; }.header #mw-mf-main-menu-button,.header #hamburger_dot{display:none}.header .search{display:block;height:39px}#header_logo{background-position:left 20px;background-size:162px;width:158px;padding-left:0}#hs,#hs_query{width:auto}#hs_query{position:relative;display:block;float:left;border:solid #FFF;border-width:0 0 2px;border-radius:0;font-size:1.25em;background:none;height:auto;width:75%;min-width:200px;padding:9px 7px 4px}#hs_query::placeholder{color:#FFF;opacity:1}.hs_notif #hs_query{margin-right:0}#hs_submit{position:relative;display:inline-block;background-color:#ADC996;border-radius:4px;width:80px;background-position:center;background-size:25px;margin-left:10px}.hs_active #hs_query:valid ~ #hs_submit{display:inline-block}#content_wrapper{padding:71px 1em 1em}.header #actions{display:table-cell;padding:0px;margin:0px;border-right:1px solid #89ac6c;width:50%}.header #actions li{border-left:1px solid #89ac6c;padding:0px;height:72px;float:right;list-style:none !important;margin:0px;cursor:pointer;width:14%;position:relative;display:table}.header #actions li .nav{font-size:calc(8px + (10 - 8) * ((100vw - 975px) / (1020 - 975)));font-weight:bold;color:#475347;display:block;padding-top:40px;position:relative;text-align:center;z-index:1;line-height:normal;display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle;height:auto;width:100%}.header #actions li:hover .nav{color:#2C3C2C;text-decoration:none}.header #actions li .new_bubble{font-size:.7em;padding:0 .5em;margin-left:0}.nav_icon{position:absolute;top:0;width:100%;height:46px;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position:center;-webkit-transition:all 0.1s ease-out;transition:all 0.1s ease-out}.nav_item:hover,.nav_item_selected{background-color:#85A669}#nav_explore_li .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_explore.optimized.svg);background-size:28%}#nav_explore_li:hover .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_explore_hover.optimized.svg);background-size:31%}#nav_messages_li .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_messages.optimized.svg);background-size:33%}#nav_messages_li:hover .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_messages_hover.optimized.svg);background-size:37%}#nav_profile_li .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_profile.optimized.svg);background-size:29%}#nav_profile_li:hover .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_profile_hover.optimized.svg);background-size:32%}#nav_profile_li.nav_member .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/MembershipManager/images/nav_proprofile.svg);background-size:40%;background-position:center 11px}#nav_profile_li.nav_member:hover .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/extensions/wikihow/MembershipManager/images/nav_proprofile_hover.svg);background-size:43%}.menuitem.menu_separator:hover{background-color:#fff}#nav_help_li .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_help.optimized.svg);background-size:31%}#nav_help_li:hover .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_help_hover.optimized.svg);background-size:34%}#nav_edit_li .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_edit.optimized.svg);background-size:31%}#nav_edit_li:hover .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_edit_hover.optimized.svg);background-size:34%}.menuitem.top_cat{padding-left:25px;font-size:14px;line-height:22px}#actions #nav_pro_li{border:none;background:#FFF;border-radius:35px;margin:13px 10px 0 0;box-sizing:border-box;height:45px;width:100px}#actions #nav_pro_li .nav_icon{ background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/nav_pro.svg);background-size:100%;right:16px;width:22px;height:45px}#actions #nav_pro_li .red_dot{display:none;position:absolute;background:#FF3333;height:10px;width:10px;right:13px;bottom:10px;border-radius:50%}#actions #nav_pro_li .menu{top:50px;border:none;border-radius:15px;padding:12px 0;box-shadow:-2px 4px 4px rgba(122,122,122,0.25)}#actions #nav_pro_li .menu hr{color:#D9D9D9;margin:12px 0}#actions #nav_pro .label{display:inline-block;background:#FFCF5A;color:#FFF;font-size:1.2em;padding:.25em .6em;position:absolute;left:16px;top:28%;border-radius:5px} .header #secondary-button.user-button{position:absolute;padding:0;top:-2px;right:-4px;z-index:1}.header #secondary-button.user-button span{font-size:.6em;width:2.2em;height:1.5em;line-height:1.5em;border-radius:1.5em;position:relative}#header_container{height:72px;transform:scaleY(1);transform-origin:top;transition-duration:120ms}#header_top_watch{position:absolute;width:1px;height:1px;top:3px;left:0}#header_container.shrunken{transform:scaleY(0.5);transform-origin:top;transition-duration:210ms} .header_container.shrunk{height:39px}.header_container.shrunk .header{height:39px}.header_container.shrunk .header #secondary-button.user-button{top:-10px}.header_container.shrunk #header_logo{background-position:left 5px}.header_container.shrunk #hs_query{height:32px}.header_container.shrunk #hs_submit{height:32px;background-size:21px;margin-top:3px}.header_container.shrunk .nav_icon{display:none}.header_container.shrunk .menu,.header_container.shrunk .menu_login,.header_container.shrunk .menu_messages{top:38px}.header_container.shrunk #actions li{height:39px}.header_container.shrunk #actions li .nav{padding:0}.header_container.shrunk #actions #nav_pro_li{height:30px;width:77px;margin-top:4px}.header_container.shrunk #actions #nav_pro_li .red_dot{display:none !important}.header_container.shrunk #actions #nav_pro_li .menu{top:33px}.header_container.shrunk #actions #nav_pro .label{position:relative;left:auto;top:auto}.scrollto_wrap{height:90px}#qa .wh_ad_inner{margin-top:18px;margin-bottom:-47px}#tips .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-26px;margin-bottom:-26px}#warnings .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-26px;margin-bottom:-26px}#aboutthisarticle .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-26px;margin-top:5px;margin-bottom:-26px}#aboutthisarticle .wh_ad_inner.al_grey{margin-top:25px}#thingsyoullneed .