OK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_pandemic
Ukraine
Country
Network
July 02, 2022, 01:36 AM UTC
Date & Time
Websites
Websites
Runtime: 1.1s
On July 02, 2022, 01:36 AM UTC, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_pandemic was accessible when tested on AS30860 in Ukraine.

Failures

HTTP Experiment
null
DNS Experiment
null
Control
null

DNS Queries

Resolver:
172.253.1.131
Query:
IN A en.wikipedia.org
Engine:
system
Name
Class
TTL
Type
DATA
@
IN
A
91.198.174.192
Query:
IN AAAA en.wikipedia.org
Engine:
system
Name
Class
TTL
Type
DATA
@
IN
AAAA
2620:0:862:ed1a::1

TCP Connections

Connection to 2620:0:862:ed1a::1:443 was blocked.
Connection to 91.198.174.192:443 succeeded.

HTTP Requests

URL
GET https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_pandemic
Response Headers
Accept-Ch:
Sec-CH-UA-Arch,Sec-CH-UA-Bitness,Sec-CH-UA-Full-Version-List,Sec-CH-UA-Model,Sec-CH-UA-Platform-Version
Accept-Ranges:
bytes
Age:
24433
Cache-Control:
private, s-maxage=0, max-age=0, must-revalidate
Content-Language:
en
Content-Length:
1384174
Content-Type:
text/html; charset=UTF-8
Date:
Fri, 01 Jul 2022 18:49:31 GMT
Last-Modified:
Thu, 30 Jun 2022 18:59:27 GMT
Nel:
{ "report_to": "wm_nel", "max_age": 86400, "failure_fraction": 0.05, "success_fraction": 0.0}
Permissions-Policy:
interest-cohort=(),ch-ua-arch=(self "intake-analytics.wikimedia.org"),ch-ua-bitness=(self "intake-analytics.wikimedia.org"),ch-ua-full-version-list=(self "intake-analytics.wikimedia.org"),ch-ua-model=(self "intake-analytics.wikimedia.org"),ch-ua-platform-version=(self "intake-analytics.wikimedia.org")
Report-To:
{ "group": "wm_nel", "max_age": 86400, "endpoints": [{ "url": "https://intake-logging.wikimedia.org/v1/events?stream=w3c.reportingapi.network_error&schema_uri=/w3c/reportingapi/network_error/1.0.0" }] }
Server:
ATS/8.0.8
Server-Timing:
cache;desc="hit-front", host;desc="cp3064"
Set-Cookie:
WMF-Last-Access=02-Jul-2022;Path=/;HttpOnly;secure;Expires=Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
Strict-Transport-Security:
max-age=106384710; includeSubDomains; preload
Vary:
Accept-Encoding,Cookie,Authorization
X-Cache:
cp3064 hit, cp3064 hit/12
X-Cache-Status:
hit-front
X-Client-Ip:
[scrubbed]
X-Content-Type-Options:
nosniff
Response Body
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html class="client-nojs" lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8"/>
<title>COVID-19 pandemic - Wikipedia</title>
<script>document.documentElement.className="client-js";RLCONF={"wgBreakFrames":false,"wgSeparatorTransformTable":["",""],"wgDigitTransformTable":["",""],"wgDefaultDateFormat":"dmy","wgMonthNames":["","January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December"],"wgRequestId":"5434ec09-6528-4f91-8521-45b264382c09","wgCSPNonce":false,"wgCanonicalNamespace":"","wgCanonicalSpecialPageName":false,"wgNamespaceNumber":0,"wgPageName":"COVID-19_pandemic","wgTitle":"COVID-19 pandemic","wgCurRevisionId":1095845149,"wgRevisionId":1095845149,"wgArticleId":62750956,"wgIsArticle":true,"wgIsRedirect":false,"wgAction":"view","wgUserName":null,"wgUserGroups":["*"],"wgCategories":["Webarchive template wayback links","CS1 uses Chinese-language script (zh)","CS1 Chinese (China)-language sources (zh)","CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh)","CS1 Italian-language sources (it)","CS1 uses Korean-language script (ko)","CS1 Korean-language sources (ko)",
"CS1 Spanish-language sources (es)","CS1 Swedish-language sources (sv)","CS1 European Spanish-language sources (es)","CS1 Portuguese-language sources (pt)","CS1 Brazilian Portuguese-language sources (pt)","Articles with short description","Short description matches Wikidata","Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages","Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages","Use British English from June 2021","Use dmy dates from May 2022","Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2022","All articles containing potentially dated statements","Articles with excerpts","Pages using Sister project links with wikidata namespace mismatch","Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata","Articles containing video clips","Pages using the Graph extension","COVID-19 pandemic","2010s disease outbreaks","2020s disease outbreaks","2020s economic history","21st-century epidemics","21st-century health disasters","21st century in health","2019 disasters","2019 disasters in China",
"2019 health disasters","2019 in international relations","2020 disasters","2020 health disasters","2020 in international relations","2021 disasters","2021 health disasters","2021 in international relations","2022 disasters","2022 health disasters","2022 in international relations","December 2019 events in China","January 2020 events in China","February 2020 events in China","March 2020 events in China","Atypical pneumonias","Health disasters in China","History of Wuhan","Occupational safety and health","Pandemics","Public Health Emergency of International Concern"],"wgPageContentLanguage":"en","wgPageContentModel":"wikitext","wgRelevantPageName":"COVID-19_pandemic","wgRelevantArticleId":62750956,"wgIsProbablyEditable":false,"wgRelevantPageIsProbablyEditable":false,"wgRestrictionEdit":["extendedconfirmed"],"wgRestrictionMove":["sysop"],"wgRedirectedFrom":"2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic","wgFlaggedRevsParams":{"tags":{"status":{"levels":1}}},"wgVisualEditor":{"pageLanguageCode":"en",
"pageLanguageDir":"ltr","pageVariantFallbacks":"en"},"wgMFDisplayWikibaseDescriptions":{"search":true,"nearby":true,"watchlist":true,"tagline":false},"wgWMESchemaEditAttemptStepOversample":false,"wgWMEPageLength":300000,"wgNoticeProject":"wikipedia","wgMediaViewerOnClick":true,"wgMediaViewerEnabledByDefault":true,"wgPopupsFlags":10,"wgULSCurrentAutonym":"English","wgInternalRedirectTargetUrl":"/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic","wgGraphSpecs":{"1d1ae9807ee57e14348110cc4db8a948065618a6":{"version":2,"width":500,"height":260,"padding":12,"background":"#edf1f7","data":[{"name":"population","url":"wikiraw:///Template:Interactive COVID-19 maps/data/UN 2019 Population by country-csv","format":{"type":"csv"}},{"name":"highlights","url":"wikiraw:///Template:Interactive COVID-19 maps/data/Confirmed covid cases-csv","format":{"type":"csv","parse":{"date":"date","cases":"number"}},"transform":[{"type":"lookup","on":"population","keys":["id"],"onKey":"ISO3","as":["pop"],"default":{"Population":0}},{"type":
"formula","field":"v","expr":"round((parseFloat(datum[''+dateStamp])/datum.pop.Population)*100)/100"}]},{"name":"globalByDate","url":"wikiraw:///Template:Interactive COVID-19 maps/data/global Confirmed covid cases by date-csv","format":{"type":"csv","parse":{"date":"date","cases":"number"}}},{"name":"countries","url":"wikiraw:///Template:Interactive COVID-19 maps/data/World map data","format":{"type":"topojson","feature":"countries"},"transform":[{"type":"geopath","value":"data","scale":80,"center":[-180,125],"translate":[0,0],"projection":"equirectangular"},{"type":"lookup","on":"population","keys":["id"],"onKey":"ISO3","as":["pop"],"default":{"Country":""}},{"type":"lookup","on":"highlights","keys":["id"],"onKey":"id","as":["zipped"],"default":{"v":null,"Country":"No data"}}]}],"signals":[{"name":"isDragging","init":false,"streams":[{"type":"@handle:mousedown","expr":"true"},{"type":"@scrollArea:mousedown","expr":"true"},{"type":"mouseup","expr":"false"},{"type":
"#confirmed-covid-map-per-capita:mouseout","expr":"false"},{"type":"@scrollArea:touchstart","expr":"true"},{"type":"touchend","expr":"false"}]},{"name":"handlePosition","init":500,"streams":[{"type":"mousemove[isDragging]","expr":"clamp(eventX(),0,width)"},{"type":"touchmove[isDragging]","expr":"clamp(eventX(),0,width)"}]},{"name":"scaledHandlePosition","expr":"handlePosition","scale":{"name":"dateScale","invert":true}},{"name":"currentDate","init":"May 31","expr":"timeFormat('%B %d %Y',scaledHandlePosition)"},{"name":"dateStamp","init":"05/31/22","expr":"timeFormat('%m/%d/%y',scaledHandlePosition)"},{"name":"tooltipSignalPop","init":{"expr":"{x: 0, y: 0, datum: {} }"},"streams":[{"type":"@map:mouseover","expr":"{x: eventX(), y: eventY(), datum: eventItem().datum.pop}"},{"type":"@map:mouseout","expr":"{x: 0, y: 0, datum: {} }"}]},{"name":"tooltipSignalZipped","init":{"expr":"{x: 0, y: 0, datum: {} }"},"streams":[{"type":"@map:mouseover","expr":
"{x: eventX(), y: eventY(), datum: eventItem().datum.zipped}"},{"type":"@map:mouseout","expr":"{x: 0, y: 0, datum: {} }"}]}],"scales":[{"name":"dateScale","type":"time","domain":{"data":"globalByDate","field":"date"},"range":"width"},{"name":"color","type":"log","domain":[1,100000],"domainMin":1,"zero":false,"range":["#FFEDBC","#f83600"]}],"marks":[{"name":"map","type":"path","from":{"data":"countries"},"properties":{"enter":{"path":{"field":"layout_path"}},"update":{"fill":[{"test":"datum.zipped.v !== null","scale":"color","field":"zipped.v"},{"value":"white"}]},"hover":{"fill":{"value":"#989898"}}}},{"name":"scrollArea","type":"rule","properties":{"enter":{"x":{"value":0},"y":{"value":40},"x2":{"value":500},"stroke":{"value":"#edf1f7"},"strokeWidth":{"value":16}}}},{"name":"scrollLine","type":"rule","properties":{"enter":{"x":{"value":0},"y":{"value":40},"x2":{"value":500},"stroke":{"value":"#000"},"strokeWidth":{"value":2}}}},{"name":"handle","type":"symbol","properties":{"enter":{
"x":{"value":200},"y":{"value":40},"size":{"value":154},"stroke":{"value":"#880"},"strokeWidth":{"value":2.5}},"update":{"fill":{"value":"#fff"},"x":{"signal":"handlePosition"}},"hover":{"fill":{"value":"#f00"}}}},{"name":"dateLabel","type":"text","properties":{"enter":{"x":{"value":0},"y":{"value":25},"fontSize":{"value":32},"fontWeight":{"value":"bold"},"fill":{"value":"steelblue"}},"update":{"text":{"signal":"currentDate"}}}},{"name":"HoverText","type":"text","properties":{"enter":{"x":{"value":500},"y":{"value":10},"align":{"value":"right"},"fontSize":{"value":17},"fill":{"value":"black"}},"update":{"text":[{"test":"tooltipSignalZipped.datum.v === null","template":"{{tooltipSignalPop.datum.Country}} (No data)"},{"test":"tooltipSignalZipped.datum.v","template":"{{tooltipSignalPop.datum.Country}} {{tooltipSignalZipped.datum.v|number:','}}"},{"value":""}]}}}],"legends":[{"fill":"color","title":"Cases per million","offset":-300,"properties":{"gradient":{"stroke":{"value":"transparent"}
},"title":{"fontSize":{"value":14}},"legend":{"x":{"value":0},"y":{"value":180}}}}]}},"wgEditSubmitButtonLabelPublish":true,"wgCentralAuthMobileDomain":false,"wgULSPosition":"interlanguage","wgULSisCompactLinksEnabled":true,"wgWikibaseItemId":"Q81068910","GEHomepageSuggestedEditsEnableTopics":true,"wgGETopicsMatchModeEnabled":false,"wgGEStructuredTaskRejectionReasonTextInputEnabled":false};RLSTATE={"ext.globalCssJs.user.styles":"ready","site.styles":"ready","user.styles":"ready","ext.globalCssJs.user":"ready","user":"ready","user.options":"loading","ext.cite.styles":"ready","mediawiki.page.gallery.styles":"ready","ext.tmh.player.styles":"ready","ext.graph.styles":"ready","skins.vector.styles.legacy":"ready","jquery.makeCollapsible.styles":"ready","ext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.noscript":"ready","ext.wikimediaBadges":"ready","ext.uls.interlanguage":"ready","wikibase.client.init":"ready"};RLPAGEMODULES=["mediawiki.action.view.redirect","ext.cite.ux-enhancements",
"mediawiki.page.gallery","ext.tmh.player","ext.graph.vega2","ext.scribunto.logs","site","mediawiki.page.ready","jquery.makeCollapsible","mediawiki.toc","skins.vector.legacy.js","mmv.head","mmv.bootstrap.autostart","ext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.init","ext.visualEditor.targetLoader","ext.eventLogging","ext.wikimediaEvents","ext.navigationTiming","ext.cx.eventlogging.campaigns","ext.centralNotice.geoIP","ext.centralNotice.startUp","ext.gadget.ReferenceTooltips","ext.gadget.charinsert","ext.gadget.extra-toolbar-buttons","ext.gadget.refToolbar","ext.gadget.switcher","ext.centralauth.centralautologin","ext.popups","ext.uls.compactlinks","ext.uls.interface","ext.growthExperiments.SuggestedEditSession"];</script>
<script>(RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.loader.implement("user.options@12s5i",function($,jQuery,require,module){mw.user.tokens.set({"patrolToken":"+\\","watchToken":"+\\","csrfToken":"+\\"});});});</script>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/w/load.php?lang=en&amp;modules=ext.cite.styles%7Cext.graph.styles%7Cext.tmh.player.styles%7Cext.uls.interlanguage%7Cext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.noscript%7Cext.wikimediaBadges%7Cjquery.makeCollapsible.styles%7Cmediawiki.page.gallery.styles%7Cskins.vector.styles.legacy%7Cwikibase.client.init&amp;only=styles&amp;skin=vector"/>
<script async="" src="/w/load.php?lang=en&amp;modules=startup&amp;only=scripts&amp;raw=1&amp;skin=vector"></script>
<meta name="ResourceLoaderDynamicStyles" content=""/>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/w/load.php?lang=en&amp;modules=site.styles&amp;only=styles&amp;skin=vector"/>
<meta name="generator" content="MediaWiki 1.39.0-wmf.18"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin-when-crossorigin"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin-when-cross-origin"/>
<meta name="format-detection" content="telephone=no"/>
<meta property="og:image" content="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg/1200px-Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg"/>
<meta property="og:image:width" content="1200"/>
<meta property="og:image:height" content="801"/>
<meta property="og:image" content="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg/800px-Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg"/>
<meta property="og:image:width" content="800"/>
<meta property="og:image:height" content="534"/>
<meta property="og:image" content="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg/640px-Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg"/>
<meta property="og:image:width" content="640"/>
<meta property="og:image:height" content="427"/>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=1000"/>
<meta property="og:title" content="COVID-19 pandemic - Wikipedia"/>
<meta property="og:type" content="website"/>
<link rel="preconnect" href="//upload.wikimedia.org"/>
<link rel="alternate" media="only screen and (max-width: 720px)" href="//en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic"/>
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="/static/apple-touch/wikipedia.png"/>
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="/static/favicon/wikipedia.ico"/>
<link rel="search" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" href="/w/opensearch_desc.php" title="Wikipedia (en)"/>
<link rel="EditURI" type="application/rsd+xml" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/api.php?action=rsd"/>
<link rel="license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/"/>
<link rel="canonical" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic"/>