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-26px;margin-bottom:-26px}#references .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-42px}.rtl .method_ad{margin-right:-19px}.rtl #qa .wh_ad_inner{margin-right:-16px}.rtl #intro .wh_ad_inner{margin-right:-26px}.rtl .steps .wh_ad_inner{margin-right:-21px}.rtl #relatedwikihows .wh_ad_inner{margin-right:-16px}.qz_container .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:0;margin-top:0;margin-bottom:5px}.menu_messages{right:0;font-size:.8em;width:300px;padding:0 0 3px 0}.menu_messages .mw-echo-state{background-color:#EEE}.menu_messages .mw-echo-state:hover{background-color:#F9F9F9}.menu_messages .mw-echo-unread{background-color:#F9F9F9}.menu_messages .mw-echo-content{padding-right:.5em}.menu_message_morelink{text-align:center;padding:5px} .oo-ui-windowManager-modal > .oo-ui-window.oo-ui-dialog{z-index:11}#ca-edit{display:none}.section.aidata{margin-top:-1.5em}.section_text{padding:26px}.step_num{font-size:2.8em;line-height:1em;margin-left:10px}.step{margin:0 30px 0 10px}.summarysection.mwimg,.summarysection .mwimg{margin:-26px -26px 0}#qa{padding:26px}.qa_divider{margin:0 -26px 15px}.qa_sq.qa_editing_aq{margin:0 -26px}#qa_ask_heading{margin-top:0}.references a.external,#site_notice a.external{background:none}#site_notice_x{float:right;display:block;width:14px;height:14px;background:url(/skins/owl/images/article_sprite.png) no-repeat -114px 0;margin:0 0px 10px 10px}#trust_banner{top:72px}#trust_banner > div{max-width:1050px}.shrunk_header #trust_banner{visibility:hidden}.coauthor_link:hover,.eat_tag:hover,.recipe_byline_stars:hover{text-decoration:none}#byline_hover_close{display:none}#left_sidebar{position:absolute;width:300px;height:100%;left:8px;top:103px}#sidebar{display:block;width:300px;min-height:500px;float:right;position:relative}#sidebar .al_dollar:after{top:-16px}#sidebar #cookie_notice{display:none}#sidebar #top_links{padding:30px 15px;white-space:nowrap;text-align:center;font-size:.65em;font-weight:bold}#sidebar #top_links #gatWriteAnArticle{margin-right:0}#sidebar .sidebox{background-color:#FFF;padding:16px;margin:0 0 15px 0;position:relative;-moz-border-radius:4px;-webkit-border-radius:4px;border-radius:4px;color:#686868;font-size:13px;line-height:1.3em}#sidebar .sidebox p{font-size:14px;line-height:17px;margin:12px 0 0}#sidebar .sidebox h3{font-size:13px;font-weight:bold;color:#686868;margin-bottom:11px;padding:0px;background:none}#sidebar .sidebox.short_sidebox{padding-top:10px}#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox{line-height:normal;padding:0;font-weight:bold}#sidebar .difficult_icon{display:block;margin:.5em auto}#sidebar .arrow_box{position:relative}#sidebar .arrow_box:after,#sidebar .arrow_box:before{right:100%;top:50%;border:solid transparent;content:" ";height:0;width:0;position:absolute;pointer-events:none}#sidebar .arrow_box:before{border:none}#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox.arrow_box:after,#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox.arrow_box:before{top:38px}#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox.arrow_box:after{margin-top:0}#sidebar #aag_sidebox{display:none}#sidebar .arrow_box:after{border-color:rgba(255,255,255,0);border-right-color:#FFF;border-width:11px;margin-top:-80px}#sidebar .arrow_box:before{border-color:rgba(229,229,229,0);border-right-color:#e5e5e5;border-width:12px;margin-top:-81px}#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox h3{margin:0;text-align:left;font-size:11px;background-color:#f6f5f4;padding:4px 1em;width:inherit;-moz-border-radius-topright:4px;-moz-border-radius-topleft:4px;-webkit-border-top-left-radius:4px;-webkit-border-top-right-radius:4px;top-left-border-radius:4px;border-top-right-radius:4px}#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox.arrow_box h3{font-size:15px;padding:10px 0 10px 10px}#sidebar #social_proof_sidebox h4{margin:10px 5px -5px 5px;text-align:left;font-size:12px;background-color:inherit}#sidebar .sp_box{float:left;width:130px;height:75px;position:relative;padding:10px 0 10px 15px}#sidebar .sp_thin_box{width:100%;height:auto;padding:0;display:table}#sidebar .sp_star_section_upper{margin-top:4px;display:inline-block}#sidebar #sp_star_rating_lower{font-size:11px}#sidebar .sp_star_rating_text{font-weight:normal}#sidebar .sp_helpful_box,#sidebar #sp_helpful_new,#sidebar .sp_difficult_box{border-right:1px solid #f3f3f3}#sidebar .sp_difficult_box{padding:10px;text-align:center}#sidebar .helpful_sidebox .sp_star_section_upper,#sidebar .helpful_sidebox .sp_helpful_lower{display:table-cell;vertical-align:middle}#sidebar .helpful_sidebox .sp_helpful_lower{padding-left:10px}#sidebar .helpful_sidebox .sp_star_container{height:26px;width:26px}#sidebar .sp_top_box{padding:10px;position:relative;background-color:#f0f5ec;border-radius:4px 4px 0 0;border:1px solid #ECEBE8}#sidebar .ar_avatar.generic{border:2px solid #708461}#sidebar .sp_expert_name a{color:#545454}#sidebar .sp_expert_blurb{font-size:12px}#sidebar #social_proof{font-size:11px;line-height:normal;color:#212121;margin:3px 0 30px 0;padding:0 0 5px 0;list-style:none}#sidebar #social_proof li{margin:0 10px 0 0;float:left;line-height:15px;color:#767676}#sidebar #sp_modified{display:inline-block;min-width:70px}#sidebar .sp_circle{border-radius:50%;width:15px;height:15px;display:inline-block;vertical-align:middle;margin-right:3px;float:left}#sidebar .sp_updated_icon{ background-image:url(data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAA8AAAAPCAQAAACR313BAAABFElEQVQY00WQwS5DURRFLzGX+ARhLjEUHyG+QvyAmHUmxv6BmJhI/ILeu55HGkUrDSJiQrVoFK/L4LaRMznZ62SffU4gjGuBXdpU9DlhnZmsZjTNBg+IySQy5IiFf7yHGMXCYtzxyHLGmxm27fvtj+/eGk3SYC6wSAejT2rlwIGV+pQdtgM7GG2pQ5smk02/1JZRCLSx7qt65amIp16rXaN0Q6pKr/2ysmVpTl/666dJRiH1Cl9U7VmaxOiFIz9MMgwcJ/HVnmcmsW70eRKuE1jjM1lYmMTSjl11kJ32A4GDvBGjTUdq34ZRflgNBOa5Zxzq3DtvTPnq2uSpS1xOBuoZVdSYmuDALFuc8caIIQ8cspL1P0dFas6MaYbtAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC)}#sidebar .sp_updated_icon_sidebar{margin:14px auto 5px auto;position:absolute;left:-2px;right:0;width:22px;height:20px;background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_icon_sidebar.png);background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' width='37.593' height='33.009' viewBox='0 0 37.593 33.009'%3E%3Cpath fill='%23FFF' d='M21.089 33.009v-5c6.344 0 11.504-5.161 11.504-11.504S27.433 5 21.089 5 9.584 10.161 9.584 16.504c0 .541.038 1.084.112 1.614l-4.951.694a16.776 16.776 0 0 1-.161-2.309C4.584 7.404 11.988 0 21.089 0s16.504 7.404 16.504 16.504-7.404 16.505-16.504 16.505z'/%3E%3Cpath fill='%23FFF' d='M14.169 17.468l-7.085 7%0A.084L0 17.468z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E");background-size:cover}#sidebar .sp_text{line-height:17px;font-weight:normal;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;font-size:11px}#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text{display:table-cell;padding:8px 3.5%;vertical-align:top}#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text:first-child{width:26%;padding-left:6.5%}#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text:nth-child(2){width:28%}#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text:last-child{width:22%}#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text,#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text a{color:#595959}#sidebar .sp_thin_box .sp_text_data{display:block;color:#545454}#sidebar .sp_text_data{font-size:12px;font-weight:bold}#sidebar .sp_stats_box.sp_thin_box{width:100%;float:none}#sidebar #sp_stats_sidebox{padding:5px 0}#sidebar #sp_stats_sidebox .sp_text_data{font-size:13px}#sidebar .sp_edit_icon{ background-image:url(data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAA8AAAAPCAQAAACR313BAAAA6ElEQVQY01XQMUoDYRCG4VHsBY8gsRcsxUOIpxAvIHbpxNo7KDY2gmcw+yaKIijB1YQEG9EkKhgk+1r8WbOZr5uHGYYJYpoaR7SZMOKSHZZSN9Eiu3TxP2POqc34uEI2bIj02Ei8V8Ur2z6ZidyxEqyRVzG3UHtpw0FwWMVnC1WHaZ6gPcMXU317m/gjmJQHdab45U1aLUUwRMzsT/HT6xJlHFxgwwf7/qgjWzOUPNjmO/PVR3MH8ygnQXCa+e6bbZvpoDK/bAXBKp2mmM2j1MunrnPPPE2os1BysMw+LQYUjOlyxmbq/wEA8mibiYqo7QAAAABJRU5ErkJggg==)}#sidebar .sp_edit_icon_sidebar{margin:15px auto 5px auto;position:absolute;left:0;right:0;width:18px;height:18px;background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_edit_icon_sidebar.png); background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("data:image/svg+xml,%3Csvg xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/svg' width='19.813' height='19.82' viewBox='0 0 19.813 19.82'%3E%3Cpath fill='%23FFF' d='M19.801 4.792l-6.398 6.397L6.042 18.5 0 19.82l1.269-6.092 7.362-7.311L15.028.02s1.371-.305 3.199 1.523c1.828 1.877 1.574 3.249 1.574 3.249zM6.296 17.18s-.051-1.117-1.32-2.386c-1.219-1.269-2.387-1.269-2.387-1.269l-.558.609-.457 2.031c.355.203.761.457 1.167.863.457.457.711.812.914 1.219l2.031-.457.61-.61z'/%3E%3C/svg%3E");background-size:cover}#sidebar #sp_section_name{color:#545454;font-size:11px;padding-bottom:6px}#sidebar .sp_nonverifier_text > div{font-size:13px}#sidebar .sp_popup_container{top:110px;left:-20px;position:absolute;z-index:100000007;display:none}#sidebar .hint_box{min-width:150px;max-width:180px;position:relative;background:#FFF;border:3px solid;border-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.13);border-radius:4px;font-weight:normal;padding:9px;-moz-background-clip:padding; -webkit-background-clip:padding; background-clip:padding-box}#sidebar .hint_box p{font-size:12px;line-height:normal;margin:0;text-align:left}#sidebar .hint_box:after,#sidebar .hint_box:before{left:50%;border:solid transparent;content:" ";height:0;width:0;position:absolute;pointer-events:none}#sidebar .hint_box:after{top:-19px;border-color:rgba(255,255,255,0);border-bottom-color:#FFF;border-width:10px;margin-left:-10px}#sidebar .hint_box:before{top:-24px;border-bottom-color:#d5d5d5;border-width:12px;margin-left:-12px;-moz-background-clip:padding; -webkit-background-clip:padding; background-clip:padding-box}#sidebar .noarrow:after,#sidebar .noarrow:before{display:none}#sidebar .sp_helpful_rating_count,#sidebar #sp_helpful_text_sidebox{font-size:11px;font-weight:normal;color:#595959}#sidebar #sp_helpful_text_sidebox{margin-top:5px}#sidebar .helpfulness_text{font-size:12px;color:#545454;padding:4px 0 8px}#sidebar .sp_star_container{position:relative;width:21px;height:21px;float:left;border-right:2px solid transparent; background-image:url(/skins/owl/images/sp_helpful_icon_star_empty.optimized.svg) 0 0 cover no-repeat}#sidebar .social_sidebox{background-color:#FFF;padding:0}#sidebar .social_sidebox h3{margin:0;text-align:left;font-size:11px;background-color:#f6f5f4;padding:4px 1em;width:inherit;-moz-border-radius-topright:4px;-moz-border-radius-topleft:4px;-webkit-border-top-left-radius:4px;-webkit-border-top-right-radius:4px;top-left-border-radius:4px;border-top-right-radius:4px}#sidebar .sp_helpful_box.helpful_sidebox{float:none;border-right:none;width:auto;height:auto;padding:15px;border-bottom:1px solid #e7e7e7}#sidebar .sp_helpful_statement{font-size:13px;margin-bottom:5px}#sidebar .sp_helpful_statement span{font-size:18px;font-weight:bold}#sidebar #sp_icon_header{background-color:#7fa065;color:#FFF;font-size:16px;font-weight:bold;padding:8px 25px}#sidebar #byline_hover_body{padding:10px 25px}#sidebar #byline_hover_body a{font-weight:bold}#sidebar #byline_hover_body .sp_expert_icon{width:20px;height:20px;display:inline-block;margin-bottom:-4px}#sidebar #side_related_articles{padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:8px}#sidebar #side_related_articles_larger .related-article{width:100%;margin-right:0;margin-bottom:4%}#sidebar #side_related_articles .related-article{margin-right:4%;margin-bottom:10px;width:45%}#sidebar #side_related_articles .related-title{bottom:4px}#sidebar #side_related_articles .related-image-link{display:inline}#sidebar .rr_container #side_related_articles{margin-top:10px;width:300px;box-sizing:border-box}#sidebar .related-title-text p{font-size:12px;line-height:15px}#sidebar .rr_container{margin-bottom:15px;position:relative}#sidebar .rr_container.nofixed .w_label{background-color:#ecebe8}#sidebar #userreviews{line-height:normal;margin:3px 0 15px 0;padding:0;color:#686868;font-size:12px;font-weight:bold;position:relative;background-color:white;max-width:300px}#sidebar .ur_review{margin-bottom:1px;background-color:#fff;padding:15px 20px;border-radius:4px}#sidebar .ur_review_text{position:relative;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:13px;line-height:18px;color:#545454;margin-top:7px}#sidebar .ur_nav_container{background-color:#FFF;margin-top:-6px;padding:0px 20px 15px;min-height:1em;border-radius:0 0 4px 4px}#sidebar .ur_share{float:right;font-weight:normal}#sidebar .ur_share_recipes{display:block;font-size:15px;font-weight:bold}#sidebar .ur_nav{display:block}#sidebar .ur_nav_staff{display:block;background:#f3f3f3;padding:5px}#sidebar .ur_even_more{display:none}#sidebar .ur_hide{display:none}#sidebar .ur_author .ur_name{font-size:13px;color:#545454;font-weight:bold}#sidebar .ur_review .ur_date{font-size:11px;color:#9c9c9c}#sidebar .ur_review p{margin-top:0px}#sidebar .ur_avatar{width:36px;height:36px;display:inline-block;border-radius:16%;margin-right:5px;vertical-align:bottom;overflow:hidden}#sidebar #sidebar_share{text-align:center}#sidebar #sidebar_share h3{text-align:left;padding-bottom:5px}#sidebar #sidebar_share > div{display:inline-block;vertical-align:bottom;margin-right:10px}#sidebar #sidebar_share > div.admin_state{margin:0px 3px -4px -1px}#sidebar #sidebar_share div.like_button{margin-bottom:-8px}#sidebar #sidebar_share div.like_button_es{margin-right:0px}#sidebar #sidebar_share #pinterest{margin-right:3px}#sidebar #sidebar_share #pinterest a{ direction:ltr}#sidebar #sidebar_share div.email_share{margin-left:4px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:-6px}#sidebar #sidebar_share div.email_share a{display:inline-block;position:relative;z-index:10}#sidebar #sidebar_share div.email_share img{cursor:pointer}#sidebar .fb_iframe_widget iframe{width:auto;position:absolute}#userreviews_mobile{display:none}#aboutthisarticle > .section_text,#aboutthisarticle .sp_top_box,#aboutthisarticle #sp_expert_desc,#aboutthisarticle .sp_box{padding:15px 26px}#aboutthisarticle .sp_difficult_box{padding:15px 0 0}#aboutthisarticle .sp_top_icon_bg{left:26px}#aboutthisarticle #endoptions{border-radius:0}#aboutthisarticle .page_stats{font-size:1.1em;padding:1.6em 26px}#aboutthisarticle #summary_text{border-bottom:none;margin-bottom:0}.no_sidebar #content_inner{float:none;max-width:1050px}#content_inner{float:left}.full_width #content_wrapper,.full_width #content_inner{max-width:initial}#footer_inner{grid-template-columns:1fr 1fr 1fr;max-width:1070px;align-items:start;margin-top:10px;column-gap:2%}.footer_divider,#footer_logo,#footer_crumbs{grid-column:span 2}#footer_top_divider{display:initial}#footer_bottom_divider{display:none}#footer_vertical_divider{display:none}#search_footer{grid-column:1 / 1;grid-row:span 1;min-width:265px;width:100%}#footer_links{grid-column:2 / span 1;grid-row:span 2;margin:0 0 0 50px;padding-left:1em;text-align:center}#footer_links ul{margin-top:-5px;-webkit-columns:2;-moz-columns:2;columns:2;-webkit-column-gap:.5em;-moz-column-gap:.5em;column-gap:.5em}#footer_links li{margin-right:25px}#contribute_footer_inner{max-width:975px}#contribute_footer_inner p{width:785px}#contribute_footer_inner > a{float:right;margin-top:-58px}.steps_list_2 .mwimg.largeimage{margin-bottom:20px}#qa .wh_ad_inner{margin-left:-26px}#tips_ad_1{margin-left:-26px;margin-bottom:-32px}#side_featured_articles .text{background-color:rgba(50,50,50,0.5);padding:2% 4%;width:92.75%;min-height:32px;position:absolute;bottom:0;cursor:pointer;color:#fff;font-weight:bold}#side_featured_articles .text:hover{background:white}#side_featured_contributor .bottom_button{text-align:center}#side_featured_contributor .bottom_button .button{margin:.1em 0;display:inline-block}#fc_id_img{float:left;margin-right:.8em}.thumbnail a:hover p{color:#2483ef}.sidebox .thumbnail p{font-size:12px !important}.sidebox .thumbnail p span{font-size:13px !important}#gdpr{padding-top:5px;padding-bottom:5px}#gdpr_text{font-size:13px;margin-left:-85px}#gdpr_cp_link{top:0px}.s-help-response{padding-left:10px;cursor:pointer;border:none;font-size:16px;font-family:Helvetica,arial,sans-serif;color:#363;background:none}.s-help-wrap{position:relative;width:50%;top:25%;left:25%;right:25%;display:block;background-color:#fff;padding:0 20px 15px 15px;border:1px solid #93b874;border-top:none}.s-help-response:hover{text-decoration:underline;background-color:inherit;border:none}#introad-outer > .gptlight{width:728px;height:90px}.s-help-wrap > .s-help-feedback-wrap{padding-bottom:30px}.s-help-feedback-wrap{display:none}#sample_loading{display:initial}#footer_newsletter{display:initial;margin:-25px 0 0 40px;min-width:200px;grid-row:2 / span 4;text-align:left}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_title{font-size:18px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_email{box-sizing:initial;padding:5px 10px;font-size:14px;width:170px;border-radius:5px}#footer_newsletter a#footer_subscribe_button{box-sizing:initial;margin:initial;padding:2px 5px;border-radius:5px;font-size:initial;width:182px}#footer_newsletter #footer_subscribe_notice{width:180px;margin:5px 0;font-size:12px}}@media only screen and (min-width:1020px){.header #actions li .nav{font-size:10px}}@media only screen and (min-width:1200px){@supports (position:sticky){#sticky-iaw #intro_ad_1.full-width:not(.no-sticky-ia){width:1200px}}}@media only screen and (min-width:1320px){#content_wrapper.leftrail-mode{padding-left:78px}#left_sidebar{left:22px}}</style>
<script>window.WH.pageName='Main-Page';
window.WH.pageID=5;
window.WH.pageNamespace=0;
window.WH.pageLang='en';
window.WH.isMobile=1;
window.WH.stuCount=1;
window.WH.isAltDomain=0;
window.WH.topCat1='WikiHow';
window.WH.topCat2='';</script>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width"/>
<meta name="twitter:card" content="summary_large_image"/>