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//meta.wikimedia.org" />
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//login.wikimedia.org"/>
</head>
<body class="mediawiki ltr sitedir-ltr mw-hide-empty-elt ns-0 ns-subject page-COVID-19_pandemic rootpage-COVID-19_pandemic skin-vector action-view skin-vector-legacy"><div id="mw-page-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="mw-head-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="content" class="mw-body" role="main">
	<a id="top"></a>
	<div id="siteNotice"><!-- CentralNotice --></div>
	<div class="mw-indicators">
	<div id="mw-indicator-pp-default" class="mw-indicator"><div class="mw-parser-output"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Protection_policy#extended" title="This article is extended-confirmed protected"><img alt="Extended-protected article" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8c/Extended-protection-shackle.svg/20px-Extended-protection-shackle.svg.png" decoding="async" width="20" height="20" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8c/Extended-protection-shackle.svg/30px-Extended-protection-shackle.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8c/Extended-protection-shackle.svg/40px-Extended-protection-shackle.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></a></div></div>
	</div>
	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading mw-first-heading">COVID-19 pandemic</h1>
	<div id="bodyContent" class="vector-body">
		<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
		<div id="contentSub"><span class="mw-redirectedfrom">&#160;&#160;(Redirected from <a href="/w/index.php?title=2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_pandemic&amp;redirect=no" class="mw-redirect" title="2019–20 coronavirus pandemic">2019–20 coronavirus pandemic</a>)</span></div>
		<div id="contentSub2"></div>
		
		<div id="jump-to-nav"></div>
		<a class="mw-jump-link" href="#mw-head">Jump to navigation</a>
		<a class="mw-jump-link" href="#searchInput">Jump to search</a>
		<div id="mw-content-text" class="mw-body-content mw-content-ltr" lang="en" dir="ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">Ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019</div>
<p class="mw-empty-elt">


</p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r1066479718">.mw-parser-output .infobox-subbox{padding:0;border:none;margin:-3px;width:auto;min-width:100%;font-size:100%;clear:none;float:none;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .infobox-3cols-child{margin:auto}.mw-parser-output .infobox .navbar{font-size:100%}body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-header,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-subheader,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-above,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-title,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-image,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-full-data,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-below{text-align:center}</style><table class="infobox"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" class="infobox-above" style="background:#FFCCCB">COVID-19 pandemic</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="infobox-image" style="border-bottom:#aaa 1px solid;"><a href="/wiki/File:Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Covid-19 SP - UTI V. Nova Cachoeirinha.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg/300px-Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="200" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg/450px-Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f6/Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg/600px-Covid-19_SP_-_UTI_V._Nova_Cachoeirinha.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2400" data-file-height="1602" /></a><div class="infobox-caption" style="text-align:left;"><div class="center" style="width:auto; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;">Medical professionals treating a COVID-19 patient in critical condition in an <a href="/wiki/Intensive_care_unit" title="Intensive care unit">ICU</a> in São Paulo in May 2020 </div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="infobox-image" style="border-bottom:#aaa 1px solid;"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg" class="image"><img alt="COVID-19 Outbreak World Map Total Deaths per Capita.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg/330px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg.png" decoding="async" width="330" height="168" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg/495px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg/660px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_Total_Deaths_per_Capita.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="2754" data-file-height="1398" /></a><div class="infobox-caption" style="text-align:left;"><div class="center" style="width:auto; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;">Confirmed deaths per 100,000 population<br />as of 1 June 2022</div>
</div></td><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r1045330069">.mw-parser-output .sidebar{width:22em;float:right;clear:right;margin:0.5em 0 1em 1em;background:#f8f9fa;border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;text-align:center;line-height:1.4em;font-size:88%;border-collapse:collapse;display:table}body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .sidebar{display:table!important;float:right!important;margin:0.5em 0 1em 1em!important}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-subgroup{width:100%;margin:0;border-spacing:0}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-left{float:left;clear:left;margin:0.5em 1em 1em 0}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-none{float:none;clear:both;margin:0.5em 1em 1em 0}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-outer-title{padding:0 0.4em 0.2em;font-size:125%;line-height:1.2em;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-top-image{padding:0.4em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-top-caption,.mw-parser-output .sidebar-pretitle-with-top-image,.mw-parser-output .sidebar-caption{padding:0.2em 0.4em 0;line-height:1.2em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-pretitle{padding:0.4em 0.4em 0;line-height:1.2em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-title,.mw-parser-output .sidebar-title-with-pretitle{padding:0.2em 0.8em;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-title-with-pretitle{padding:0.1em 0.4em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-image{padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.4em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-heading{padding:0.1em 0.4em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-content{padding:0 0.5em 0.4em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-content-with-subgroup{padding:0.1em 0.4em 0.2em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-above,.mw-parser-output .sidebar-below{padding:0.3em 0.8em;font-weight:bold}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-collapse .sidebar-above,.mw-parser-output .sidebar-collapse .sidebar-below{border-top:1px solid #aaa;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-navbar{text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding:0 0.4em 0.4em}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-list-title{padding:0 0.4em;text-align:left;font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6em;font-size:105%}.mw-parser-output .sidebar-list-title-c{padding:0 0.4em;text-align:center;margin:0 3.3em}@media(max-width:720px){body.mediawiki .mw-parser-output .sidebar{width:100%!important;clear:both;float:none!important;margin-left:0!important;margin-right:0!important}}</style></tr><tr><td colspan="2"><table class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="; ; ; width:100%;">
<tbody><tr><th colspan="2" style="line-height:normal; padding:0.2em; ;"><div class="sidebar-list-title-c"><span class="nowrap">Cases per capita</span></div></th>
</tr><tr><td colspan="2">
<div></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="infobox-image" style="border-bottom:#aaa 1px solid;"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg" class="image"><img alt="COVID-19 Outbreak World Map per Capita.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg/320px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg.png" decoding="async" width="320" height="164" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg/480px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg/640px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map_per_Capita.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="2921" data-file-height="1500" /></a><div class="infobox-caption" style="text-align:left;"><div class="center" style="width:auto; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;">Cumulative percentage of population infected<br />as of 6 February 2022</div>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r998391716">.mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}</style><div class="div-col plainlist" style="column-width: 8em;column-gap: 0;">
<ul><li><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r981673959">.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}</style><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#290000; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;&gt;10%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#510000; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;3–10%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#900000; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;1–3%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#c80200; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;0.3–1%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#ee7070; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;0.1–0.3%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#ffc0c0; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;0.03–0.1%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#ffdfe0; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;0–0.03%</span></li>
<li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><span class="legend nowrap"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#e0e0e0; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;None or no data</span></li></ul>
</div>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label">Disease</th><td class="infobox-data"><a href="/wiki/COVID-19" title="COVID-19">Coronavirus disease 2019</a> (COVID-19)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label">Virus strain</th><td class="infobox-data"><a href="/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2" class="mw-redirect" title="Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2">Severe acute respiratory syndrome<br />coronavirus 2</a> (SARS‑CoV‑2)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label">Source</th><td class="infobox-data">Bats,<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> likely indirectly<sup id="cite_ref-who-origins-20210330_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-who-origins-20210330-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label">Location</th><td class="infobox-data"><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory">Worldwide</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label"><a href="/wiki/Index_case" title="Index case">Index case</a></th><td class="infobox-data"><a href="/wiki/Wuhan" title="Wuhan">Wuhan</a>, China<br /><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r1073938472">.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}</style><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="//geohack.toolforge.org/geohack.php?pagename=COVID-19_pandemic&amp;params=30_37_11_N_114_15_28_E_type:adm2nd_region:CN-42"><span class="geo-default"><span class="geo-dms" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location"><span class="latitude">30°37′11″N</span> <span class="longitude">114°15′28″E</span></span></span><span class="geo-multi-punct">&#xfeff; / &#xfeff;</span><span class="geo-nondefault"><span class="geo-dec" title="Maps, aerial photos, and other data for this location">30.61972°N 114.25778°E</span><span style="display:none">&#xfeff; / <span class="geo">30.61972; 114.25778</span></span></span></a></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label">Date</th><td class="infobox-data">17&#160;November&#160;2019<span style="display:none">&#160;(<span class="bday dtstart published updated">2019-11-17</span>)</span> – present<br />(2&#160;years and 7&#160;months)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label">Confirmed cases</th><td class="infobox-data">546,510,753<sup id="cite_ref-JHU_ticker_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-JHU_ticker-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="infobox-label"><div style="display:inline-block; line-height:1.2em; padding:0.1em 0;">Deaths</div></th><td class="infobox-data">6,334,673<sup id="cite_ref-JHU_ticker_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-JHU_ticker-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> (reported) <br /> 15–26&#160;million<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> (estimated)</td></tr></tbody></table>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1045330069"/><table class="sidebar sidebar-collapse nomobile nowraplinks hlist"><tbody><tr><td class="sidebar-pretitle">Part of <a href="/wiki/Category:COVID-19_pandemic" title="Category:COVID-19 pandemic">a series</a> on the</td></tr><tr><th class="sidebar-title-with-pretitle"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">COVID-19 pandemic</a></th></tr><tr><td class="sidebar-image"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><a href="/wiki/File:Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png" class="image" title="Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of SARS-CoV-2. Each &quot;ball&quot; is an atom."><img alt="Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of SARS-CoV-2. Each &quot;ball&quot; is an atom." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png/110px-Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png" decoding="async" width="110" height="110" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png/165px-Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png/220px-Coronavirus._SARS-CoV-2.png 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="2048" /></a></div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="sidebar-above hlist">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19" title="COVID-19">COVID-19</a> (disease)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2" class="mw-redirect" title="Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2">SARS-CoV-2</a> (virus)</li></ul>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_cases" title="COVID-19 pandemic cases">Cases</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_deaths" title="COVID-19 pandemic deaths">Deaths</a></li></ul></td></tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;"><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic">Timeline</a></div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_2019" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019">2019</a></dt></dl>