<meta name="twitter:image:src" content="https://www.wikihow.com/images/7/71/Wh-logo.jpg"/>

<meta name="twitter:site" content="@wikihow"/>

<meta name="twitter:description" content="wikiHow - How to do anything"/>

<meta name="twitter:title" content="wikiHow"/>

<meta name="twitter:url" content="https://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page"/>

<meta name="twitter:app:name:iphone" content="wikiHow"/>

<meta name="twitter:app:id:iphone" content="309209200"/>

<meta name="twitter:app:url:iphone" content="wikihow://article?id=5"/>


<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en" href="https://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="ar" href="https://ar.wikihow.com/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%81%D8%AD%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A9"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="cs" href="https://www.wikihow.cz/Hlavn%C3%AD-strana"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="de" href="https://de.wikihow.com/Hauptseite"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="es" href="https://es.wikihow.com/Portada"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fa" href="https://www.wikihowfarsi.com/%D8%B5%D9%81%D8%AD%D9%87%D9%94-%D8%A7%D8%B5%D9%84%DB%8C"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr" href="https://fr.wikihow.com/Accueil"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="hi" href="https://hi.wikihow.com/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%96%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%83%E0%A4%B7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A0"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="id" href="https://id.wikihow.com/Halaman-Utama"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="it" href="https://www.wikihow.it/Pagina-principale"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="ja" href="https://www.wikihow.jp/%E3%83%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%83%9A%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B8"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="ko" href="https://ko.wikihow.com/%EB%8C%80%EB%AC%B8"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="nl" href="https://nl.wikihow.com/Hoofdpagina"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="pt" href="https://pt.wikihow.com/P%C3%A1gina-principal"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="ru" href="https://ru.wikihow.com/%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B0"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="th" href="https://th.wikihow.com/%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%99%E0%B9%89%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%81"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="tr" href="https://www.wikihow.com.tr/Anasayfa"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="vi" href="https://www.wikihow.vn/Trang-Ch%C3%ADnh"/>