<dl><dt>2020</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_January_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2020">January</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_January_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_February_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2020">February</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_February_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_March_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020">March</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_March_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_April_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020">April</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_April_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_May_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2020">May</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_May_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_June_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2020">June</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_June_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_July_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in July 2020">July</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_July_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in July 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_August_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in August 2020">August</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_August_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in August 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_September_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020">September</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_September_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_October_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in October 2020">October</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_October_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in October 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_November_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in November 2020">November</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_November_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in November 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_December_2020" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2020">December</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_December_2020" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2020">responses</a></li></ul></li></ul>
<dl><dt>2021</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_January_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2021">January</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_January_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_February_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2021">February</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_February_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_March_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2021">March</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_March_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_April_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2021">April</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_April_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_May_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2021">May</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_May_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_June_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2021">June</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_June_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_July_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in July 2021">July</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_July_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in July 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_August_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in August 2021">August</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_August_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in August 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_September_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2021">September</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_September_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_October_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in October 2021">October</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_October_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in October 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_November_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in November 2021">November</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_November_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in November 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_December_2021" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2021">December</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_December_2021" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2021">responses</a></li></ul></li></ul>
<dl><dt>2022</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_January_2022" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2022">January</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_January_2022" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2022">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_February_2022" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2022">February</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_February_2022" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2022">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_March_2022" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2022">March</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_March_2022" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2022">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_April_2022" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2022">April</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_April_2022" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2022">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_May_2022" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2022">May</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_May_2022" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in May 2022">responses</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Timeline_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_June_2022" title="Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2022">June</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_June_2022" title="Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2022">responses</a></li></ul></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;"><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory">Locations</a></div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory">By country and territory</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Africa" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Africa">Africa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Antarctica" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Antarctica">Antarctica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Asia" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Asia">Asia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Europe" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Europe">Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_North_America" title="COVID-19 pandemic in North America">North America</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Oceania" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Oceania">Oceania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_South_America" title="COVID-19 pandemic in South America">South America</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>By conveyance</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_on_cruise_ships" title="COVID-19 pandemic on cruise ships">Cruise ships</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_on_naval_ships" title="COVID-19 pandemic on naval ships">Naval ships</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;">International response</div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Evacuations_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Evacuations related to the COVID-19 pandemic">Evacuations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Face_masks_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic">Face masks</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/International_aid_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="International aid related to the COVID-19 pandemic">International aid</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Investigations_into_the_origin_of_COVID-19" title="Investigations into the origin of COVID-19">Investigations into origin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Living_with_COVID-19" title="Living with COVID-19">Living with COVID-19</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_lockdowns" title="COVID-19 lockdowns">Lockdowns</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_lockdowns_by_country" title="COVID-19 lockdowns by country">by country</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_misinformation" title="COVID-19 misinformation">Misinformation</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_misinformation_by_governments" title="COVID-19 misinformation by governments">by governments</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_unproven_methods_against_COVID-19" title="List of unproven methods against COVID-19">Fake treatments</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Protests_over_responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" class="mw-redirect" title="Protests over responses to the COVID-19 pandemic">Protests</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_distancing_measures_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic">Social distancing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Use_and_development_of_software_for_COVID-19_pandemic_mitigation" title="Use and development of software for COVID-19 pandemic mitigation">Software</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Travel_restrictions_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" class="mw-redirect" title="Travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic">Travel restrictions</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_Nations_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="United Nations response to the COVID-19 pandemic">United Nations</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/World_Health_Organization%27s_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="World Health Organization&#39;s response to the COVID-19 pandemic">World Health Organization</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Waiver_from_certain_provisions_of_the_TRIPS_Agreement_for_the_Prevention,_Containment_and_Treatment_of_COVID-19" title="Waiver from certain provisions of the TRIPS Agreement for the Prevention, Containment and Treatment of COVID-19">WTO IP waiver</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Undercounting_of_COVID-19_pandemic_deaths_by_country" title="Undercounting of COVID-19 pandemic deaths by country">Undercounting of deaths</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_apps" title="COVID-19 apps">COVID-19 apps</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zero-COVID" title="Zero-COVID">Zero-COVID</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/National_responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic">National responses</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/National_responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_Africa" title="National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa">Africa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chinese_government_response_to_COVID-19" title="Chinese government response to COVID-19">China</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/European_Union_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="European Union response to the COVID-19 pandemic">European Union</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/German_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="German government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Germany</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ghanaian_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Ghanaian government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Ghana</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Indian_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Indian government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_Zealand_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="New Zealand government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">New Zealand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nigerian_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Nigerian government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Nigeria</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Philippine_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Philippine government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Philippines</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Russian_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Russian government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Russia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Swedish_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Swedish government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Sweden</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom_responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="United Kingdom responses to the COVID-19 pandemic">UK</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/British_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="British government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">government</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/United_States_responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="United States responses to the COVID-19 pandemic">US</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/U.S._federal_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="U.S. federal