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="zh" href="https://zh.wikihow.com/%E9%A6%96%E9%A1%B5"/>
<script>(function(){var wh=window.WH=(window.WH||{}),ok=typeof window.addEventListener=='function',d=document,e='event_tracker_ready';wh.event=function(z,y){ok&&d.addEventListener(e,function(){wh.event(z,y)})}
wh.eventView=function(z,y,x,w,v,u){ok&&d.addEventListener(e,function(){wh.eventView(z,y,x,w,v,u)})}})();</script>
<!--[if lt IE 9]><script src="/load.php?debug=false&amp;lang=en&amp;modules=html5shiv&amp;only=scripts&amp;siterev=xwNBT&amp;skin=wh&amp;sync=1"></script><![endif]-->
</head>
<body class="mediawiki ltr sitedir-ltr mw-hide-empty-elt ns-0 ns-subject page-Main_Page rootpage-Main_Page stable skin-minervawh action-view"><script>window.a=window.a||{};window.a.f=function(){function D(){var b=E().split("x")[0];return"undefined"!=typeof h.largeScreenMinWidth&&b&&parseInt(b,10)<h.largeScreenMinWidth?1:0}function q(){var b=F;if(k){var c=+new Date-k;0<c&&(b+=c)}return b}function G(b){if("undefined"!==typeof b&&"undefined"!==typeof b.target&&"undefined"!==typeof b.target.getAttribute&&(b=b.target.getAttribute("id"),"undefined"!==typeof b&&0!==b.indexOf("whvid-player")))return;H||(H=!0,l&&6>=l||(b=r({d:y?D()?"vm":"vw":"pv",m:h.pageName+" btraw "+q()/1E3,b:"6"}),delete b.dl,t("exit",b,!0)))}function I(){k&&(F+=+new Date-k,k=!1)}function J(){k||(k=+new Date)}function K(){var b=document.querySelectorAll("#intro, .section.steps, #quick_summary_section");if(b){var c=1E6,f=0;Array.prototype.forEach.call(b,function(b){var d=b;for(var e=0;d;)e+=d.offsetTop-d.clientTop,d=d.offsetParent;d=e;b=b.offsetHeight||b.clientHeight;c=Math.min(d,c);f=Math.max(d+b,f)});p=c;z=f}}function V(){var b=!1;try{var c=Object.defineProperty({},
"passive",{get:function(){b=!0}});window.addEventListener("testPassive",null,c);window.removeEventListener("testPassive",null,c)}catch(f){}window.addEventListener("scroll",function(){g++;if(-1!=u){var b=+new Date-v;b>=u+250&&(u=b,K())}var c=q();b=c-L;L=c;if(!(0>=b)){var d=window.scrollY||window.pageYOffset;c=d+(window.innerHeight||document.documentElement.clientHeight);if(!(d>z||c<p)){var e=z-p;if(!(0>=e))for(d=Math.floor(128*(1*d-p)/e),0>d&&(d=0),c=Math.ceil(128*(1*c-p)/e),127<c&&(c=127),e=d;e<=c;)"undefined"===typeof w[e]&&(w[e]=0),w[e]+=b,e++}}});window.addEventListener("resize",function(){g++});window.addEventListener("click",function(){g++});c=b?{passive:!0}:!1;window.addEventListener("touchstart",function(){g++},c);window.addEventListener("touchend",function(){g++});window.addEventListener("touchcancel",function(){g++});window.addEventListener("touchmove",function(){g++},c);document.addEventListener("keydown",function(){g++});document.addEventListener("keyup",function(){g++});
document.addEventListener("keypress",function(){g++});setInterval(function(){u=-1;K();0<g&&(M++,g=0);var b=q();b>N&&(N=b,O<A&&O++)},3E3)}function t(b,c,f){var g="",d=!0,e;for(e in c)c.hasOwnProperty(e)&&(g+=(d?"":"&")+e+"="+encodeURIComponent(c[e]),d=!1);b=(P?"/x/collect.php":"/x/collect")+"?t="+b+"&"+g;f&&"function"===typeof navigator.sendBeacon?navigator.sendBeacon(b,""):(c=new XMLHttpRequest,c.open("GET",b,!f),c.send())}function Q(){function b(){var b={ti:x[m].t};if(0===m){a:{try{var c=window.navigator,d=document,e=window.screen;b=R(b,{de:d&&(d.characterSet||d.charset),ul:(c&&(c.language||c.browserLanguage)||"").toLowerCase(),sd:e&&e.colorDepth+"-bit",sr:e&&e.width+"x"+e.height,vp:E(),pr:"undefined"!=typeof window.devicePixelRatio?window.devicePixelRatio:0});var g=r(b);break a}catch(Y){}g={}}t("first",g,!1)}else t("later",r(b),!1);m++;m<x.length&&Q()}var c=+new Date;m<x.length&&(c=v+1E3*x[m].t-c,0>=c?b():setTimeout(b,c))}function R(b,c){for(var f in c)c.hasOwnProperty(f)&&
"undefined"==typeof b[f]&&(b[f]=c[f]);return b}function E(){var b=document,c=b.documentElement,f=b.body,g=f&&f.clientWidth&&f.clientHeight,d=[];c&&c.clientWidth&&c.clientHeight&&("CSS1Compat"===b.compatMode||!g)?d=[c.clientWidth,c.clientHeight]:g&&(d=[f.clientWidth,f.clientHeight]);return c=0>=d[0]||0>=d[1]?"":d.join("x")}function r(b){var c=W();250>c&&(c=1500);var f={gg:y,to:Math.round((+new Date-v)/1E3),ac:Math.round(q()/1E3),pg:h.pageID,ns:h.pageNamespace,ra:S,cv:X,cl:T,cm:D(),dl:location.href,b:"6"};f=R(b,f);0===h.pageNamespace&&(B=c/1500*180,A=B/3,b=Math.round(100*M/A),0>b&&(b=0),100<b&&(b=100),f.a1=Math.round(b));return f}function W(){var b=document.querySelectorAll("#intro, .section.steps, #quick_summary_section");if(!b)return 0;var c=0;Array.prototype.forEach.call(b,function(b){b=b.textContent.split(/\s/).filter(function(b){return""!==b}).length;c+=b});return c}var h=window.WH,X=h.stuCount,T=h.pageLang,P=!!location.href.match(/\.wikidogs\.com/),n=location.href.match(
/\.wikihow(-fun)?\.[a-z]+\//)&&"en"==T||P,v=!1,k=!1,F=0,y=0,H=!1,S,l=!1,m=0,B=180,A=B/3,O=0,M=0,g=0,N=0,w=[],u=0,p=0,z=0,L=0,U=null,C=[],x=[{t:1},{t:9},{t:10},{t:12},{t:175},{t:180},{t:185},{t:300},{t:600},{t:900},{t:1200},{t:1500},{t:1800},{t:2100},{t:2400}];return{start:function(){if("undefined"==typeof window.a.c||!window.a.c){window.a.c=!0;var b=navigator.userAgent.match(/MSIE (\d+)/);b&&(l=b[1]);b="";for(var c=0;12>c;c++)b+="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789".charAt(Math.floor(36*Math.random()));S=b;y=("string"===typeof document.referrer?document.referrer:"").match(/^[a-z]*:\/\/[^\/]*google/i)?1:0;k=v="number"==typeof h.timeStart&&0<h.timeStart?h.timeStart:+new Date;"visibilityState"in document&&"hidden"==document.visibilityState&&(k=!1);n&&Q();l&&7<=l&&9>=l?(document.onfocusin=J,document.onfocusout=I):(window.onfocus=J,window.onblur=I);n&&(window.onunload=G,window.onbeforeunload=G);(n||n)&&V()}},ping:function(b){(n||n)&&t("event",r(b),!1)},registerDebug:function(b){if(
"function"!=typeof b)console.log("registerDebug: must be a function");else{U=b;for(b=0;b<C.length;b++)U(C[b]);C=[]}}}}();window.a.f.start();</script><script>WH.gaType = "mobile";
WH.gaID = "UA-2375655-1";
WH.gaConfig = {"extraPropertyIds":[],"v4PropertyId":null};
</script><div id="header_container" class="header_container" data-responsive="1"><div id="header" class="header" role="navigation"><a href="#" title="Open main menu" id="mw-mf-main-menu-button" class="mainmenu element main-menu-button"></a><div id="hamburger_dot"></div><a id="header_logo" href="/Main-Page"></a><div id="hs"><form action="/wikiHowTo" class="search" target="_top" id="search_form_top"><input id="hs_query" role="textbox" tabindex="0" name="search" aria-label="Search here" required="" placeholder="" x-webkit-speech=""><button type="submit" id="hs_submit"></button><div id="hs_close" role="button" tabindex="0"></div></form></div><ul id="actions" role="menubar" aria-label="Header navigation"><li id="nav_messages_li" class="nav_item" role="menuitem" aria-labelledby="nav_messages"><div class="nav_icon"></div><a id="nav_messages" class="nav" href="#">MESSAGES</a></li><li id="nav_profile_li" class="nav_item" role="menuitem" aria-labelledby="nav_profile"><div class="nav_icon"></div><a id="nav_profile" class="nav" href="#wh-dialog-login" rel="nofollow" data-link="#wh-dialog-login">LOG IN</a><div class="menu_login" role="menu">
	<div name="userlogin" class="userlogin">