government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">federal government</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vietnamese_government_response_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Vietnamese government response to the COVID-19 pandemic">Vietnam</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;">Medical response</div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_testing" title="COVID-19 testing">Disease testing</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Coronavirus_breathalyzer" title="Coronavirus breathalyzer">Breathalyzer</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Development_of_COVID-19_tests" title="Development of COVID-19 tests">Development</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_drug_development" title="COVID-19 drug development">Drug development</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_drug_repurposing_research" title="COVID-19 drug repurposing research">Drug repurposing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Public_health_mitigation_of_COVID-19" title="Public health mitigation of COVID-19">Public health mitigation</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_vaccine" title="COVID-19 vaccine">Vaccines</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/History_of_COVID-19_vaccine_development" title="History of COVID-19 vaccine development">History</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_vaccine_clinical_research" title="COVID-19 vaccine clinical research">Research</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Embolic_and_thrombotic_events_after_COVID-19_vaccination" title="Embolic and thrombotic events after COVID-19 vaccination">VITT</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Deployment_of_COVID-19_vaccines" title="Deployment of COVID-19 vaccines">Deployment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_COVID-19_vaccine_authorizations" title="List of COVID-19 vaccine authorizations">Authorizations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Operation_Warp_Speed" title="Operation Warp Speed">Operation Warp Speed</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_vaccine_misinformation_and_hesitancy" title="COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and hesitancy">Misinformation and hesitancy</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_vaccine_hesitancy_in_the_United_States" title="COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the United States">US</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_vaccine_card" title="COVID-19 vaccine card">Vaccine card</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vaccine_passports_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Vaccine passports during the COVID-19 pandemic">Vaccine passports</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Current vaccines</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/CoronaVac" title="CoronaVac">CoronaVac</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Covaxin" title="Covaxin">Covaxin</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Convidecia" title="Convidecia">Convidecia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Janssen_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Janssen COVID-19 vaccine">Janssen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/MVC_COVID-19_vaccine" title="MVC COVID-19 vaccine">Medigen</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Moderna_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Moderna COVID-19 vaccine">Moderna</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Novavax_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Novavax COVID-19 vaccine">Novavax</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Oxford%E2%80%93AstraZeneca_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine">Oxford–AstraZeneca</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pfizer%E2%80%93BioNTech_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine">Pfizer–BioNTech</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sinopharm_BIBP_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Sinopharm BIBP COVID-19 vaccine">Sinopharm BIBP</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sputnik_V_COVID-19_vaccine" title="Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine">Sputnik V</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;"><a href="/wiki/Variants_of_SARS-CoV-2" title="Variants of SARS-CoV-2">Variants</a></div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/Variant_of_concern" title="Variant of concern">Variants of concern</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Alpha_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant">Alpha</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Beta_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant">Beta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Gamma_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant">Gamma</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Delta_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant">Delta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Omicron_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant">Omicron</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>Other variants</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Epsilon_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Epsilon variant">Epsilon</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Zeta_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Zeta variant">Zeta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Eta_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Eta variant">Eta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Theta_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Theta variant">Theta</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Iota_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Iota variant">Iota</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Kappa_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Kappa variant">Kappa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Lambda_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant">Lambda</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Mu_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Mu variant">Mu</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cluster_5" title="Cluster 5">Cluster 5</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_lineage_B.1.617" title="SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.617">Lineage B.1.617</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;"><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">Economic impact</a> and <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_recession" title="COVID-19 recession">recession</a></div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_arts_and_cultural_heritage" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the arts and cultural heritage">Arts and culture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_aviation" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on aviation">Aviation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_cannabis_industry" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the cannabis industry">Cannabis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_cinema" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cinema">Cinema</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_films_impacted_by_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="List of films impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic">films</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_The_Walt_Disney_Company" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on The Walt Disney Company">Disney</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_fashion_industry" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the fashion industry">Fashion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Financial_market_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Financial market impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">Financial markets</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_food_industry" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the food industry">Food industry</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Food_security_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Food security during the COVID-19 pandemic">Food security</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_journalism" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on journalism">Journalism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_music_industry" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the music industry">Music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_performing_arts" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performing arts">Performing arts</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_retail" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on retail">Retail</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_shipping" class="mw-redirect" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on shipping">Shipping</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_television" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on television">Television</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_television_in_the_United_States" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on television in the United States">US</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_American_sports_broadcasting" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on American sports broadcasting">sportscasting</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_American_television_series_impacted_by_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="List of American television series impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic">programs</a></li></ul></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_tourism" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism">Tourism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_video_game_industry" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the video game industry">Video games</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt>By country</dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_Canada" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada">Canada</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_India" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in India">India</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_the_Republic_of_Ireland" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland">Ireland</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_Malaysia" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_New_Zealand" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand">New Zealand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_Russia" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia">Russia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_the_United_Kingdom" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom">UK</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_the_United_States" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States">US</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_sports" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sports">By sport</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_association_football" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on association football">Association football</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_baseball" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on baseball">Baseball</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_basketball" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on basketball">Basketball</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_combat_sports" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on combat sports">Combat sports</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_cricket" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cricket">Cricket</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_disc_golf" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on disc golf">Disc golf</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_Gaelic_games" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Gaelic games">Gaelic games</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_gridiron_football" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on gridiron football">Gridirion football</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_ice_hockey" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ice hockey">Ice hockey</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_motorsport" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on motorsport">Motorsport</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_rugby_league" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on rugby league">Rugby league</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-content">
<div class="sidebar-list mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><div class="sidebar-list-title" style="background:#EEF7F1; border-top:1px solid #aaaaaa; border-bottom:1px solid #aaaaaa; padding:0 5px 0 5px;"><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">Impacts</a></div><div class="sidebar-list-content mw-collapsible-content">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_animals" class="mw-redirect" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on animals">Animals</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_black_people" class="mw-redirect" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on black people">Black people</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_crime" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on crime">Crime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_death_rates_by_country" title="COVID-19 pandemic death rates by country">Death rates by country</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_people_with_disabilities" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with disabilities">Disability</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_domestic_violence" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on domestic violence">Domestic violence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Emergency_evacuation_procedures_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Emergency evacuation procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic">Emergency evacuations</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_education" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education">Education</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impacts_of_the_COVID-19_crisis_on_female_education" class="mw-redirect" title="Impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on female education">Female</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_environment" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment">Environment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_hospitals" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitals">Hospitals</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Glossary of the COVID-19 pandemic">Language</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_LGBT_community" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the LGBT community">LGBT community</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_long-term_care_facilities" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on long-term care facilities">Long-term care</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Media_coverage_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Media coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic">Media coverage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mental_health_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic">Mental health</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_COVID-19_on_neurological,_psychological_and_other_mental_health_outcomes" class="mw-redirect" title="Impact of COVID-19 on neurological, psychological and other mental health outcomes">Symptoms</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_migration" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on migration">Migration</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_military" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the military">Military</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_deaths_due_to_COVID-19" title="List of deaths due to COVID-19">Notable deaths</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_other_health_issues" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on other health issues">Other health issues</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Political_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Political impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">Politics</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_international_relations" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international relations">diplomacy</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_popular_culture" title="COVID-19 pandemic in popular culture">Popular culture</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Protests_over_responses_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" class="mw-redirect" title="Protests over responses to the COVID-19 pandemic">Protests</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_in_pregnancy" title="COVID-19 in pregnancy">Pregnancy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_prisons" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on prisons">Prisons</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_religion" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on religion">Religion</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_Catholic_Church" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Catholic Church">Catholic Church</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_Hajj" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Hajj">Hajj</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_science_and_technology" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on science and technology">Science and technology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_social_media" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social media">Social media</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Strikes_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Strikes during the COVID-19 pandemic">Strikes</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_COVID-19_on_suicide_rates" class="mw-redirect" title="Impact of COVID-19 on suicide rates">Suicides</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_telehealth_industry" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the telehealth industry">Telehealth</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Xenophobia_and_racism_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Xenophobia and racism related to the COVID-19 pandemic">Xenophobia and racism</a></li></ul>
<dl><dt><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">Society</a></dt></dl>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_the_Republic_of_Ireland" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland">Ireland</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_Malaysia" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia">Malaysia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_New_Zealand" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand">New Zealand</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_Russia" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia">Russia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_the_United_Kingdom" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom">UK</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_in_the_United_States" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States">US</a></li></ul></div></div></td>
</tr><tr><td class="sidebar-below">
<a href="/wiki/File:SARS-CoV-2_(Wikimedia_colors).svg" class="image"><img alt="virus icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/SARS-CoV-2_%28Wikimedia_colors%29.svg/16px-SARS-CoV-2_%28Wikimedia_colors%29.svg.png" decoding="async" width="16" height="16" class="noviewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/SARS-CoV-2_%28Wikimedia_colors%29.svg/24px-SARS-CoV-2_%28Wikimedia_colors%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/SARS-CoV-2_%28Wikimedia_colors%29.svg/32px-SARS-CoV-2_%28Wikimedia_colors%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="666" data-file-height="666" /></a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Portal:COVID-19" title="Portal:COVID-19">COVID-19 portal</a></td></tr><tr><td class="sidebar-navbar"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r1063604349">.mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline;font-size:88%;font-weight:normal}.mw-parser-output .navbar-collapse{float:left;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .navbar-boxtext{word-spacing:0}.mw-parser-output .navbar ul{display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::before{margin-right:-0.125em;content:"[ "}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::after{margin-left:-0.125em;content:" ]"}.mw-parser-output .navbar li{word-spacing:-0.125em}.mw-parser-output .navbar a>span,.mw-parser-output .navbar a>abbr{text-decoration:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-mini abbr{font-variant:small-caps;border-bottom:none;text-decoration:none;cursor:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-full{font-size:114%;margin:0 7em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-mini{font-size:114%;margin:0 4em}</style><div class="navbar plainlinks hlist navbar-mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:COVID-19_pandemic_sidebar" title="Template:COVID-19 pandemic sidebar"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:COVID-19_pandemic_sidebar" title="Template talk:COVID-19 pandemic sidebar"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:COVID-19_pandemic_sidebar&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>The <b>COVID-19 pandemic</b>, also known as the <b>coronavirus pandemic</b>, is a global <a href="/wiki/Pandemic" title="Pandemic">pandemic</a> of <a href="/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019" class="mw-redirect" title="Coronavirus disease 2019">coronavirus disease 2019</a> (COVID-19) caused by <a href="/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2" class="mw-redirect" title="Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2">severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2</a> (SARS-CoV-2). The <a href="/wiki/Novel_virus" title="Novel virus">novel virus</a> was first identified from an outbreak in <a href="/wiki/Wuhan" title="Wuhan">Wuhan, China</a>, in December 2019. Attempts to contain it there failed, allowing the virus to <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory">spread worldwide</a>. The <a href="/wiki/World_Health_Organization" title="World Health Organization">World Health Organization</a> (WHO) declared a <a href="/wiki/Public_Health_Emergency_of_International_Concern" title="Public Health Emergency of International Concern">Public Health Emergency of International Concern</a> on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020.  As of 30 June 2022, the pandemic had caused <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_cases" title="COVID-19 pandemic cases">more than 546<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>million cases</a> and <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_deaths" title="COVID-19 pandemic deaths">6.33<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>million confirmed deaths</a>, making it one of the <a href="/wiki/Deadliest_pandemics_in_history" class="mw-redirect" title="Deadliest pandemics in history">deadliest in history</a>.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_symptoms" class="mw-redirect" title="COVID-19 symptoms">COVID-19 symptoms</a> range from <a href="/wiki/Asymptomatic" title="Asymptomatic">undetectable</a> to deadly, but most commonly include fever, <a href="/wiki/Nocturnal_cough" class="mw-redirect" title="Nocturnal cough">dry cough</a>, and fatigue. Severe illness is more likely in elderly patients and those with certain underlying medical conditions. <a href="/wiki/Transmission_of_COVID-19" title="Transmission of COVID-19">COVID-19 transmits</a> when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small <a href="/wiki/Airborne_transmission" title="Airborne transmission">airborne</a> particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest when people are in close proximity, but they can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur if contaminated fluids reach the eyes, nose or mouth, and, rarely, via contaminated surfaces. Infected persons are typically contagious for 10 days, and can spread the virus even if they do not develop symptoms. Mutations have <a href="/wiki/Variants_of_SARS-CoV-2" title="Variants of SARS-CoV-2">produced many strains</a> (variants) with varying degrees of infectivity and virulence.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_vaccine" title="COVID-19 vaccine">COVID-19 vaccines</a> have been <a href="/wiki/Deployment_of_COVID-19_vaccines" title="Deployment of COVID-19 vaccines">approved and widely distributed</a> in various countries since December 2020. Other recommended <a href="/wiki/Preventive_healthcare" title="Preventive healthcare">preventive measures</a> include <a href="/wiki/Social_distancing_measures_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic">social distancing</a>, <a href="/wiki/Face_masks_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic">wearing masks</a>, improving <a href="/wiki/Ventilation_(architecture)" title="Ventilation (architecture)">ventilation</a> and air filtration, and <a href="/wiki/Self-isolation" class="mw-redirect" title="Self-isolation">quarantining</a> those who have been exposed or are symptomatic. <a href="/wiki/Treatment_and_management_of_COVID-19" title="Treatment and management of COVID-19">Treatments</a> include <a href="/wiki/Monoclonal_antibody" title="Monoclonal antibody">monoclonal antibodies</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_drug_development" title="COVID-19 drug development">novel antiviral drugs</a>, and symptom control. Governmental interventions include <a href="/wiki/Travel_restrictions_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" class="mw-redirect" title="Travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic">travel restrictions</a>, <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_lockdowns" title="COVID-19 lockdowns">lockdowns</a>, business restrictions and closures, <a href="/wiki/Workplace_hazard_controls_for_COVID-19" title="Workplace hazard controls for COVID-19">workplace hazard controls</a>, quarantines, <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_testing" title="COVID-19 testing">testing</a> systems, and <a href="/wiki/Contact_tracing" title="Contact tracing">tracing contacts</a> of the infected.
</p><p>The pandemic triggered severe <a href="/wiki/Social_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">social</a> and <a href="/wiki/Economic_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">economic disruption</a> around the world, including <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_recession" title="COVID-19 recession">the largest global recession</a> since the <a href="/wiki/Great_Depression" title="Great Depression">Great Depression</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-RFXoH_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-RFXoH-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Shortages_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic">Widespread supply shortages</a>, including <a href="/wiki/Food_security_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Food security during the COVID-19 pandemic">food shortages</a>, were caused by <a href="/wiki/2021%E2%80%932022_global_supply_chain_crisis" title="2021–2022 global supply chain crisis">supply chain disruption</a>. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an <a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_the_environment" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment">unprecedented pollution decrease</a>. <a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_education" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education">Educational institutions</a> and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_misinformation" title="COVID-19 misinformation">Misinformation circulated</a> through <a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_social_media" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social media">social media</a> and <a href="/wiki/Media_coverage_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Media coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic">mass media</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Political_impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Political impact of the COVID-19 pandemic">political tensions intensified</a>. The pandemic raised issues of <a href="/wiki/Xenophobia_and_racism_related_to_the_COVID-19_pandemic" title="Xenophobia and racism related to the COVID-19 pandemic">racial and geographic discrimination</a>, <a href="/wiki/Health_equity" title="Health equity">health equity</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Individual_and_group_rights" title="Individual and group rights">the balance</a> between <a href="/wiki/Public_health" title="Public health">public health</a> imperatives and individual rights.