	<h3>Log in</h3>
	<div id='social-login-navbar' data-return-to=''>
		<label class='social-disabled'>Social login does not work in incognito and private browsers. Please log in with your username or email to continue.</label>
		<div id="fb_connect_head">
			<a id="fb_login_head" href="#" role="button" class="ulb_button ulb_social_button loading" aria-label="Log in with Facebook">
				<span class="ulb_icon"></span>
				<span class="ulb_label">Facebook</span>
			</a>
		</div>
		<div id="gplus_connect_head">
			<a id="gplus_login_head" href="#" role="button" class="ulb_button ulb_social_button loading"  aria-label="Log in with Google">
				<span class="ulb_icon"></span>
				<span class="ulb_label">Google</span>
			</a>
		</div>
	</div>

	<div>
		<a href="#wh-dialog-login" role="button" id="wh_login_head" class="ulb_button ulb_login" aria-label="Log in"><span class="ulb_icon"></span><span class="ulb_label">wikiHow Account</span></a>
	</div>

	<div class="userlogin_links">
		No account yet?		<a href="/Special:UserLogin?type=signup">Create an account</a>
			</div>
</div>

</div>
</li><li id="nav_explore_li" class="nav_item" role="menuitem" aria-labelledby="nav_explore"><div class="nav_icon"></div><a id="nav_explore" class="nav" href="#">EXPLORE</a><div class="menu" role="menu">
	<a href="/Course/Explore" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Courses

		<span class="new_bubble">New</span>
	</a>


	<a href="/Tech-Help-Pro" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Tech Skills

		<span class="new_bubble">New</span>
	</a>


	<a href="/Special:Randomizer" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Random Article

	</a>


	<a href="/wikiHow:About-wikiHow" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		About Us

	</a>


	<a href="/Special:CategoryListing" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Categories

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Arts-and-Entertainment" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Arts and Entertainment

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Cars-%26-Other-Vehicles" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Cars & Other Vehicles

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Computers-and-Electronics" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Computers and Electronics

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Education-and-Communications" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Education and Communications

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Family-Life" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Family Life

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Finance-and-Business" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Finance and Business

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Food-and-Entertaining" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Food and Entertaining

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Health" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Health

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Hobbies-and-Crafts" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Hobbies and Crafts

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Holidays-and-Traditions" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Holidays and Traditions

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Home-and-Garden" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Home and Garden

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Personal-Care-and-Style" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Personal Care and Style

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Pets-and-Animals" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Pets and Animals

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Philosophy-and-Religion" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Philosophy and Religion

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Relationships" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Relationships

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Sports-and-Fitness" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Sports and Fitness

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Travel" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Travel

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Work-World" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Work World

	</a>


	<a href="/Category:Youth" class="menuitem top_cat"
		
		
		
	>
		Youth

	</a>


	
</div>
</li><li id="nav_help_li" class="nav_item" role="menuitem" aria-labelledby="nav_help"><div class="nav_icon"></div><a id="nav_help" class="nav" href="#">HELP US</a><div class="menu" role="menu">
	<a href="/Special:CommunityDashboard" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Community Dashboard

	</a>


	<a href="/Special:CreatePage" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Write an Article

	</a>


	<a href="/Special:RequestTopic" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Request a New Article

	</a>


	<a href="/Special:CommunityDashboard" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		More Ideas...

	</a>


	
</div>
</li><li id="nav_pro_li" class="nav_item" role="menuitem" aria-labelledby="nav_pro"><div class="nav_icon"></div><div class="red_dot"></div><a id="nav_pro" class="nav" href="#"><div class="label">PRO</div></a><div class="menu" role="menu">
	<a href="/Course/Explore" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Courses

		<span class="new_bubble">New</span>
	</a>


	<a href="/Tech-Help-Pro?id=computerskills" class="menuitem "
		id="menu-tech-help"
		
		data-version="Computer Skills"
	>
		Computer Skills

		<span class="new_bubble">New</span>
	</a>


	<a href="/Coaches?tab=dating" class="menuitem "
		id="menu-coaches"
		
		data-version="Get a Dating Coach"
	>
		Get a Dating Coach

		<span class="new_bubble">New</span>
	</a>


	<a href="/wikiHow:Videos-wikiHowPro" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		Expert Videos

	</a>


	<a href="/Pro" class="menuitem "
		
		
		
	>
		About wikiHow Pro

	</a>

	<hr />

	<a href="#wh-dialog-pro" class="menuitem upgrade"
		
		rel=nofollow
		
	>
		Upgrade

	</a>


	<a href="#wh-dialog-login" class="menuitem sign_in"
		
		rel=nofollow
		
	>
		Sign In

	</a>


	
</div>
</li></ul></div></div><div id="header_container_small" class="header_container shrunk"></div><div id="header_top_watch"></div><div id="mw-mf-viewport" class="no_sidebar"><div id="mw-mf-page-left"><ul id="mobile_menu"><li class="icon-home"><a href="/Main-Page">Home</a></li><li id="randomButton" class="icon-random"><a href="/Special:Randomizer">Random</a></li><li id="icon-categories" class="icon-categories"><a href="/Special:CategoryListing">Browse Articles</a></li><li id="icon-courses" class="icon-courses"><a href="/Course/Explore">Courses<span class="new_bubble">New</span></a></li><li id="icon-aboutwikihow" class="icon-aboutwikihow"><a href="/wikiHow:About-wikiHow">About wikiHow</a></li><li id="header2" class="side_header">Easy Ways to Help</li><li id="icon-sortquestions" class="icon-sortquestions"><a href="/Special:SortQuestions">Approve Questions</a></li><li id="icon-spellchecker" class="icon-spellchecker"><a href="/Special:MobileSpellchecker">Fix Spelling</a></li><li id="icon-quizyourself" class="icon-quizyourself"><a href="/Special:QuizYourself">Quiz App</a></li><li id="icon-morethings" class="icon-morethings"><a href="/Special:MobileCommunityDashboard">More Things to Try...</a></li></ul><ul><li class="icon-anon"><a href="#wh-dialog-login">Log in / Sign up</a></li></ul><div class="mw-mf-display-toggle"><a href="/wikiHow:Terms-of-Use" class="gdpr-menu">Terms of Use</a></div></div><div id="mw-mf-page-center"><div id="gdpr"><div id="gdpr_text"><span id="gdpr_text_inner">We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our <a href="/wikiHow:Cookie-Policy" title="wikiHow:Cookie Policy">cookie policy</a>.</span><a id="gdpr_cp_link" href="/wikiHow:Cookie-Policy#eu_cookie_policy">Cookie Settings</a></div><div id="gdpr_accept_wrap"><div id="gdpr_accept" class="gdpr_button">Okay</div></div><div id="gdpr_close">&#10006</div></div><script>if(WH.gdpr){WH.gdpr.initialize();}</script><div id="siteNotice"></div><div id="hp_container_outer" class="">
	<div id="hp_container_inner">
		<picture>
			<source type="image/webp" srcset="/extensions/wikihow/homepage/images/books3.webp 582w, /extensions/wikihow/homepage/images/books2.webp 1164w" sizes="(max-width: 728px) 290px" />
			<source type="image/png" srcset="/extensions/wikihow/homepage/images/books3.png 582w, /extensions/wikihow/homepage/images/books2.png 1164w" sizes="(max-width: 728px) 290px" />