</p>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886046785">.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}</style><div class="toclimit-3"><div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Epidemiology"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Epidemiology</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Background"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Background</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Cases"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Cases</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Deaths"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Deaths</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-6"><a href="#Infection_fatality_ratio_(IFR)"><span class="tocnumber">2.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Infection fatality ratio (IFR)</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#Case_fatality_ratio_(CFR)"><span class="tocnumber">2.3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Case fatality ratio (CFR)</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Disease"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Disease</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Signs_and_symptoms"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Signs and symptoms</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Transmission"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Transmission</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Cause"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Cause</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Diagnosis"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Diagnosis</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Prevention"><span class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">Prevention</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Vaccines"><span class="tocnumber">3.6</span> <span class="toctext">Vaccines</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Treatment"><span class="tocnumber">3.7</span> <span class="toctext">Treatment</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Variants"><span class="tocnumber">3.8</span> <span class="toctext">Variants</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Prognosis"><span class="tocnumber">3.9</span> <span class="toctext">Prognosis</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Strategies"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Strategies</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Containment"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Containment</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Mitigation"><span class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Mitigation</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-21"><a href="#Non-pharmaceutical_interventions"><span class="tocnumber">4.2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Non-pharmaceutical interventions</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-22"><a href="#Other_measures"><span class="tocnumber">4.2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Other measures</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-23"><a href="#Contact_tracing"><span class="tocnumber">4.2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Contact tracing</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Health_care"><span class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Health care</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-25"><a href="#Improvised_manufacturing"><span class="tocnumber">4.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Improvised manufacturing</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Herd_immunity"><span class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Herd immunity</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Living_with_COVID-19"><span class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Living with COVID-19</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a href="#2019"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">2019</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-30"><a href="#2020"><span class="tocnumber">5.2</span> <span class="toctext">2020</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-31"><a href="#2021"><span class="tocnumber">5.3</span> <span class="toctext">2021</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-32"><a href="#2022"><span class="tocnumber">5.4</span> <span class="toctext">2022</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a href="#National_responses"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">National responses</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-34"><a href="#Asia"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Asia</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-35"><a href="#Europe"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Europe</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-36"><a href="#North_America"><span class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">North America</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-37"><a href="#South_America"><span class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">South America</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-38"><a href="#Africa"><span class="tocnumber">6.5</span> <span class="toctext">Africa</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-39"><a href="#Oceania"><span class="tocnumber">6.6</span> <span class="toctext">Oceania</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-40"><a href="#Antarctica"><span class="tocnumber">6.7</span> <span class="toctext">Antarctica</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-41"><a href="#Other_responses"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Other responses</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-42"><a href="#Travel_restrictions"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Travel restrictions</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-43"><a href="#Repatriation_of_foreign_citizens"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Repatriation of foreign citizens</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-44"><a href="#United_Nations"><span class="tocnumber">7.3</span> <span class="toctext">United Nations</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-45"><a href="#WHO"><span class="tocnumber">7.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">WHO</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-46"><a href="#Protests_against_governmental_measures"><span class="tocnumber">7.4</span> <span class="toctext">Protests against governmental measures</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-47"><a href="#Impact"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Impact</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-48"><a href="#Economics"><span class="tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">Economics</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-49"><a href="#Supply_shortages"><span class="tocnumber">8.1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Supply shortages</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-50"><a href="#Culture"><span class="tocnumber">8.2</span> <span class="toctext">Culture</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-51"><a href="#Politics"><span class="tocnumber">8.3</span> <span class="toctext">Politics</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-52"><a href="#China"><span class="tocnumber">8.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">China</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-53"><a href="#Italy"><span class="tocnumber">8.3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Italy</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-54"><a href="#United_States"><span class="tocnumber">8.3.3</span> <span class="toctext">United States</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-55"><a href="#Other_countries"><span class="tocnumber">8.3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Other countries</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-56"><a href="#Food_systems"><span class="tocnumber">8.4</span> <span class="toctext">Food systems</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-57"><a href="#Education"><span class="tocnumber">8.5</span> <span class="toctext">Education</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-58"><a href="#Health"><span class="tocnumber">8.6</span> <span class="toctext">Health</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-59"><a href="#Environment"><span class="tocnumber">8.7</span> <span class="toctext">Environment</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-60"><a href="#Discrimination_and_prejudice"><span class="tocnumber">8.8</span> <span class="toctext">Discrimination and prejudice</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-61"><a href="#Lifestyle_changes"><span class="tocnumber">8.9</span> <span class="toctext">Lifestyle changes</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-62"><a href="#Information_dissemination"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Information dissemination</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-63"><a href="#Misinformation"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Misinformation</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-64"><a href="#Transition_to_endemic_phase"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Transition to endemic phase</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-65"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-66"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-67"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-68"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-69"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">15</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-70"><a href="#Health_agencies"><span class="tocnumber">15.1</span> <span class="toctext">Health agencies</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-71"><a href="#Directories"><span class="tocnumber">15.2</span> <span class="toctext">Directories</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-72"><a href="#Data_and_graphs"><span class="tocnumber">15.3</span> <span class="toctext">Data and graphs</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-73"><a href="#Medical_journals"><span class="tocnumber">15.4</span> <span class="toctext">Medical journals</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Etymology">Etymology</span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg/170px-2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg/255px-2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg/340px-2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3024" data-file-height="4032" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:2020-3-20_%E9%BB%84%E5%86%88%E9%80%81%E5%88%AB%E5%B1%B1%E4%B8%9C%E6%8F%B4%E9%84%82%E5%8C%BB%E7%96%97%E9%98%9F_%E9%BB%84%E6%A2%85%E6%88%8F%E5%A4%A7%E5%89%A7%E9%99%A2.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Chinese medics in <a href="/wiki/Huanggang" title="Huanggang">Huanggang</a>, Hubei, in 2020.</div></div></div>
<p>The pandemic is known by several names. It is often referred to in news media as the "coronavirus pandemic"<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup> despite the existence of other <a href="/wiki/Human_coronaviruses" class="mw-redirect" title="Human coronaviruses">human coronaviruses</a> that have caused epidemics and outbreaks (e.g. <a href="/wiki/2002%E2%80%932004_SARS_outbreak" title="2002–2004 SARS outbreak">SARS</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>During <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Hubei" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei">the initial outbreak</a> in <a href="/wiki/Wuhan" title="Wuhan">Wuhan</a>, the virus and disease were commonly referred to as "coronavirus", "Wuhan coronavirus",<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup> "the coronavirus outbreak" and the "Wuhan coronavirus outbreak",<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup> with the disease sometimes called "Wuhan <a href="/wiki/Pneumonia" title="Pneumonia">pneumonia</a>".<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> In January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCoV<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> and 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup> as interim names for the virus and disease per 2015 international guidelines against using geographical locations (e.g. Wuhan, China), animal species, or groups of people in disease and virus names in part to prevent <a href="/wiki/Social_stigma" title="Social stigma">social stigma</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> WHO finalized the official names COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 on 11 February 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-WHO-naming_18-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WHO-naming-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Tedros_Adhanom" class="mw-redirect" title="Tedros Adhanom">Tedros Adhanom</a> explained: CO<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>for <i>corona</i>, VI<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>for <i>virus</i>, D<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>for <i>disease</i> and 19 for when the outbreak was first identified (31 December 2019).<sup id="cite_ref-19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup> WHO additionally uses "the COVID-19 virus" and "the virus responsible for COVID-19" in public communications.<sup id="cite_ref-WHO-naming_18-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WHO-naming-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>WHO names <a href="/wiki/Variant_of_concern" title="Variant of concern">variants of concern</a> and <a href="/wiki/Variant_of_concern" title="Variant of concern">variants of interest</a> using <a href="/wiki/Greek_alphabet" title="Greek alphabet">Greek letters</a>. The initial practice of naming them according to where the variants were identified (e.g. <a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Delta_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant">Delta</a> began as the "Indian variant") is no longer common.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup> A more systematic naming scheme reflects the variant's <a href="/wiki/Phylogenetic_Assignment_of_Named_Global_Outbreak_Lineages" title="Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak Lineages">PANGO lineage</a> (e.g., <a href="/wiki/SARS-CoV-2_Omicron_variant" title="SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant">Omicron</a>'s lineage is B.1.1.529) and is used for other variants.<sup id="cite_ref-BBC.May.31.2021_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BBC.May.31.2021-21">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Epidemiology">Epidemiology</span></h2>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1066479718"/><table class="infobox"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" class="infobox-subheader">For country-level <a href="/wiki/Template:COVID-19_pandemic_data" title="Template:COVID-19 pandemic data">data</a>, see:</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="infobox-subheader"><div style="padding:3px 0; font-size:larger;"><b><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory">COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory</a></b></div></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="infobox-image"><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="732-bar-chart"><img alt="732-bar-chart" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/732-bar-chart.svg/80px-732-bar-chart.svg.png" decoding="async" width="80" height="80" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/732-bar-chart.svg/120px-732-bar-chart.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/732-bar-chart.svg/160px-732-bar-chart.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="512" /></a></td></tr><tr style="text-align:center"><td colspan="2" class="infobox-full-data"><div style="display:inline-block;margin: 0 5px 10px"><b><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_cases" title="COVID-19 pandemic cases">Cases</a></b><br /><span style="font-size:1.2em;">546,510,753</span></div><div style="display:inline-block;margin: 0 5px 10px"><b><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_deaths" title="COVID-19 pandemic deaths">Deaths</a></b><br /><span style="font-size:1.2em;">6,334,673</span></div>
<div>As of 30 June 2022<sup id="cite_ref-JHU_ticker_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-JHU_ticker-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup></div>