			<img src="/extensions/wikihow/homepage/images/books2.png" loading="lazy" id="hp_books" />
		</picture>
		<h1>Welcome to wikiHow, the most trusted how-to site on the internet.</h1>
		<p>What will you learn on wikiHow today?</p>

		<div class="search">
			<form action="/wikiHowTo" id="cse-search-box" _lpchecked="1">
				<div>
					<label for="hp_search" id="hp_search_label"></label>
					<input type="text" id="hp_search" name="search" value="" x-webkit-speech="" placeholder="Search how to...">
					<input type="submit" value="" class="cse_sa" alt="">
				</div>
			</form>
		</div>
	</div>
</div><div id="content_wrapper" role="main"><div id="content_inner"><script>if (typeof mw != 'undefined') { mw.mobileFrontend.emit( 'header-loaded' ); }</script><div id="bodyContent" class="content"><div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">
	<div id="hp_coauthor" class="hp_narrow">
		<h3><img src="/extensions/wikihow/homepage/images/coauthor2.svg" loading="lazy" />Expert Co-Authored Articles</h3>
		<div id="hp_coauthor_container" class="">
				<div class="hp_thumb  ">
						<div class="hp_expert">Expert</div>
					<a href="/Know-When-to-Wear-a-Mask">
						
							<div class="content-spacer"><img width="375" height="250" data-width="375" data-height="250" class="scrolldefer content-fill" data-src="/images/thumb/6/6a/Know-when-to-Wear-a-Mask-Step-17.jpg/-crop-375-250-333px-nowatermark-Know-when-to-Wear-a-Mask-Step-17.jpg" id="6109eea21a866"/><script>WH.shared.addScrollLoadItem('6109eea21a866')</script><noscript><img src="/images/thumb/6/6a/Know-when-to-Wear-a-Mask-Step-17.jpg/-crop-375-250-333px-nowatermark-Know-when-to-Wear-a-Mask-Step-17.jpg" width="375" height="250" data-width="375" data-height="250" class="scrolldefer content-fill"/></noscript></div>
						
						<div>
							<span>How to</span>
							<p>Know When to Wear a Mask</p>
						</div>
					</a>
				</div>				<div class="hp_thumb  ">
						<div class="hp_expert">Expert</div>
					<a href="/Control-Your-Feelings-Around-the-Person-You-Like">
						
							<div class="content-spacer"><img width="375" height="250" data-width="375" data-height="250" class="scrolldefer content-fill" data-src="/images/thumb/9/96/Control-Your-Feelings-Around-the-Person-You-Like-Step-15-Version-2.jpg/-crop-375-250-333px-nowatermark-Control-Your-Feelings-Around-the-Person-You-Like-Step-15-Version-2.jpg" id="6109eea21dcb0"/><script>WH.shared.addScrollLoadItem('6109eea21dcb0')</script><noscript><img src="/images/thumb/9/96/Control-Your-Feelings-Around-the-Person-You-Like-Step-15-Version-2.jpg/-crop-375-250-333px-nowatermark-Control-Your-Feelings-Around-the-Person-You-Like-Step-15-Version-2.jpg" width="375" height="250" data-width="375" data-height="250" class="scrolldefer content-fill"/></noscript></div>
						
						<div>
							<span>How to</span>
							<p>Control Your Feelings Around the Person You Like</p>
						</div>
					</a>
				</div>				<div class="hp_thumb  ">
						<div class="hp_expert">Expert</div>
					<a href="/Dress-for-Hot-Weather">
						
							<div class="content-spacer"><img width="375" height="250" data-width="375" data-height="250" class=
URL
GET https://www.wikihow.com/
Response Headers
Accept-Ranges:
bytes
Content-Length:
0
Date:
Wed, 04 Aug 2021 18:06:45 GMT
Location:
https://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page
Retry-After:
0
Strict-Transport-Security:
max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
Vary:
Cookie, Accept-Encoding, User-Agent
X-C:
cache-jnb7025-JNB,M
X-Content-Type-Options:
nosniff
X-Timer:
S1628100405.276945,VS0,VE0
X-Xss-Protection:
1; mode=block
Response Body

Empty body

URL
GET https://wikihow.com/
Response Headers
Accept-Ranges:
bytes
Content-Length:
0
Date:
Wed, 04 Aug 2021 18:06:45 GMT
Location:
https://www.wikihow.com/
Retry-After:
0
Strict-Transport-Security:
max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
Vary:
Cookie, Accept-Encoding, User-Agent
X-C:
cache-jnb7025-JNB,M
X-Content-Type-Options:
nosniff
X-Timer:
S1628100405.016833,VS0,VE0
X-Xss-Protection:
1; mode=block
Response Body

Empty body

Report ID
20210804T175638Z_webconnectivity_ZW_37204_n1_SjmYpPgsWWJonHzV
Platform
macos
Software Name
ooniprobe-desktop-unattended (3.10.0-beta.3)
Measurement Engine
ooniprobe-engine (3.10.0-beta.3)

Raw Measurement Data

Loading