<div class="hlist hlist-separated nowraplinks" style="margin:5px 10px 5px;font-weight:bold;">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Africa" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Africa">Africa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Asia" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Asia">Asia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Europe" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Europe">Europe</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_North_America" title="COVID-19 pandemic in North America">North America</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Oceania" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Oceania">Oceania</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_South_America" title="COVID-19 pandemic in South America">South America</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Antarctica" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Antarctica">Antarctica</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Background">Background</span></h3>
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r1033289096">.mw-parser-output .hatnote{font-style:italic}.mw-parser-output div.hatnote{padding-left:1.6em;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .hatnote i{font-style:normal}.mw-parser-output .hatnote+link+.hatnote{margin-top:-0.5em}</style><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Investigations_into_the_origin_of_COVID-19" title="Investigations into the origin of COVID-19">Investigations into the origin of COVID-19</a> and <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Hubei" title="COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei">COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei</a></div>
<p>SARS-CoV-2 is a newly discovered virus that is closely related to <a href="/wiki/Bat_virome#Coronaviruses" title="Bat virome">bat coronaviruses</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-LancetNowcasting_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-LancetNowcasting-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Pangolin" title="Pangolin">pangolin</a> coronaviruses,<sup id="cite_ref-ia56U_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ia56U-25">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Zhang6April2020_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Zhang6April2020-26">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus" class="mw-redirect" title="Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus">SARS-CoV</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-ECDC_risk_assessment_27-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ECDC_risk_assessment-27">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup> The first known <a href="/wiki/Outbreak" class="mw-redirect" title="Outbreak">outbreak</a> started in <a href="/wiki/Wuhan" title="Wuhan">Wuhan</a>, Hubei, China, in November 2019. Many early cases were linked to people who had visited the <a href="/wiki/Huanan_Seafood_Wholesale_Market" title="Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market">Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market</a> there,<sup id="cite_ref-Sun2020epidemiology_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sun2020epidemiology-28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Maxmen2021whoReport_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Maxmen2021whoReport-30">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup> but it is possible that human-to-human transmission began earlier.<sup id="cite_ref-Hu2020natureReviews_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hu2020natureReviews-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Graham2020immunity_32-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Graham2020immunity-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The scientific consensus is that the virus is most likely of <a href="/wiki/Zoonotic" class="mw-redirect" title="Zoonotic">zoonotic</a> origin, from bats or another closely-related mammal.<sup id="cite_ref-Hu2020natureReviews_31-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hu2020natureReviews-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-To2021lessons_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-To2021lessons-34">&#91;34&#93;</a></sup> Despite this, the subject has generated extensive <a href="/wiki/Investigations_into_the_origin_of_COVID-19" title="Investigations into the origin of COVID-19">speculation about alternative origins</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Graham2020immunity_32-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Graham2020immunity-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">&#91;36&#93;</a></sup> The origin controversy heightened geopolitical divisions, notably between the United States and China.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">&#91;37&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The earliest known infected person fell ill on 1<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>December 2019. That individual did not have a connection with the later <a href="/wiki/Huanan_Seafood_Wholesale_Market#Link_to_COVID-19" title="Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market">wet market</a> cluster.<sup id="cite_ref-AutoDW-67_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AutoDW-67-38">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Wang24Jan2020_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wang24Jan2020-39">&#91;39&#93;</a></sup> However, an earlier case may have occurred on 17 November.<sup id="cite_ref-November_case_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-November_case-40">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup> Two-thirds of the initial case cluster were linked with the market.<sup id="cite_ref-Huang24Jan2020_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Huang24Jan2020-41">&#91;41&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Joseph24Jan2020_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Joseph24Jan2020-42">&#91;42&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-han24Jan2020_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-han24Jan2020-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Molecular_clock" title="Molecular clock">Molecular clock</a> analysis suggests that the <a href="/wiki/Index_case" title="Index case">index case</a> is likely to have been infected between mid-October and mid-November 2019.<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">&#91;45&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Cases">Cases</span></h3>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1033289096"/><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_by_country_and_territory" title="COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory">COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory</a> and <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_cases" title="COVID-19 pandemic cases">COVID-19 pandemic cases</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:352px;"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg/350px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg.png" decoding="async" width="350" height="180" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg/525px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg/700px-COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="2921" data-file-height="1500" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID-19_Outbreak_World_Map.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Cumulative confirmed cases by country, as of 24 May 2022<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r1022511316">.mw-parser-output .thumb .image-key{column-count:2}.mw-parser-output .thumb .image-key-wide{column-count:3}.mw-parser-output .thumb .image-key-narrow{column-count:1}.mw-parser-output .thumb .image-key>ol{margin-left:1.3em;margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .thumb .image-key>ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .thumb .image-key li{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}</style><div class="plainlist image-key"><ul><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#290000; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;10,000,000+</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#510000; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;1,000,000–9,999,999</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#900000; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;100,000–999,999</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#c80200; color:white;">&#160;</span>&#160;10,000–99,999</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#ee7070; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;1,000–9,999</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#ffc0c0; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;100–999</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#ffdfe0; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;1–99</div></li><li><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r981673959"/><div class="legend"><span class="legend-color" style="background-color:#e0e0e0; color:black;">&#160;</span>&#160;0</div></li></ul></div></div></div></div>
<p>Official "case" counts refer to the number of people who have been <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_testing" title="COVID-19 testing">tested for COVID-19</a> and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols whether or not they experienced symptomatic disease.<sup id="cite_ref-1ceLG_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1ceLG-46">&#91;46&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-J0rix_47-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-J0rix-47">&#91;47&#93;</a></sup> Due to the effect of <a href="/wiki/Sampling_bias" title="Sampling bias">sampling bias</a>, studies which obtain a more accurate number by extrapolating from a random sample have consistently found that total infections considerably exceed the reported case counts.<sup id="cite_ref-WqXOo_48-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WqXOo-48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-BtFLV_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BtFLV-49">&#91;49&#93;</a></sup> Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms.<sup id="cite_ref-elpais640000_50-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-elpais640000-50">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-20200313reuters_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20200313reuters-51">&#91;51&#93;</a></sup> The strongest risk factors for severe illness are obesity, <a href="/wiki/Complications_of_diabetes" title="Complications of diabetes">complications of diabetes</a>, anxiety disorders, and the total number of conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In early 2020, a meta-analysis of self-reported cases in China by age indicated that a relatively low proportion of cases occurred in individuals under 20.<sup id="cite_ref-statista1095024_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-statista1095024-53">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup> It was not clear whether this was because young people were less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop symptoms and be tested.<sup id="cite_ref-vox21190033_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-vox21190033-54">&#91;54&#93;</a></sup> A retrospective <a href="/wiki/Cohort_study" title="Cohort study">cohort study</a> in China found that <a href="/wiki/Impact_of_the_COVID-19_pandemic_on_children" title="Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children">children</a> and adults were just as likely to be infected.<sup id="cite_ref-489Q3_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-489Q3-55">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Among more thorough studies, <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_Case-Cluster-Study" title="COVID-19 Case-Cluster-Study">preliminary results</a> from 9 April 2020 found that in <a href="/wiki/Gangelt" title="Gangelt">Gangelt</a>, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, 15 per cent of a population sample tested positive for <a href="/wiki/Antibody" title="Antibody">antibodies</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-otW1O_56-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-otW1O-56">&#91;56&#93;</a></sup> Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and <a href="/wiki/Blood_donor" class="mw-redirect" title="Blood donor">blood donors</a> in the Netherlands, found rates of positive antibody tests that indicated more infections than reported.<sup id="cite_ref-rCdvL_57-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rCdvL-57">&#91;57&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-20200416reuters_58-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20200416reuters-58">&#91;58&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Seroprevalence" title="Seroprevalence">Seroprevalence</a>-based estimates are conservative as some studies show that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodies.<sup id="cite_ref-0LgFK_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0LgFK-59">&#91;59&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Initial estimates of the <a href="/wiki/Basic_reproduction_number" title="Basic reproduction number">basic reproduction number</a> (R<sub>0</sub>) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5,<sup id="cite_ref-WFNfK_60-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WFNfK-60">&#91;60&#93;</a></sup> but a subsequent analysis claimed that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 per cent <a href="/wiki/Confidence_interval" title="Confidence interval">confidence interval</a> of 3.8 to 8.9).<sup id="cite_ref-mmCQc_61-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mmCQc-61">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In December 2021, the number of cases continued to climb due to several factors, including new COVID-19 variants. As of that 28<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>December, 282,790,822 individuals worldwide had been confirmed as infected.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">&#91;62&#93;</a></sup> As of 14&#160;April&#160;2022<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=COVID-19_pandemic&amp;action=edit">&#91;update&#93;</a></sup>, over 500&#160;million cases were confirmed globally.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Most cases are unconfirmed, with the <a href="/wiki/Institute_for_Health_Metrics_and_Evaluation" title="Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation">Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation</a> estimating the true number of cases as of early 2022 to be in the billions.<sup id="cite_ref-57percent1_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57percent1-64">&#91;64&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57percent2_65-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57percent2-65">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div style="clear:both;"></div>
<ul class="gallery mw-gallery-traditional">
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 265px"><div style="width: 265px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 260px;"><div style="margin:18.5px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png" class="image" title="Semi-log plot of weekly new cases of COVID-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)"><img alt="Semi-log plot of weekly new cases of COVID-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png/230px-Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png" decoding="async" width="230" height="163" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png/345px-Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png/460px-Covid-19_new_cases_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png 2x" data-file-width="941" data-file-height="668" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Semi-log plot of weekly new cases of COVID-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 265px"><div style="width: 265px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 260px;"><div style="margin:18px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png" class="image" title="Total COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people from selected countries[66]"><img alt="Total COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people from selected countries[66]" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png/230px-Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png" decoding="async" width="230" height="164" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png/345px-Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/83/Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png/460px-Covid-19_total_cases_per_100_000_population_from_selected_countries.png 2x" data-file-width="791" data-file-height="565" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Total COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people from selected countries<sup id="cite_ref-ECDC_66-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ECDC-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 265px"><div style="width: 265px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 260px;"><div style="margin:18px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png" class="image" title="Active COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people from selected countries[66]"><img alt="Active COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people from selected countries[66]" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png/230px-COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png" decoding="async" width="230" height="164" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png/345px-COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png/460px-COVID-19_Active_Cases_per_100_000_population.png 2x" data-file-width="791" data-file-height="565" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Active COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people from selected countries<sup id="cite_ref-ECDC_66-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ECDC-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
</ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Deaths">Deaths</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg/220px-COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg/330px-COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg/440px-COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3000" data-file-height="2250" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID19_deceased_in_Hackensack_NJ_April_27.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Deceased in a refrigerated "mobile morgue" outside a hospital in <a href="/wiki/Hackensack,_New_Jersey" title="Hackensack, New Jersey">Hackensack, New Jersey</a>, U.S., in April 2020.</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg/220px-Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg/330px-Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg/440px-Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2400" data-file-height="1602" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Covid-19_S%C3%A3o_Paulo_-_Cemiterios.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Gravediggers wearing protection against contamination bury the body of a man suspected of having died of COVID-19 in the cemetery of Vila Alpina, east side of <a href="/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Paulo" title="São Paulo">São Paulo</a>, in April 2020.</div></div></div>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1033289096"/><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_deaths" title="COVID-19 pandemic deaths">COVID-19 pandemic deaths</a> and <a href="/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_death_rates_by_country" title="COVID-19 pandemic death rates by country">COVID-19 pandemic death rates by country</a></div>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1033289096"/><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Further information: <a href="/wiki/List_of_deaths_due_to_COVID-19" title="List of deaths due to COVID-19">List of deaths due to COVID-19</a></div>
<p>As of 30 June 2022, more than 6.33<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>million<sup id="cite_ref-JHU_ticker_3-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-JHU_ticker-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020.<sup id="cite_ref-AutoDW-25_67-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AutoDW-25-67">&#91;67&#93;</a></sup> These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response,<sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">&#91;68&#93;</a></sup> time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health.<sup id="cite_ref-worldindata_69-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-worldindata-69">&#91;69&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality.<sup id="cite_ref-wBm2a_70-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wBm2a-70">&#91;70&#93;</a></sup> Official death counts typically include people who died after testing positive. Such counts exclude deaths without a test.<sup id="cite_ref-20200331reuters_71-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20200331reuters-71">&#91;71&#93;</a></sup> Conversely, deaths of people who died from underlying conditions following a positive test may be included.<sup id="cite_ref-stuff120443722_72-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-stuff120443722-72">&#91;72&#93;</a></sup> Countries such as Belgium include deaths from suspected cases, including those without a test, thereby increasing counts.<sup id="cite_ref-npr841005901_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-npr841005901-73">&#91;73&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Official death counts have been claimed to underreport the actual death toll, because <a href="/wiki/Mortality_displacement" title="Mortality displacement">excess mortality</a> (the number of deaths in a period compared to a long-term average) data show an increase in deaths that is not explained by COVID-19 deaths alone.<sup id="cite_ref-:7_74-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:7-74">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup> Using such data, estimates of the true number of deaths from COVID-19 worldwide have included a range from 9.5 to 18.6&#160;million by <i><a href="/wiki/The_Economist" title="The Economist">The Economist</a></i>,<sup id="cite_ref-:7_74-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-:7-74">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup> as well as over 10.3&#160;million by the <a href="/wiki/Institute_for_Health_Metrics_and_Evaluation" title="Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation">Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation</a><sup id="cite_ref-COVID-19_Projections_75-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-COVID-19_Projections-75">&#91;75&#93;</a></sup> and ~18.2&#160;million (earlier) deaths between 1 January 2020, and 31 December 2021 by a comprehensive international study.<sup id="cite_ref-10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02796-3_76-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02796-3-76">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup> Such deaths include deaths due to healthcare capacity constraints and priorities, as well as reluctance to seek care (to avoid possible infection).<sup id="cite_ref-20200429reason_77-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20200429reason-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup> Further research may help distinguish the proportions directly caused by COVID-19 from those caused by indirect consequences of the pandemic.<sup id="cite_ref-10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02796-3_76-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02796-3-76">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup> In May 2022, the WHO estimated the number of excess deaths to be 14.9&#160;million compared to 5.4&#160;million reported COVID-19 deaths, with the majority of the unreported 9.5&#160;million deaths believed to be direct deaths due the virus, rather than indirect deaths.  Some deaths were because people with other conditions could not access medical services.<sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The time between symptom onset and death ranges from<span class="nowrap">&#160;</span>6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days.<sup id="cite_ref-pathogenesis_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pathogenesis-79">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup> Mortality rates increase as a function of age. People at the greatest mortality risk are the elderly and those with underlying conditions.<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-6XONR_81-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6XONR-81">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<ul class="gallery mw-gallery-packed">
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 329.33333333333px"><div style="width: 329.33333333333px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 327.33333333333px;"><div style="margin:0px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:Covid-19_daily_deaths_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png" class="image" title="Semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to COVID-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases)"><img alt="Semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to COVID-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases)" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Covid-19_daily_deaths_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png/491px-Covid-19_daily_deaths_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png" decoding="async" width="328" height="220" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Covid-19_daily_deaths_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png/737px-Covid-19_daily_deaths_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Covid-19_daily_deaths_in_top_5_countries_and_the_world.png 2x" data-file-width="872" data-file-height="586" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>Semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to COVID-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases)
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
		<li class="gallerybox" style="width: 310px"><div style="width: 310px">
			<div class="thumb" style="width: 308px;"><div style="margin:0px auto;"><a href="/wiki/File:COVID-19_deaths_per_100,000_population.png" class="image" title="COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countries[66]"><img alt="COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countries[66]" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/COVID-19_deaths_per_100%2C000_population.png/462px-COVID-19_deaths_per_100%2C000_population.png" decoding="async" width="308" height="220" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/COVID-19_deaths_per_100%2C000_population.png/693px-COVID-19_deaths_per_100%2C000_population.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/COVID-19_deaths_per_100%2C000_population.png 2x" data-file-width="791" data-file-height="565" /></a></div></div>
			<div class="gallerytext">
<p>COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countries<sup id="cite_ref-ECDC_66-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ECDC-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
			</div>
		</div></li>
</ul>
<p>In May 2022 the World Health Organization estimated that COVID has caused just under 15 million excess deaths worldwide.  The virus directly caused most of these deaths but some were because people with other conditions could not access medical services.<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span id="Infection_fatality_ratio_.28IFR.29"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Infection_fatality_ratio_(IFR)">Infection fatality ratio (IFR)</span></h4>
<table class="wikitable floatright">
<caption><span class="nowrap">IFR estimate</span> per <span class="nowrap">age group</span><sup id="cite_ref-EJE_levinetal_83-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EJE_levinetal-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup>
</caption>
<tbody><tr>
<th>Age group</th>
<th>IFR
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>0–34</td>
<td>0.004%
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>35–44</td>
<td>0.068%
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>45–54</td>
<td>0.23%
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>55–64</td>
<td>0.75%
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>65–74</td>
<td>2.5%
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>75–84</td>
<td>8.5%
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>85 +</td>
<td>28.3%
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Infection_fatality_rate" class="mw-redirect" title="Infection fatality rate">infection fatality ratio</a> (IFR) is the cumulative number of deaths attributed to the disease divided by the cumulative number of infected individuals (including asymptomatic and undiagnosed infections and excluding vaccinated infected individuals).<sup id="cite_ref-fjMw6_84-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fjMw6-84">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-WHOest_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-WHOest-85">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ovoEx_86-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ovoEx-86">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup> It is expressed in percentage points (not as a decimal).<sup id="cite_ref-87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">&#91;87&#93;</a></sup> Other studies refer to this metric as the 'infection fatality risk'.<sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">&#91;88&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">&#91;89&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In November 2020, a review article in <a href="/wiki/Nature_(journal)" title="Nature (journal)"><i>Nature</i></a> reported estimates of population-weighted IFRs for various countries, excluding deaths in elderly care facilities, and found a median range of 0.24% to 1.49%.<sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">&#91;90&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>IFRs rise as a function of age (from 0.002% at age 10 and 0.01% at age 25, to 0.4% at age 55, 1.4% at age 65, 4.6% at age 75, and 15% at age 85). These rates vary by a factor of ~10,000 across the age groups.<sup id="cite_ref-EJE_levinetal_83-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EJE_levinetal-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup> For comparison, the IFR for middle-aged adults is two orders of magnitude more likely than the annualised risk of a fatal automobile accident and far more dangerous than seasonal influenza.<sup id="cite_ref-EJE_levinetal_83-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EJE_levinetal-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In December 2020, a systematic review and meta-analysis estimated that population-weighted IFR was 0.5% to 1% in some countries (France, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Portugal), 1% to 2% in other countries (Australia, England, Lithuania, and Spain), and about 2.5% in Italy. This study reported that most of the differences reflected corresponding differences in the population's age structure and the age-specific pattern of infections.<sup id="cite_ref-EJE_levinetal_83-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-EJE_levinetal-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span id="Case_fatality_ratio_.28CFR.29"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Case_fatality_ratio_(CFR)">Case fatality ratio (CFR)</span></h4>
<p>Another metric in assessing death rate is the <a href="/wiki/Case_fatality_rate" title="Case fatality rate">case fatality ratio</a> (CFR),<sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">&#91;a&#93;</a></sup> which is the ratio of deaths to diagnoses. This metric can be misleading because of the delay between symptom onset and death and because testing focuses on symptomatic individuals.<sup id="cite_ref-Hauser_2020_92-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hauser_2020-92">&#91;91&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Based on <a href="/wiki/Johns_Hopkins_University" title="Johns Hopkins University">Johns Hopkins University</a> statistics, the global CFR is <span data-sort-value="7000115911223433878♠" style="display:none"></span>1.16&#160;percent (6,334,673 deaths for 546,510,753 cases) as of 30 June 2022.<sup id="cite_ref-JHU_ticker_3-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-JHU_ticker-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> The number varies by region and has generally declined over time.<sup id="cite_ref-b0L7I_93-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-b0L7I-93">&#91;92&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Disease">Disease</span></h2>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1033289096"/><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/COVID-19" title="COVID-19">COVID-19</a></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Signs_and_symptoms">Signs and symptoms</span></h3>
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r1033289096"/><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Symptoms_of_COVID-19" title="Symptoms of COVID-19">Symptoms of COVID-19</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:352px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg/350px-Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg.png" decoding="async" width="350" height="178" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg/525px-Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg/700px-Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1972" data-file-height="1001" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_4.0.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Signs_and_symptoms" title="Signs and symptoms">Symptoms</a> of COVID-19</div></div></div>
<p>Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness.<sup id="cite_ref-CDC2020Sym_94-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CDC2020Sym-94">&#91;93&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Grant_et_al_2020

Resolver

Resolver ASN
AS15169
Resolver IP
172.253.1.131
Resolver Network Name
Google LLC
Report ID
20220702T000936Z_webconnectivity_UA_30860_n1_M5GJv3pkRoUXkbqg
Platform
linux
Software Name
ooniprobe-cli (3.14.1)
Measurement Engine
ooniprobe-engine (3.14.1)

Raw Measurement Data

Loading